Carotid Extra-Media Thickness in Children: Relationships With Cardiometabolic Risk Factors and Endothelial Function.
ABSTRACT: Background: Emerging evidence suggests that structural adventitial modifications and perivascular adipose tissue (PAT) may have a role in early atherogenesis. In a cohort of children and adolescents, we explored (1) the association of carotid extra-media thickness (cEMT), an ultrasound measure whose main determinants are arterial adventitia and PAT, with obesity and its cardiometabolic complications; and (2) the interplay between cEMT and endothelial function. Methods: The study participants included 286 youths (age, 6-16 years; 154 boys, and 132 girls). Anthropometric and laboratory parameters, liver ultrasound, vascular structure measures [cEMT and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT)], endothelial function [brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD)] were obtained in all subjects. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) was diagnosed in the presence of hepatic fat on ultrasonography, in the absence of other causes of liver disease. Diagnosis of metabolic syndrome (MetS) was established on the basis of three or more of the following cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk variables: abdominal obesity, high triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, elevated blood pressure (BP), and impaired fasting glucose. Results: cEMT demonstrated significant associations with body-mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), BP, insulin resistance, NAFLD, and inflammation. No association was found between cEMT and lipid values, and between cEMT and MetS. A stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis indicated that WC (? coefficient, 0.35; P < 0.0001) was the only determinant of cEMT, independently of other major cardiometabolic risk factors. Further adjustment for cIMT did not significantly alter this association. FMD was correlated to age, Tanner stage, total and abdominal obesity, BP, NAFLD, and cEMT. The association between FMD and cEMT was independent of age, sex, Tanner stage, WC, and BMI (? coefficient, -0.14; P = 0.027). After controlling for CVD risk factors and basal brachial artery diameter, cEMT remained associated with FMD (? coefficient, -0.11; P = 0.049). Conclusions: In youths, cEMT is associated with abdominal fat, a well-established body fat depot with important implications for cardiovascular diseases. Furthermore, cEMT is related to FMD, suggesting that arterial adventitia and PAT may be involved in the early changes in endothelial function.
Project description:Endothelial function and carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) were investigated in a cohort of 54 healthy adults without known cardiovascular disease.Pulse wave amplitude was determined with peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT) to obtain the reactive hyperemia (RH)-PAT ratio. Ultrasound was used to determine cIMT.cIMT and RH-PAT were significantly associated (rho=-0.35, P=0.02) in univariate analysis. RH-PAT was significantly associated with age, triglycerides, fasting glucose, HDL, WHR, waist circumference and VAT. cIMT was associated with age, smoking history, fasting glucose, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and LDL. In multivariate regression analyses, triglyceride level (P=0.04) remained a significant determinant of RH-PAT whereas systolic blood pressure (P=0.02) and smoking pack-year history (P=0.046) were significant determinants of cIMT.Determinants of cIMT and RH-PAT were different, dominated by triglyceride and abdominal adiposity measures for RH-PAT but traditional risk factors including blood pressure, glucose, smoking and LDL for cIMT.
Project description:Background: Recent studies in adult non-elderly and elderly individuals have reported a link between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and sarcopenia. Nonetheless, whether this relationship would be found outside these populations it is still unknown. Hence, we evaluated the relationship between NAFLD and skeletal muscle mass in children and adolescents with overweight/obesity. Methods: Two-hundred and thirty-four overweight/obese youths were enrolled. NAFLD was diagnosed by ultrasononography, after exclusion of infectious and metabolic disorders. Forty of the patients with NAFLD had also liver biopsy. Total and regional lean body mass and total fat mass measurements were obtained by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The relative muscle mass (RMM) was defined as the percent of muscle mass (kg) relative to the sum of muscle and fat (kg) mass. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) was calculated by the sum of muscle masses of the four limbs (kg), and expressed as percent of body weight. Results: Subjects were stratified according to tertiles of RMM. The prevalence of abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, NAFLD as well as biopsy-proven nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) was significantly increased in the lowest tertile of RMM. After controlling for age, sex and Tanner stage, children in the lowest tertile of RMM had an increased risk for NAFLD (OR= 2.80, 95% CI=1.57-5.02) compared to those in the other two tertiles. This association persisted after additional adjustments for clinical and metabolic variables. Similarly, the risk of NAFLD in the lowest tertile of ASM/weight index was significantly higher compared to those in the other two tertiles after adjustment for the above confounders. Conclusions: This is the first study to establish an independent association between low muscle mass and NAFLD/NASH in overweight/obese youths. Considering the worldwide increase of pediatric obesity, measurements of muscle mass may serve as useful method of identifying among obese children those at high metabolic risk who may need intensive lifestyle interventions to prevent NAFLD and its progression.