Impact of Neurointensivist Co-Management in a Semiclosed Neurocritical-Care Unit.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:The importance of the specialized management of neurocritical patients is being increasingly recognized. We evaluated the impact of neurointensivist comanagement on the clinical outcomes (particularly the mortality rate) of neurocritical patients admitted to a semiclosed neurocritical-care unit (NCU). METHODS:We retrospectively included neurocritical patients admitted to the NCU between March 2015 and February 2018. We analyzed the clinical data and compared the outcomes between patients admitted before and after the initiation of neurointensivist co-management in March 2016. RESULTS:There were 1,785 patients admitted to the NCU during the study period. Patients younger than 18 years (n=28) or discharged within 48 hours (n=200) were excluded. The 1,557 remaining patients comprised 590 and 967 who were admitted to the NCU before and after the initiation of co-management, respectively. Patients admitted under neurointensivist co-management were older and had higher Acute Physiologic Assessment and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores. The 30-day mortality rate was significantly lower after neurointensivist co-management (p=0.042). A multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that neurointensivist co-management significantly reduced mortality rates in the NCU and in the hospital overall [odds ratio=0.590 (p=0.002) and 0.585 (p=0.001), respectively]. CONCLUSIONS:Despite the higher severity of the condition during neurointensivist co-management, co-management significantly improved clinical outcomes (including the mortality rate) in neurocritical patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Iron, an essential mineral for human body, has the potential to cause toxicity at high levels. Previous studies have shown inconsistent predictive value of iron parameters in critically ill patients. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the performance of iron parameters in outcome prediction of neurocritically ill patients. METHODS:Retrospective data were collected from patients admitted to the neurocritical care unit (NCU) of a tertiary teaching hospital between August 2016 and January 2017. The iron parameters were obtained at NCU admission. Primary endpoints were short-term (30-day) mortality and long-term (6-month) poor outcome, with the latter defined as modified Rankin Scale of 4-6. The predictive value of variables was determined with univariate and multivariate logistic analysis. A further subanalysis was conducted in patients stratified by the level of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). RESULTS:Of 103 eligible patients, the etiology included stroke (58.2%, N = 60), central nervous system infection (13.6%, N = 14), and other neurologic disorders (28.2%, N = 29). The correlation analysis showed that the increase in ferritin, as well as the reduction in transferrin and total iron-binding capacity, had strong correlation with C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, duration of NCU stay, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score. In a further subanalysis of 75 patients with eGFR ? 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 , twelve (16.0%) patients died within 30 days and 39 (52.0%) patients achieved good follow-up outcome data. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, we identified baseline ferritin level as an independent predictor of short-term mortality (OR: 1.002; 95% CI: 1.000-1.003; p = 0.008) and long-term functional outcome (OR: 1.002; 95% CI: 1.000-1.004; p = 0.031). CONCLUSIONS:Serum ferritin level at admission could be used as an independent predictor of short-term mortality and long-term functional outcome in neurocritically ill patients with eGFR ? 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 .
Project description:BACKGROUND:Novel, uncharacterised proteins represent a challenge in biochemistry and molecular biology. In this report we present an initial functional characterization of human kidney predominant protein, NCU-G1. RESULTS:NCU-G1 was found to be a highly conserved nuclear protein rich in proline with a molecular weight of approximately 44 kDa. It is localized on chromosome 1 and consists of 6 exons. Analysis of the amino acid sequence revealed no known transcription activation domains or DNA binding regions, however, four nuclear receptor boxes (LXXLL), and four SH3-interaction motives in addition to numerous potential phosphorylation sites were found. Two nuclear export signals were identified, but no nuclear localization signal. In man, NCU-G1 was found to be widely expressed at the mRNA level with especially high levels detected in prostate, liver and kidney. Electrophoretic mobility shift analysis showed specific binding of NCU-G1 to an oligonucleotide representing the footprint 1 element of the human cellular retinol-binding protein 1 gene promoter. NCU-G1 was found to activate transcription from this promoter and required presence of the footprint 1 element. In transiently transfected Drosophila Schneider S2 cells, we demonstrated that NCU-G1 functions as a co-activator for ligand-activated PPAR-alpha, resulting in an increased expression of a CAT reporter gene under control of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha responsive acyl-CoA oxidase promoter. CONCLUSION:We propose that NCU-G1 is a dual-function protein capable of functioning as a transcription factor as well as a nuclear receptor co-activator.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Although the majority of older patients admitted to a cardiology unit present with at least one geriatric syndrome, guidelines on managing heart disease often do not consider the complex needs of frail older patients. Geriatric co-management has demonstrated potential to improve functional status, and reduce complications and length of stay, but evidence on the effectiveness in cardiology patients is lacking. This study aims to determine if geriatric co-management is superior to usual care in preventing functional decline, complications, mortality, readmission rates, reducing length of stay and improving quality of life in older patients admitted for acute heart disease or for transcatheter aortic valve implantation, and to identify determinants of success for geriatric co-management in this population. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:This prospective quasi-experimental before-and-after study will be performed on two cardiology units of the University Hospitals Leuven in Belgium in patients aged ?75 years. In the precohort (n=227), usual care will be documented. A multitude of implementation strategies will be applied to allow for successful implementation of the model. Patients in the after cohort (n=227) will undergo a comprehensive geriatric assessment within 24?hours of admission to stratify them into one of three groups based on their baseline risk for developing functional decline: low-risk patients receive proactive consultation, high-risk patients will be co-managed by the geriatric nurse to prevent complications and patients with acute geriatric problems will receive an additional medication review and co-management by the geriatrician. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:The study protocol was approved by the Medical Ethics Committee UZ Leuven/KU Leuven (S58296). Written voluntary (proxy-)informed consent will be obtained from all participants at the start of the study. Dissemination of results will be through articles in scientific and professional journals both in English and Dutch and by conference presentations. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:NCT02890927.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Neurocritical care by dedicated neurointensivists may improve outcomes of critically ill patients with severe brain injury. In this study, we aimed to validate whether neurointensive care could improve the outcome in patients with critically ill acute ischemic stroke using the linked big dataset on stroke in Korea. METHODS:We included 1,405 acute ischemic stroke patients with mechanical ventilator support in the intensive care unit after an index stroke. Patients were retrieved from linking the Clinical Research Center for Stroke Registry and the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service data from the period between January 2007 and December 2014. The outcomes were mortality at discharge and at 3 months after an index stroke. The main outcomes were compared between the centers with and without dedicated neurointensivists. RESULTS:Among the included patients, 303 (21.6%) were admitted to the centers with dedicated neurointensivists. The patients treated by dedicated neurointensivists had significantly lower in-hospital mortality (18.3% vs. 26.8%, P = 0.002) as well as lower mortality at 3-month (38.0% vs. 49.1%, P < 0.001) than those who were treated without neurointensivists. After adjusting for confounders, a treatment without neurointensivists was independently associated with higher in-hospital mortality (odds ratio [OR], 1.59; 95% confidence intervals [CIs], 1.13-2.25; P = 0.008) and 3-month mortality (OR, 1.48; 95% CIs, 1.12-1.95; P = 0.005). CONCLUSION:Treatment by dedicated neurointensivists is associated with lower in-hospital and 3-month mortality using the linked big datasets for stroke in Korea. This finding stresses the importance of neurointensivists in treating patients with severe ischemic stroke.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Elderly patients with hip fracture have a 5 to 8 fold increased risk of death during the months following surgery. We tested the hypothesis that early geriatric management of these patients focused on co-morbidities and rehabilitation improved long term mortality.<h4>Methods and findings</h4>In a cohort study over a 6 year period, we compared patients aged >70 years with hip fracture admitted to orthopedic versus geriatric departments in a time series analysis corresponding to the creation of a dedicated geriatric unit. Co-morbidities were assessed using the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale (CIRS). Each cohort was compared to matched cohorts extracted from a national registry (n = 51,275) to validate the observed results. Main outcome measure was 6-month mortality. We included 131 patients in the orthopedic cohort and 203 in the geriatric cohort. Co-morbidities were more frequent in the geriatric cohort (median CIRS: 8 vs 5, P<0.001). In the geriatric cohort, the proportion of patients who never walked again decreased (6% versus 22%, P<0.001). At 6 months, re-admission (14% versus 29%, P = 0.007) and mortality (15% versus 24%, P = 0.04) were decreased. When co-morbidities were taken into account, the risk ratio of death at 6 months was reduced (0.43, 95%CI 0.25 to 0.73, P = 0.002). Using matched cohorts, the average treatment effects on the treated associated to early geriatric management indicated a reduction in hospital mortality (-63%; 95% CI: -92% to -6%, P = 0.006).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Early admission to a dedicated geriatric unit improved 6-month mortality and morbidity in elderly patients with hip fracture.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Patients with cancer admitted for an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and/or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) represent a growing and high-risk population. The influence of co-existing cancer on mortality remains unclear in such patients. We aimed to assess the impact of cancer on early and late, all-cause and cardiac mortality in the setting of ACS and/or PCI. METHODS:We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies comparing outcomes of patients with and without a history of cancer admitted for ACS and/or PCI. RESULTS:Six studies including 294,528 ACS patients and three studies including 39,973 PCI patients were selected for our meta-analysis. Patients with cancer had increased rates of in-hospital all-cause death (RR 1.74 [1.22; 2.47]), cardiac death (RR 2.44 [1.73; 3.44]) and bleeding (RR 1.64 [1.35; 1.98]) as well as one-year all-cause death (RR 2.62 [1.2; 5.73]) and cardiac death (RR 1.89 [1.25; 2.86]) in ACS studies. Rates of long term all-cause (RR 1.96 [1.52; 2.53]) but not cardiac death were higher in cancer patients admitted for PCI. CONCLUSION:Cancer patients represent a high-risk population both in the acute phase and at long-term after an ACS or PCI. The magnitude of the risk of mortality should however be tempered by the heterogeneity among studies. Early and long term optimal management of such patients should be promoted in clinical practice.
Project description:Background and Purpose: This study aims to explore the cause and predictive value of hyperchloremia in critically ill stroke patients. Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of a prospectively collected database of adult patients with first-ever acute ischemic stroke (AIS) or intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) admitted to the neurointensive care unit (NICU) of a university-affiliated hospital, between January 2013 and December 2016. Patients were excluded if admitted beyond 72 h from onset, if they required neurocritical care for less than 72 h, and were treated with hypertonic saline within 72 h or had creatinine clearance less than 15 mL/min. Results: Of 405 eligible patients, the prevalence of hyperchloremia ([Cl-] ? 110 mmol/L) was 8.6% at NICU admission ([Cl-]0) and 17.0% within 72 h ([Cl-]max). Thirty-eight (9.4%) patients had new-onset hyperchloremia and 110 (27.1%) had moderate increase in chloride (?[Cl-] ? 5 mmol/L; ?[Cl-] = [Cl-]max - [Cl-]0) in the first 72 h after admission, which were found to be determined by the sequential organ failure assessment score in multivariate logistic regression analysis. Neither total fluid input nor cumulative fluid balance had significant association with such chloride disturbance. New-onset hyperchloremia and every 5 mmol/L increment in ?[Cl-] were both associated with increased odds of 30-day mortality and 6-month poor outcome, although no independent significance was found in multivariate models. Conclusion: Hyperchloremia tends to occur in patients more severely affected by AIS and ICH. Although no independent association was found, new-onset hyperchloremia and every 5 mmol/L increment in ?[Cl-] were related to poorer outcome in critically ill AIS and ICH patients. Subject terms: clinical studies, intracranial hemorrhage, ischemic stroke, mortality/survival, quality and outcomes.
Project description:Pediatric neurocritical care is a growing subspecialty of pediatric intensive care that focuses on the management of acute neurological diseases in children. A brief history of the field of pediatric neurocritical care is provided. Neuromonitoring strategies for children are reviewed. Management of major categories of acute childhood central neurologic diseases are reviewed, including treatment of diseases associated with intracranial hypertension, seizures and status epilepticus, stroke, central nervous system infection and inflammation, and hypoxic-ischemic injury.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Acute treatment of cerebral edema and elevated intracranial pressure is a common issue in patients with neurological injury. Practical recommendations regarding selection and monitoring of therapies for initial management of cerebral edema for optimal efficacy and safety are generally lacking. This guideline evaluates the role of hyperosmolar agents (mannitol, HTS), corticosteroids, and selected non-pharmacologic therapies in the acute treatment of cerebral edema. Clinicians must be able to select appropriate therapies for initial cerebral edema management based on available evidence while balancing efficacy and safety. METHODS:The Neurocritical Care Society recruited experts in neurocritical care, nursing, and pharmacy to create a panel in 2017. The group generated 16 clinical questions related to initial management of cerebral edema in various neurological insults using the PICO format. A research librarian executed a comprehensive literature search through July 2018. The panel screened the identified articles for inclusion related to each specific PICO question and abstracted necessary information for pertinent publications. The panel used GRADE methodology to categorize the quality of evidence as high, moderate, low, or very low based on their confidence that the findings of each publication approximate the true effect of the therapy. RESULTS:The panel generated recommendations regarding initial management of cerebral edema in neurocritical care patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage, traumatic brain injury, acute ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, bacterial meningitis, and hepatic encephalopathy. CONCLUSION:The available evidence suggests hyperosmolar therapy may be helpful in reducing ICP elevations or cerebral edema in patients with SAH, TBI, AIS, ICH, and HE, although neurological outcomes do not appear to be affected. Corticosteroids appear to be helpful in reducing cerebral edema in patients with bacterial meningitis, but not ICH. Differences in therapeutic response and safety may exist between HTS and mannitol. The use of these agents in these critical clinical situations merits close monitoring for adverse effects. There is a dire need for high-quality research to better inform clinicians of the best options for individualized care of patients with cerebral edema.
Project description:Human kidney predominant protein, NCU-G1, is a highly conserved protein with an unknown biological function. Initially described as a nuclear protein, it was later shown to be a bona fide lysosomal integral membrane protein. To gain insight into the physiological function of NCU-G1, mice with no detectable expression of this gene were created using a gene-trap strategy, and Ncu-g1(gt/gt) mice were successfully characterized. Lysosomal disorders are mainly caused by lack of or malfunctioning of proteins in the endosomal-lysosomal pathway. The clinical symptoms vary, but often include liver dysfunction. Persistent liver damage activates fibrogenesis and, if unremedied, eventually leads to liver fibrosis/cirrhosis and death. We demonstrate that the disruption of Ncu-g1 results in spontaneous liver fibrosis in mice as the predominant phenotype. Evidence for an increased rate of hepatic cell death, oxidative stress and active fibrogenesis were detected in Ncu-g1(gt/gt) liver. In addition to collagen deposition, microscopic examination of liver sections revealed accumulation of autofluorescent lipofuscin and iron in Ncu-g1(gt/gt) Kupffer cells. Because only a few transgenic mouse models have been identified with chronic liver injury and spontaneous liver fibrosis development, we propose that the Ncu-g1(gt/gt) mouse could be a valuable new tool in the development of novel treatments for the attenuation of fibrosis due to chronic liver damage.