Early biochemical predictors of survival in intermediate and high-risk prostate cancer treated with radiation and androgen deprivation therapy.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:To identify early biochemical predictors of survival in intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer patients with a pre-treatment PSA <20?ng/mL following definitive radiation therapy (RT) and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). MATERIALS AND METHODS:A single-institution review of 2566 intermediate and high-risk prostate cancer patients treated with definitive RT and neoadjuvant and concurrent ADT from 1990 to 2012 was performed. The first prostate-specific antigen (PSA) value within three months of ADT initiation (post-ADT PSA) and the first PSA within three months after RT completion (post-RT PSA) were recorded. 1275 had baseline PSA <20?ng/mL and either post-ADT or post-RT PSA available. Median follow-up was 7.6?years. The relationship between post-treatment PSA kinetics and biochemical relapse (BR), distant metastasis (DM), prostate cancer specific death (PCSD) and overall survival (OS) was modeled using Cox regression univariate and multivariate analysis (MVA). RESULTS:MVA demonstrated a strong association between a post-RT PSA ?0.09?ng/mL and a significantly higher risk of BR (HR: 1.93; 95% CI: 1.45-2.57; p?
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>To investigate the associations of host metabolic factors and metabolic syndrome on prostate cancer-specific death (PCSD) and overall survival (OS) in patients treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for biochemically recurrent disease.<h4>Patients and methods</h4>The analysis included 273 patients with prostate cancer treated with ADT for rising prostate-specific antigen level after surgery or radiotherapy. Patients were assessed for the presence of diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidaemia and obesity before commencing ADT, and Adult Treatment Panel III criteria were used to assess the presence of the composite diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. A competing risks regression model was used to assess associations of time to PCSD with the metabolic conditions, while a multivariable Cox regression model was used to assess associations of OS with metabolic syndrome and metabolic conditions.<h4>Results</h4>During a median follow-up of 11.6 years, 157 patients (58%) died, of whom 58 (21%) died from prostate cancer. At the start of ADT the median (range) patient age was 74 (46-92) years and the median PSA level was 3.0 ng/mL. Metabolic syndrome was observed in 31% of patients; hypertension (68%) and dyslipidaemia (47%) were the most common metabolic conditions. No association of PCSD and metabolic syndrome status was observed. Patients with hypertension tended to have a higher cumulative incidence of PCSD than those without hypertension (sub-distribution hazard ratio [HR] 1.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.89, 2.84; P = 0.11) although the difference was not statistically significant. Patients with metabolic syndrome had an increased risk of death from all causes (HR 1.56, 95% CI 1.07, 2.29; P = 0.02) when compared with patients without metabolic syndrome, as did patients with hypertension (HR 1.72, 95% CI 1.18, 2.49; P = 0.004).<h4>Conclusions</h4>No association of PCSD and metabolic syndrome was observed in this cohort of men receiving ADT for biochemically recurrent prostate cancer. Metabolic syndrome was associated with an increased risk of death from all causes and a similar effect was also observed for patients with prostate cancer with hypertension alone.
Project description:The association of Ki-67 staining index (Ki67-SI) with overall survival (OS), disease-specific mortality (DSM), distant metastasis (DM), and biochemical failure (BF) was examined in men with favorable- to intermediate-risk prostate cancer receiving radiation therapy (RT) alone or with short-term androgen deprivation (ADT) in Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 94-08.468 patients (23.6%) on RTOG 94-08 had sufficient tissue for Ki67-SI analysis. The median follow-up time was 7.9 years. Ki67-SI was determined by immunohistochemistry and quantified manually and by image analysis. Correlative analysis versus clinical outcome was performed using the third quartile (?Q3) cutpoint. A proportional hazards multivariable analysis (MVA) dichotomized covariates in accordance with trial stratification and randomization criteria.In MVAs adjusted for all treatment covariates, high Ki67-SI (?Q3) was correlated with increased DSM (hazard ratio [HR] 2.48, P=.03), DM (HR 3.5, P=.002), and BF (HR 3.55, P<.0001). MVA revealed similar Ki67-associated hazard ratios in each separate treatment arm for DSM, DM, and BF; these reached significance only for DM in the RT-alone arm and for BF in both arms. Ki67-SI was not a significant predictor of intraprostatic recurrence assessed by repeated biopsy 2 years after treatment. Patients with a high or low Ki67-SI seemed to experience a similar relative benefit from the addition of ADT to radiation.High Ki67-SI independently predicts for increased DSM, DM, and protocol BF in primarily intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients treated with RT with or without ADT on RTOG 94-08 but does not predict for local recurrence or for increased relative benefit from ADT. This and prior studies lend support for the use of Ki67-SI as a stratification factor in future trials.
Project description:<b>Purpose: </b>The Systemic Therapy in Advancing or Metastatic Prostate Cancer: Evaluation of Drug Efficacy (STAMPEDE) trial reported overall survival benefits for prostate-directed radiation therapy (PDRT) in low-burden metastatic prostate cancer. Oligometastasis-directed radiation therapy (ORT) improves androgen deprivation therapy (ADT)-free and progression-free survivals. Comprehensive PDRT + ORT to all detectable metastases may offer benefit for de novo oligometastatic prostate cancer (DNOPC) and is under prospective study; given few available benchmarks, we reviewed our institutional experience.<br><br><b>Methods and materials: </b>Forty-seven patients with DNOPC with predominantly M1b disease received neoadjuvant, concurrent, and adjuvant ADT plus PDRT + ORT to 1 to 6 oligometastases. Gross pelvic (N1) nodes were not considered oligometastases unless focally targeted without broader nodal coverage. Outcomes were analyzed from radiation therapy (RT) start using Kaplan-Meier, competing risks, and Cox regression. Median follow-up was 27 (95% confidence interval, 16-42) months.<br><br><b>Results: </b>At 1- and 2-years post-RT, cumulative incidence of distant metastatic progression (DMP) was 21% and 32%, whereas overall survival was 90% and 87%, respectively. Neuroendocrine/intraductal histology, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) < 20, and detectable PSA after PDRT + ORT were associated with increased DMP risk; number and location of oligometastases were not. Local failure was rare, with 3 prostate recurrences and progression of 10 treated oligometastases during follow-up. After neoadjuvant ADT, 9 (19%) patients had undetectable PSA (<0.05 ng/mL), which increased to 32 (68%) after PDRT + ORT. Overall 2-year incidence of biochemical recurrence (BCR) and development of castrate resistance were 23% and 36%, respectively. Undetectable PSA post-RT was associated with lower risk of BCR (hazard ratio, 0.19; <i>P</i> = .004) and DMP (hazard ratio, 0.26; <i>P</i> = .025). Overall, 23 (49%) patients were trialed off ADT; 16 (70%) had testosterone recovery (>150 ng/dL) and, of these, 5 had subsequent PSA rise and restarted ADT 2 to 21 months postrecovery. The remaining 11 were maintained off ADT without BCR. Median noncastrate duration was 8 months; 7 patients had normalized testosterone for >1 year.<br><br><b>Conclusions: </b>A comprehensive, radiotherapeutic-based treatment strategy has favorable clinical outcomes and can produce prolonged noncastrate remissions in a subset with DNOPC.
Project description:This was an exploratory analysis of a trial of intermittent androgen deprivation (IAD) in men with biochemical relapse (BR) to establish first cycle characteristics prognostic for progression to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and death.Men with BR of prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy (RP) or radiation (RT) were treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) comprised of leuprolide and flutamide. After 9 months on treatment, ADT was stopped, and monthly prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels were observed during the off-treatment interval. When the PSA reached a threshold value (1 ng/mL for RP, 4 ng/mL for RT), ADT was resumed in a new cycle. Patients were treated intermittently in this manner until CRPC, which was defined as > or = two consecutive increasing PSA values while on ADT with castrate testosterone levels.Seventy-two of 100 patients enrolled onto the study met criteria for this analysis. The duration of the first off-treatment interval (< or = v > 40 weeks) was associated with shorter time to CRPC (hazard ratio = 2.9; 95% CI, 1.1 to 7.7; P = .03) and death (hazard ratio = 3.8; 95% CI, 1.1 to 13.6; P = .04) after adjusting for age, stage, grade, and PSA at diagnosis.In patients who completed the first cycle of IAD, a duration of the first off-treatment interval of < or = 40 weeks defines a subset of patients at higher risk of CRPC and death. Conversely, patients with an off-treatment interval of more than 40 weeks have a significantly better long-term prognosis.
Project description:Background and Purpose. Life expectancy data could identify men with favorable post-radiation prostate-specific antigen (PSA) failure kinetics unlikely to require androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Materials and Methods. Of 206 men with unfavorable-risk prostate cancer in a randomized trial of radiation versus radiation and ADT, 53 experienced a PSA failure and were followed without salvage ADT. Comorbidity, age and established prognostic factors were assessed for relationship to death using Cox regression analyses. Results. The median age at failure, interval to PSA failure, and PSA doubling time were 76.6 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 71.8-79.3), 49.1 months (IQR: 37.7-87.4), and 25 months (IQR: 13.1-42.8), respectively. After a median follow up of 4.0 years following PSA failure, 45% of men had died, none from prostate cancer and no one had developed metastases. Both increasing age at PSA failure (HR: 1.14; 95% CI: 1.03-1.25; P = 0.008) and the presence of moderate to severe comorbidity (HR: 12.5; 95% CI: 3.81-41.0; P < 0.001) were significantly associated with an increased risk of death. Conclusions. Men over the age of 76 with significant comorbidity and a PSA doubling time >2 years following post-radiation PSA failure appear to be good candidates for observation without ADT intervention.
Project description:PURPOSE:We have previously reported that radiotherapy (RT) added to androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) improves survival in men with locally advanced prostate cancer. Here, we report the prespecified final analysis of this randomized trial. PATIENTS AND METHODS:NCIC Clinical Trials Group PR.3/Medical Research Council PR07/Intergroup T94-0110 was a randomized controlled trial of patients with locally advanced prostate cancer. Patients with T3-4, N0/Nx, M0 prostate cancer or T1-2 disease with either prostate-specific antigen (PSA) of more than 40 ?g/L or PSA of 20 to 40 ?g/L plus Gleason score of 8 to 10 were randomly assigned to lifelong ADT alone or to ADT+RT. The RT dose was 64 to 69 Gy in 35 to 39 fractions to the prostate and pelvis or prostate alone. Overall survival was compared using a log-rank test stratified for prespecified variables. RESULTS:One thousand two hundred five patients were randomly assigned between 1995 and 2005, 602 to ADT alone and 603 to ADT+RT. At a median follow-up time of 8 years, 465 patients had died, including 199 patients from prostate cancer. Overall survival was significantly improved in the patients allocated to ADT+RT (hazard ratio [HR], 0.70; 95% CI, 0.57 to 0.85; P < .001). Deaths from prostate cancer were significantly reduced by the addition of RT to ADT (HR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.34 to 0.61; P < .001). Patients on ADT+RT reported a higher frequency of adverse events related to bowel toxicity, but only two of 589 patients had grade 3 or greater diarrhea at 24 months after RT. CONCLUSION:This analysis demonstrates that the previously reported benefit in survival is maintained at a median follow-up of 8 years and firmly establishes the role of RT in the treatment of men with locally advanced prostate cancer.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>The optimal salvage treatment strategies for lymph node-positive (LNP) patients after radical surgery have not been clearly defined in prostate cancer with biochemical recurrence or persistence of elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA). In this study, we compared the clinical outcomes of two different salvage treatments, androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) alone versus ADT with radiotherapy (RT). We also investigated prognostic factors that could support the use of ADT with RT in LNP prostate cancer.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>We retrospectively reviewed 94 LNP prostate cancer patients who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) followed by salvage treatment between 2004 and 2018. Salvage treatments involved either ADT alone or ADT with RT according to the clinical judgment of the physician. We analyzed clinicopathological and treatment factors related to 2nd biochemical failure (2nd BCF), clinical progression (CP), and progression-free survival (PFS). The cumulative failure after salvage treatment was defined as including both 2nd BCF and CP.<h4>Results</h4>The median duration of follow-up was 55 months (interquartile range, 35-97 months). Thirty-seven (39.4%) patients were treated with ADT alone, and 57 patients (60.6%) were treated with a combination of ADT with RT. During follow-up period, the incidence of failure after salvage treatment in the ADT alone group and the combined treatment group was 89.2% and 45.6%, respectively (HR, 22.4; 95% CI 5.43-92.1; P < 0.001). The combination of ADT with RT was associated with better 2nd BCF and PFS than ADT alone (P = 0.007 and P = 0.015, respectively). In multivariate analyses, number of positive LN ≥ 2 and PSA nadir ≥ 0.005 ng/ml after RP were associated with poor 2nd BCF, CP, and PFS after salvage treatment. Salvage by combined ADT plus RT showed better 2nd BCF and PFS than ADT alone. Specifically, patients with number of positive LN ≥ 2 or PSA nadir ≥ 0.005 ng/ml after RP showed better 2nd BCF (P = 0.004) or PFS (P = 0.011) when treated with ADT plus RT rather than ADT alone.<h4>Conclusions</h4>In patients with LNP prostate cancer, salvage ADT plus RT improved 2nd BCF and PFS compared to ADT alone. In particular, when the patients had more than two positive lymph nodes or PSA nadir ≥ 0.005 ng/ml after RP, ADT with RT seems to be a more beneficial salvage treatment resulting in better 2nd BCF and PFS.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Statins' cholesterol-lowering efficacy is well-known. Recent epidemiological studies have found that inhibition of cholesterol synthesis may have beneficial effects on prostate cancer (PCa) patients, especially patients treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). We evaluated statins' effect on prostate cancer prognosis among patients treated with ADT.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>Our study population consisted of 8253 PCa patients detected among the study population of the Finnish randomized study of screening for prostate cancer. These were limited to 4428 men who initiated ADT during the follow-up. Cox proportional regression model adjusted for tumor clinical characteristics and comorbidities was used to estimate hazard ratios for risk of PSA relapse after ADT initiation and prostate cancer death.<h4>Results</h4>During the median follow-up of 6.3 years after the ADT initiation, there were 834 PCa deaths and 1565 PSA relapses in a study cohort. Statin use after ADT was associated with a decreased risk of PSA relapse (HR 0.73, 95% CI 0.65-0.82) and prostate cancer death (HR 0.82; 95% CI 0.69-0.96). In contrast, statin use defined with a one-year lag (HR 0.89, 95% CI 0.76-1.04), statin use before ADT initiation (HR 1.12, 95% CI 0.96-1.31), and use in the first year on ADT (HR 1.02, 95% CI 0.85-1.24) were not associated with prostate cancer death, without dose dependency.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Statin use after initiation of ADT, but not before, was associated with improved prostate cancer prognosis.
Project description:Whether the addition of radiation therapy (RT) improves overall survival in men with locally advanced prostate cancer managed with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is unclear. Our aim was to compare outcomes in such patients with locally advanced prostate cancer.Patients with: locally advanced (T3 or T4) prostate cancer (n=1057); or organ-confined disease (T2) with either a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration more than 40 ng/mL (n=119) or PSA concentration more than 20 ng/mL and a Gleason score of 8 or higher (n=25), were randomly assigned (done centrally with stratification and dynamic minimisation, not masked) to receive lifelong ADT and RT (65-69 Gy to the prostate and seminal vesicles, 45 Gy to the pelvic nodes). The primary endpoint was overall survival. The results presented here are of an interim analysis planned for when two-thirds of the events for the final analysis were recorded. All efficacy analyses were done by intention to treat and were based on data from all patients. This trial is registered at controlledtrials.com as ISRCTN24991896 and Clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00002633.Between 1995 and 2005, 1205 patients were randomly assigned (602 in the ADT only group and 603 in the ADT and RT group); median follow-up was 6·0 years (IQR 4·4-8·0). At the time of analysis, a total of 320 patients had died, 175 in the ADT only group and 145 in the ADT and RT group. The addition of RT to ADT improved overall survival at 7 years (74%, 95% CI 70-78 vs 66%, 60-70; hazard ratio [HR] 0·77, 95% CI 0·61-0·98, p=0·033). Both toxicity and health-related quality-of-life results showed a small effect of RT on late gastrointestinal toxicity (rectal bleeding grade >3, three patients (0·5%) in the ADT only group, two (0·3%) in the ADT and RT group; diarrhoea grade >3, four patients (0·7%) vs eight (1·3%); urinary toxicity grade >3, 14 patients (2·3%) in both groups).The benefits of combined modality treatment--ADT and RT--should be discussed with all patients with locally advanced prostate cancer.Canadian Cancer Society Research Institute, US National Cancer Institute, and UK Medical Research Council.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Prostate cancer patients who have a detectable prostate-specific antigen (PSA) postprostatectomy may harbor pre-existing metastatic disease. To our knowledge, none of the commercially available genomic biomarkers have been investigated in such men. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate if a 22-gene genomic classifier can independently predict development of metastasis in men with PSA persistence postoperatively. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:A multi-institutional study of 477 men who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) between 1990 and 2015 from three academic centers. Patients were categorized as detectable PSA (n=150) or undetectable (n=327) based on post-RP PSA nadir ?0.1 ng/ml. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISITICAL ANALYSIS:Cumulative incidence curves for metastasis were constructed using Fine-Gray competing risks analysis. Penalized Cox univariable and multivariable (MVA) proportional hazards models were performed to evaluate the association of the genomic classifier with metastasis. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS:The median follow-up for censored patients was 57 mo. The median time from RP to first postoperative PSA was 1.4 mo. Detectable PSA patients were more likely to have higher adverse pathologic features compared with undetectable PSA patients. On MVA, only genomic high-risk (hazard ratio [HR]: 5.95, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.02-19.41, p=0.001), detectable PSA (HR: 4.26, 95% CI: 1.16-21.8, p=0.03), and lymph node invasion (HR: 12.2, 95% CI: 2.46-70.7, p=0.003) remained prognostic factors for metastasis. Among detectable PSA patients, the 5-yr metastasis rate was 0.90% for genomic low/intermediate and 18% for genomic high risk (p<0.001). Genomic high risk remained independently prognostic on MVA (HR: 5.61, 95% CI: 1.48-22.7, p=0.01) among detectable PSA patients. C-index for Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment Postsurgical score, Gandaglia nomogram, and the genomic classifier plus either Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment Postsurgical score or Gandaglia were 0.69, 0.68, and 0.82 or 0.81, respectively. Sample size was a limitation. CONCLUSIONS:Despite patients with a detectable PSA harboring significantly higher rates of aggressive clinicopathologic features, Decipher independently predicts for metastasis. Prospective validation of these findings is warranted and will be collected as part of the ongoing randomized trial NRG GU-002. PATIENT SUMMARY:Decipher independently predicted metastasis for patients with detectable prostate-specific antigen after prostatectomy.