Application of compound material alleviates saline and alkaline stress in cotton leaves through regulation of the transcriptome.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Soil salinization and alkalinization are the main factors that affect the agricultural productivity. Evaluating the persistence of the compound material applied in field soils is an important part of the regulation of the responses of cotton to saline and alkaline stresses. RESULT:To determine the molecular effects of compound material on the cotton's responses to saline stress and alkaline stress, cotton was planted in the salinized soil (NaCl 8?g?kg-?1) and alkalized soil (Na2CO3 8?g?kg-?1) after application of the compound material, and ion content, physiological characteristics, and transcription of new cotton leaves at flowering and boll-forming stage were analyzed. The results showed that compared with saline stress, alkaline stress increased the contents of Na+, K+, SOD, and MDA in leaves. The application of the compound material reduced the content of Na+ but increased the K+/Na+ ratio, the activities of SOD, POD, and CAT, and REC. Transcriptome analysis revealed that after the application of the compound material, the Na+/H+ exchanger gene in cotton leaves was down-regulated, while the K+ transporter, K+ channel, and POD genes were up-regulated. Besides, the down-regulation of genes related to lignin synthesis in phenylalanine biosynthesis pathway had a close relationship with the ion content and physiological characteristics in leaves. The quantitative analysis with PCR proved the reliability of the results of RNA sequencing. CONCLUSION:These findings suggest that the compound material alleviated saline stress and alkaline stress on cotton leaves by regulating candidate genes in key biological pathways, which improves our understanding of the molecular mechanism of the compound material regulating the responses of cotton to saline stress and alkaline stress.
Project description:This study investigated the influence of Trichoderma asperellum on active oxygen production in maize seedlings under saline-alkaline stress conditions. Two maize cultivars were tested: 'Jiangyu 417' ('JY417'), which can tolerate saline-alkaline stress; and, 'Xianyu 335' ('XY335'), which is sensitive to saline-alkaline stress. The seedlings were grown on natural saline-alkaline soil (pH 9.30) in plastic pots. To each liter of saline-alkaline soil, 200 mL of T. asperellum spore suspension was applied; three fungal suspensions were used, namely, 1 × 103, 1 × 106, and 1 × 109 spores/L. A control with only the vehicle applied was also established, along with a second control in which untreated meadow soil (pH 8.23) was used. Root and leaf samples were collected when the seedlings had three heart-shaped leaves and the fourth was in the developmental phase. Physical and biochemical parameters related to oxidation resistance were assessed. The results indicated that the 'JY417' and 'XY335' seedlings showed different degrees of oxidative damage and differences in their antioxidant defense systems under saline-alkaline stress. As the spore density of the fungal suspension increased, the K+ and Ca2+ contents in the seedlings increased, but Na+ content decreased. Moreover, fungal treatment promoted the synthesis or accumulation of osmolytes, which enhanced the water absorbing capacity of the cells, increased antioxidant enzyme activities, enhanced the content of non-enzyme antioxidants, and reduced the accumulation of reactive oxygen species. Fungal treatment alleviated oxidative damage caused by the saline-alkaline stress in roots and leaves of the seedlings. The application of T. asperellum overcame the inhibitory effect of saline-alkaline soil stress on the growth of maize seedlings. In the present experiment, application with 1 × 109 spores/L gave the optimal results.
Project description:An increasing area of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton is being planted in saline-alkaline soil in China. The Bt protein level in transgenic cotton plants and its control efficiency can be affected by abiotic stress, including high temperature, water deficiency and other factors. However, how soil salinity affects the expression of Bt protein, thus influencing the control efficiency of Bt cotton against the cotton bollworm (CBW) Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) in the field, is poorly understood. Our objective in the present study was to investigate the effects of soil salinity on the expression of Bt toxin (Cry1Ac) and the control efficiency of Helicoverpa armigera in field-grown transgenic Bt cotton using three natural saline levels (1.15 dS m-1 [low soil-salinity], 6.00 dS m-1 [medium soil-salinity] and 11.46 dS m-1 [high soil-salinity]). We found that the Bt protein content in the transgenic Bt cotton leaves and the insecticidal activity of Bt cotton against CBW decreased with the increasing soil salinity in laboratory experiments during the growing season. The Bt protein content of Bt cotton leaves in the laboratory were negatively correlated with the salinity level. The CBW populations were highest on the Bt cotton grown in medium-salinity soil instead of the high-salinity soil in field conditions. A possible mechanism may be that the relatively high-salinity soil changed the plant nutritional quality or other plant defensive traits. The results from this study may help to identify more appropriate practices to control CBW in Bt cotton fields with different soil salinity levels.
Project description:Soil salinization is an important agriculture-related environmental problem. Alkali stress and salt stress strongly influence the metabolic balance in plants. Salt and alkali stresses exert varied effects on old and young tissues, which display different adaptive strategies. In this study, we used cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) plants as experimental material to investigate whether alkali stress induces ionic and metabolism changes in old and young leaves of cotton plants exposed to alkali stress. Results showed that alkali stress exerted a considerably stronger growth inhibition on old leaves than on young leaves. Under alkali stress, young leaves can maintain low Na and high K contents and retain relatively stable tricarboxylic acid cycle, resulting in greater accumulation of photosynthetic metabolites. In terms of metabolic response, the young and old leaves clearly displayed different mechanisms of osmotic regulation. The amounts of inositol and mannose significantly increased in both old and young leaves of cotton exposed to alkali stress, and the extent of increase was higher in young leaves than in old leaves. In old leaves, synthesis of amino acids, such as GABA, valine, and serine, was dramatically enhanced, and this phenomenon is favorable for osmotic adjustment and membrane stability. Organs at different developmental stages possibly display different mechanisms of metabolic regulation under stress condition. Thus, we propose that future investigations on alkali stress should use more organs obtained at different developmental stages.
Project description:Soil salinity is a major abiotic stress factor that limits cotton production worldwide. To improve salt tolerance in cotton, an in-depth understanding of ionic balance is needed. In this study, a pot experiment using three levels of soil salinity (0%, 0.2%, and 0.4%, represented as CK, SL, and SH, respectively) and two cotton genotypes (salt-tolerant genotype: L24; salt-sensitive genotype: X45) was employed to investigate how sodium chloride (NaCl) stress effects cotton growth, ion distribution, and transport, as well as to explore the related mechanism. The results showed that SL treatment mainly inhibited shoot growth, while SH treatment caused more extensive impairment to roots and shoots. The growth inhibition ratio of NaCl stress on X45 was more marked than that of L24. Under NaCl stress, the Na concentration in the roots, stems and leaves significantly increased, whereas the K, Cu, B, and Mo concentration in roots, as well as Mg and S concentrations in the leaves, significantly decreased. Under salt stress conditions, salt-tolerant cotton plants can store Na in the leaves, and as a result, a larger amount of minerals (e.g., Cu, Mo, Si, P, and B) tend to transport to the leaves. By contrast, salt-sensitive varieties tend to accumulate certain minerals (e.g., Ca, P, Mg, S, Mn, Fe, Cu, B, Mo, and Si) in the roots. Most genes related to ion transport and homeostasis were upregulated in L24, but not in X45. The expression level of GhSOS1 in X45 was higher than L24, but GhNHX1 in L24 was higher than X45. Our findings suggest that the two varieties response to salt stress differently; for X45 (salt-sensitive), the response is predominantly governed by Na+ efflux, whereas for L24 (salt-tolerant), vacuolar sequestration of Na+ is the major mechanism. The expression changes of the genes encoding the ion transporters may partially explain the genotypic difference in leaf ion accumulation under salt stress conditions.
Project description:Soil saline-alkalization is a major abiotic stress that leads to low iron (Fe) availability and high toxicity of sodium ions (Na+) for plants. It has recently been shown that plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) can enhance the ability of plants to tolerate multiple abiotic stresses such as drought, salinity, and nutrient deficiency. However, the possible involvement of PGPR in improving saline-alkaline tolerance of plants and the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of Bacillus licheniformis (strain SA03) on the growth of Chrysanthemum plants under saline-alkaline conditions. Our results revealed that inoculation with SA03 alleviated saline-alkaline stress in plants with increased survival rates, photosynthesis and biomass. The inoculated plants accumulated more Fe and lower Na+ concentrations under saline-alkaline stress compared with the non-inoculated plants. RNA-Sequencing analyses further revealed that SA03 significantly activated abiotic stress- and Fe acquisition-related pathways in the stress-treated plants. However, SA03 failed to increase saline-alkaline tolerance in plants when cellular abscisic acid (ABA) and nitric oxide (NO) synthesis were inhibited by treatment with fluridone (FLU) and 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (c-PTIO), respectively. Importantly, we also found that NO acted downstream of SA03-induced ABA to activate a series of adaptive responses in host plants under saline-alkaline stress. These findings demonstrated the potential roles of B. licheniformis SA03 in enhancing saline-alkaline tolerance of plants and highlighted the intricate integration of microbial signaling in regulating cellular Fe and Na+ accumulation.
Project description:The salt overly sensitive 1 (SOS1) gene encodes the plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter, SOS1, that is mainly responsible for extruding Na+ from the cytoplasm and reducing the Na+ content in plants under salt stress and is considered a vital determinant in conferring salt tolerance to the plant. However, studies on the salt tolerance function of the TrSOS1 gene of recretohalophytes, such as Tamarix, are limited. In this work, the effects of salt stress on cotton seedlings transformed with tobacco-rattle-virus-based virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of the endogenous GhSOS1 gene, or Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain K599-mediated TrSOS1-transgenic hairy root composite cotton plants exhibiting VIGS of GhSOS1 were first investigated. Then, with Arabidopsis thaliana AtSOS1 as a reference, differences in the complementation effect of TrSOS1 or GhSOS1 in a yeast mutant were compared under salt treatment. Results showed that compared to empty-vector-transformed plants, GhSOS1-VIGS-transformed cotton plants were more sensitive to salt stress and had reduced growth, insufficient root vigor, and increased Na+ content and Na+/K+ ratio in roots, stems, and leaves. Overexpression of TrSOS1 enhanced the salt tolerance of hairy root composite cotton seedlings exhibiting GhSOS1-VIGS by maintaining higher root vigor and leaf relative water content (RWC), and lower Na+ content and Na+/K+ ratio in roots, stems, and leaves. Transformations of TrSOS1, GhSOS1, or AtSOS1 into yeast NHA1 (Na+/H+ antiporter 1) mutant reduced cellular Na+ content and Na+/K+ ratio, increased K+ level under salt stress, and had good growth complementation in saline conditions. In particular, the ability of TrSOS1 or GhSOS1 to complement the yeast mutant was better than that of AtSOS1. This may indicate that TrSOS1 is an effective substitute and confers enhanced salt tolerance to transgenic hairy root composite cotton seedlings, and even the SOS1 gene from salt-tolerant Tamarix or cotton may have higher efficiency than salt-sensitive Arabidopsis in regulating Na+ efflux, maintaining Na+ and K+ homeostasis, and therefore contributing to stronger salt tolerance.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Saline-alkaline stress is a major abiotic stress that is harmful to plant growth worldwide. Two peach cultivars (GF677 and Maotao) display distinct phenotypes under saline-alkaline stress. The molecular mechanism explaining the differences between the two cultivars is still unclear. RESULTS:In the present study, we systematically analysed the changes in GF677 and Maotao leaves upon saline-alkaline stress by using cytological and biochemical technologies as well as comparative transcriptome analysis. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations showed that the structure of granum was dispersive in Maotao chloroplasts. The biochemical analysis revealed that POD activity and the contents of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b, as well as iron, were notably decreased in Maotao. Comparative transcriptome analysis detected 881 genes with differential expression (including 294 upregulated and 587 downregulated) under the criteria of |log2 Ratio|???1 and FDR ?0.01. Gene ontology (GO) analysis showed that all differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were grouped into 30 groups. MapMan annotation of DEGs showed that photosynthesis, antioxidation, ion metabolism, and WRKY TF were activated in GF677, while cell wall degradation, secondary metabolism, starch degradation, MYB TF, and bHLH TF were activated in Maotao. Several iron and stress-related TFs (ppa024966m, ppa010295m, ppa0271826m, ppa002645m, ppa010846m, ppa009439m, ppa008846m, and ppa007708m) were further discussed from a functional perspective based on the phylogenetic tree integration of other species homologues. CONCLUSIONS:According to the cytological and molecular differences between the two cultivars, we suggest that the integrity of chloroplast structure and the activation of photosynthesis as well as stress-related genes are crucial for saline-alkaline resistance in GF677. The results presented in this report provide a theoretical basis for cloning saline-alkaline tolerance genes and molecular breeding to improve saline-alkaline tolerance in peach.
Project description:Sodium (Na+) toxicity is one of the major damages imposed on crops by saline-alkaline stress. Here we show that natural maize inbred lines display substantial variations in shoot Na+ contents and saline-alkaline (NaHCO3) tolerance, and reveal that ZmNSA1 (Na+ Content under Saline-Alkaline Condition) confers shoot Na+ variations under NaHCO3 condition by a genome-wide association study. Lacking of ZmNSA1 promotes shoot Na+ homeostasis by increasing root Na+ efflux. A naturally occurred 4-bp deletion decreases the translation efficiency of ZmNSA1 mRNA, thus promotes Na+ homeostasis. We further show that, under saline-alkaline condition, Ca2+ binds to the EF-hand domain of ZmNSA1 then triggers its degradation via 26S proteasome, which in turn increases the transcripts levels of PM-H+-ATPases (MHA2 and MHA4), and consequently enhances SOS1 Na+/H+ antiporter-mediated root Na+ efflux. Our studies reveal the mechanism of Ca2+-triggered saline-alkaline tolerance and provide an important gene target for breeding saline-alkaline tolerant maize varieties.
Project description:Alkaline stress as a result of higher pH usually triggers more severe physiological damage to plants than that of saline stress with a neutral pH. In the present study, we demonstrated that silicon (Si) priming of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) seedlings increased their tolerance to high alkaline stress situations. Gongnong No. 1 seedlings were subjected to alkaline stress simulated by 25 mM Na2CO3 (pH 11.2). Alkaline stress greatly decreased the biomass and caused severe lodging or wilting of alfalfa seedlings. In contrast, the application of Si to alfalfa seedlings 36 h prior to the alkaline treatment significantly alleviated the damage symptoms and greatly increased the biomass and chlorophyll content. Because of being concomitant with increasing photosynthesis and water use efficiency, decreasing membrane injury and malondialdehyde content, and increasing peroxidase and catalase ascorbate activities in alfalfa leaves, thereby alleviating the triggered oxidative damage by alkaline stress to the plant. Furthermore, Si priming significantly decreased the accumulation of protein and proline content in alfalfa, thus reducing photosynthetic feedback repression. Si priming significantly accumulated more Na in the roots, but led to a decrease of Na accumulation and an increase of K accumulation in the leaves under alkaline stress. Meanwhile, Si priming decreased the accumulation of metal ions such as Mg, Fe, Mn, and Zn in the roots of alfalfa seedlings under alkaline stress. Collectively, these results suggested that Si is involved in the metabolic or physiological changes and has a potent priming effect on the alkaline tolerance of alfalfa seedlings. The present study indicated that Si priming is a new approach to improve the alkaline tolerance in alfalfa and provides increasing information for further exploration of the alkaline stress response at the molecular level in alfalfa.
Project description:Background:Carbon and nitrogen metabolism need to be highly regulated to achieve cell acclimation to changing environmental conditions. The understanding of physio-biochemical responses of crops to salinity stress could help to stabilize their performance and yield. In this study we have analyzed the roles of photosynthesis, ion physiology and nitrate assimilation toward saline/alkaline stress acclimation in wild and cultivated soybean seedlings. Methods:Growth and photosynthetic parameters, ion concentrations and the activity of enzymes involved in nitrogen assimilation were determined in seedlings of one wild and one cultivated soybean accession subjected to saline or alkaline stresses. Results:Both saline and alkaline stresses had a negative impact on the growth and metabolism of both wild and cultivated soybean.The growth, photosynthesis, and gas exchange parameters showed a significant decrease in response to increasing salt concentration. Additionally, a significant increase in root Na+ and Cl- concentration was observed. However, photosynthetic performance and ion regulation were higher in wild than in cultivated soybean under saline and alkaline stresses. Nitrate reductase (NR) and the glutamine synthetase/glutamate synthase (GS/GOGAT) cycle showed a significant decrease in leaves of both genotypes. The reduction in the GS/GOGAT cycle was accompanied by high aminating glutamate dehydrogenase (NADH-glutamate dehydrogenase) activity, indicating the assimilation of high levels of NH4 +. A significant increase in the activities of aminating and deaminating enzymes, including glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT), was observed, probably due to the high glutamate demand and maintenance of the Krebs cycle to correct the C: N status. Conclusions:Cultivated soybean was much more stress sensitive than was the wild soybean. The decrease in growth, photosynthesis, ion regulation and nitrogen assimilation enzymes was greater in cultivated soybean than in wild soybean. The impact of alkaline stress was more pronounced than that of saline stress. Wild soybean regulated the physiological mechanisms of photosynthesis and nitrate assimilation more effectively than did cultivated soybean. The present findings provide a theoretical basis with which to screen and utilize wild and cultivated soybean germplasm for breeding new stress-tolerant soybean.