Human ABCB1 with an ABCB11-like degenerate nucleotide binding site maintains transport activity by avoiding nucleotide occlusion.
ABSTRACT: Several ABC exporters carry a degenerate nucleotide binding site (NBS) that is unable to hydrolyze ATP at a rate sufficient for sustaining transport activity. A hallmark of a degenerate NBS is the lack of the catalytic glutamate in the Walker B motif in the nucleotide binding domain (NBD). The multidrug resistance transporter ABCB1 (P-glycoprotein) has two canonical NBSs, and mutation of the catalytic glutamate E556 in NBS1 renders ABCB1 transport-incompetent. In contrast, the closely related bile salt export pump ABCB11 (BSEP), which shares 49% sequence identity with ABCB1, naturally contains a methionine in place of the catalytic glutamate. The NBD-NBD interfaces of ABCB1 and ABCB11 differ only in four residues, all within NBS1. Mutation of the catalytic glutamate in ABCB1 results in the occlusion of ATP in NBS1, leading to the arrest of the transport cycle. Here we show that despite the catalytic glutamate mutation (E556M), ABCB1 regains its ATP-dependent transport activity, when three additional diverging residues are also replaced. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed that the rescue of ATPase activity is due to the modified geometry of NBS1, resulting in a weaker interaction with ATP, which allows the quadruple mutant to evade the conformationally locked pre-hydrolytic state to proceed to ATP-driven transport. In summary, we show that ABCB1 can be transformed into an active transporter with only one functional catalytic site by preventing the formation of the ATP-locked pre-hydrolytic state in the non-canonical site.
Project description:P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) is an important component of barrier tissues that extrudes a wide range of chemically unrelated compounds. ABCB1 consists of two transmembrane domains forming the substrate binding and translocation domain, and of two cytoplasmic nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) that provide the energy by binding and hydrolyzing ATP. We analyzed the mechanistic and energetic properties of the NBD dimer via molecular dynamics simulations. We find that MgATP stabilizes the NBD dimer through strong attractive forces by serving as an interaction hub. The irreversible ATP hydrolysis step converts the chemical energy stored in the phosphate bonds of ATP into potential energy. Following ATP hydrolysis, interactions between the NBDs and the ATP hydrolysis products MgADP?+?Pi remain strong, mainly because Mg2+ forms stabilizing interactions with ADP and Pi. Despite these stabilizing interactions MgADP?+?Pi are unable to hold the dimer together, which becomes separated by avid interactions of MgADP?+?Pi with water. ATP binding to the open NBDs and ATP hydrolysis in the closed NBD dimer represent two steps of energy input, each leading to the formation of a high energy state. Relaxation from these high energy states occurs through conformational changes that push ABCB1 through the transport cycle.
Project description:ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters have a functional unit formed by two transmembrane domains and two nucleotide binding domains (NBDs). ATP-bound NBDs dimerize in a head-to-tail arrangement, with two nucleotides sandwiched at the dimer interface. Both NBDs contribute residues to each of the two nucleotide-binding sites (NBSs) in the dimer. In previous studies, we showed that the prototypical NBD MJ0796 from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii forms ATP-bound dimers that dissociate completely following hydrolysis of one of the two bound ATP molecules. Since hydrolysis of ATP at one NBS is sufficient to drive dimer dissociation, it is unclear why all ABC proteins contain two NBSs. Here, we used luminescence resonance energy transfer (LRET) to study ATP-induced formation of NBD homodimers containing two NBSs competent for ATP binding, and NBD heterodimers with one active NBS and one binding-defective NBS. The results showed that binding of two ATP molecules is necessary for NBD dimerization. We conclude that ATP hydrolysis at one nucleotide-binding site drives NBD dissociation, but two binding sites are required to form the ATP-sandwich NBD dimer necessary for hydrolysis.
Project description:The checkpoint kinase Chk2 has a key role in delaying cell cycle progression in response to DNA damage. Upon activation by low-dose ionizing radiation (IR), which occurs in an ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-dependent manner, Chk2 can phosphorylate the mitosis-inducing phosphatase Cdc25C on an inhibitory site, blocking entry into mitosis, and p53 on a regulatory site, causing G(1) arrest. Here we show that the ATM-dependent activation of Chk2 by gamma- radiation requires Nbs1, the gene product involved in the Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS), a disorder that shares with AT a variety of phenotypic defects including chromosome fragility, radiosensitivity, and radioresistant DNA synthesis. Thus, whereas in normal cells Chk2 undergoes a time-dependent increased phosphorylation and induction of catalytic activity against Cdc25C, in NBS cells null for Nbs1 protein, Chk2 phosphorylation and activation are both defective. Importantly, these defects in NBS cells can be complemented by reintroduction of wild-type Nbs1, but neither by a carboxy-terminal deletion mutant of Nbs1 at amino acid 590, unable to form a complex with and to transport Mre11 and Rad50 in the nucleus, nor by an Nbs1 mutated at Ser343 (S343A), the ATM phosphorylation site. Chk2 nuclear expression is unaffected in NBS cells, hence excluding a mislocalization as the cause of failed Chk2 activation in Nbs1-null cells. Interestingly, the impaired Chk2 function in NBS cells correlates with the inability, unlike normal cells, to stop entry into mitosis immediately after irradiation, a checkpoint abnormality that can be corrected by introduction of the wild-type but not the S343A mutant form of Nbs1. Altogether, these findings underscore the crucial role of a functional Nbs1 complex in Chk2 activation and suggest that checkpoint defects in NBS cells may result from the inability to activate Chk2.
Project description:P-glycoprotein, also known as multidrug resistance protein 1 or ABCB1, can export a wide range of chemically unrelated compounds, including chemotherapeutic drugs. ABCB1 consists of two transmembrane domains that form the substrate binding and translocation domain, and of two cytoplasmic nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) that energize substrate transport by ATP binding and hydrolysis. ATP binding triggers dimerization of the NBDs, which switches the transporter from an inward facing to an outward facing transmembrane domain conformation. We performed MD simulations to study the dynamic behavior of the NBD dimer in the presence or absence of nucleotides. In the apo configuration, the NBDs were overall attractive to each other as shown in the potential of mean force profile, but the energy well was shallow and broad. In contrast, a sharp and deep energy minimum (?-42 kJ/mol) was found in the presence of ATP, leading to a well-defined conformation. Motif interaction network analyses revealed that ATP stabilizes the NBD dimer by serving as the central hub for interdomain connections. Simulations showed that forces promoting dimerization are multilayered, dominated by electrostatic interactions between the nucleotide and conserved amino acids of the signature sequence and the Walker A motif. In addition, direct and water-bridged hydrogen bonds between NBDs provided conformation-defining interactions. Importantly, we characterized a largely unrecognized but essential contribution from hydrophobic interactions between the adenine moiety of the nucleotides and a hydrophobic surface of the X-loop to the stabilization of the nucleotide-bound NBD dimer. These hydrophobic interactions lead to a sharp energy minimum, thereby conformationally restricting the nucleotide-bound state.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Ovarian cancer (OC) represents a serious disease with high mortality and lack of efficient predictive and prognostic biomarkers. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins constitute a large family dedicated to active transmembrane transport including transport of xenobiotics. MATERIALS AND METHODS:mRNA level was measured by quantitative RT-PCR in tumor tissues from OC patients. Bioinformatics analyses were applied to two gene expression datasets (60 primary tumors and 29 peritoneal metastases). Two different approaches of expression data normalization were applied in parallel, and their results were compared. Data from publically available cancer datasets were checked to further validate our conclusions. RESULTS:The results showed significant connections between ABC gene expression profiles and time to progression (TTP), chemotherapy resistance, and metastatic progression in OC. Two consensus ABC gene profiles with clinical meaning were documented. (a) Downregulation of ABCC4, ABCC10, ABCD3, ABCE1, ABCF1, ABCF2, and ABCF3 was connected with the best sensitivity to chemotherapy and TTP. (b) Oppositely, downregulation of ABCB11 and upregulation of ABCB1 and ABCG2 were connected with the worst sensitivity to chemotherapy and TTP. Results from publicly available online databases supported our conclusions. CONCLUSION:This study stressed the connection between two well-documented ABC genes and clinicopathological features-ABCB1 and ABCG2. Moreover, we showed a comparable connection also for several other ABC genes-ABCB11, ABCC4, ABCC10, ABCD3, ABCE1, ABCF1, ABCF2, and ABCF3. Our results add new clinically relevant information to this oncology field and can stimulate further exploration.
Project description:The transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) comprises two subunits, TAP1 and TAP2, each containing a hydrophobic membrane-spanning region (MSR) and a nucleotide binding domain (NBD). The TAP1/TAP2 complex is required for peptide translocation across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. To understand the role of each structural unit of the TAP1/TAP2 complex, we generated two chimeras containing TAP1 MSR and TAP2 NBD (T1MT2C) or TAP2 MSR and TAP1 NBD (T2MT1C). We show that TAP1/T2MT1C, TAP2/T1MT2C, and T1MT2C/T2MT1C complexes bind peptide with an affinity comparable to wild-type complexes. By contrast, TAP1/T1MT2C and TAP2/T2MT1C complexes, although observed, are impaired for peptide binding. Thus, the MSRs of both TAP1 and TAP2 are required for binding peptide. However, neither NBD contains unique determinants required for peptide binding. The NBD-switched complexes, T1MT2C/T2MT1C, TAP1/T2MT1C, and TAP2/T1MT2C, all translocate peptides, but with progressively reduced efficiencies relative to the TAP1/TAP2 complex. These results indicate that both nucleotide binding sites are catalytically active and support an alternating catalytic sites model for the TAP transport cycle, similar to that proposed for P-glycoprotein. The enhanced translocation efficiency of TAP1/T2MT1C relative to TAP2/T1MT2C complexes correlates with enhanced binding of the TAP1 NBD-containing constructs to ATP-agarose beads. Preferential ATP interaction with TAP1, if occurring in vivo, might polarize the transport cycle such that ATP binding to TAP1 initiates the cycle. However, our observations that TAP complexes containing two identical TAP NBDs can mediate translocation indicate that distinct properties of the nucleotide binding site per se are not essential for the TAP catalytic cycle.
Project description:Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) is characterized by radiation hypersensitivity, chromosomal instability, and predisposition to cancer. Nbs1, the NBS protein, forms a tight complex with Mre11 and Rad50, and these interactions contribute to proper double-strand break repair. The simian virus 40 (SV40) oncoprotein, large T antigen (T), also interacts with Nbs1, and T-containing cells experience chromosomal hyperreplication in a manner dependent on T/Nbs1 complex formation. A substantial fraction of NBS-deficient fibroblasts reinitiate DNA replication in discrete regions, and wild-type Nbs1 corrects this defect. Similarly, synthesis of an N-terminal Nbs1 fragment induced DNA rereplication and tetraploidy, in NBS-deficient but not NBS-proficient cells. Moreover, SV40 origin-containing DNA hyperreplicated in T-containing NBS-deficient cells by comparison with T-containing, Nbs1-reconstituted derivatives. Thus, Nbs1 suppresses rereplication of cellular DNA and SV40 origin-containing replicons, and T targets Nbs1, thereby enhancing the yield of new SV40 genomes during viral DNA replication.
Project description:ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are membrane-bound molecular pumps that form one of the largest of all protein families. Several of them are central to phenomena of biomedical interest, including cystic fibrosis and resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs. ABC transporters share a common architecture comprising two hydrophilic nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) and two hydrophobic transmembrane domains (TMDs) that form the substrate pathway across the membrane. The conformational changes in the NBDs induced by ATP hydrolysis and the means by which they are transmitted to the TMDs to effect substrate translocation remain largely unknown. We have performed a molecular dynamics simulation of HisP, the well studied NBD of the bacterial histidine permease, to identify hinges and switches of the NBD conformational transitions and subunit-subunit interfaces. This analysis reveals that the TMDs regulate ATP hydrolysis by controlling conformational transitions of the NBD helical domains, and identifies the conformational changes and the crucial TMD:NBD interface, by which the energy of ATP hydrolysis is transmitted to the TMDs. We also define the conformational transitions of the Q-loop, a key element of the NBD mechanism, and identify pathways by which Q-loop switching is coordinated with TMD and NBD conformational changes. We propose a model for the catalytic cycle of ABC transporters that shows how substrate-binding and transport by the TMDs may be coordinated and coupled with ATP binding and hydrolysis in the NBDs.
Project description:Nitric oxide (NO) is an important regulator of renal transport processes. In the present study, we investigated the role of NO, produced by inducible NO synthase (iNOS), in the regulation of renal ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in vivo during endotoxemia. Wistar-Hannover rats were injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS(+)) alone or in combination with the iNOS inhibitor, aminoguanidine. Controls received detoxified LPS (LPS(-)). After LPS(+), proximal tubular damage and a reduction in renal function were observed. Furthermore, iNOS mRNA and protein, and the amount of NO metabolites in plasma and urine, increased compared to the LPS(-) group. Coadministration with aminoguanidine resulted in an attenuation of iNOS induction and reduction of renal damage. Gene expression of 20 ABC transporters was determined. After LPS(+), a clear up-regulation in Abca1, Abcb1/P-glycoprotein (P-gp), Abcb11/bile salt export pump (Bsep), and Abcc2/multidrug resistance protein (Mrp2) was found, whereas Abcc8 was down-regulated. Up-regulation of Abcc2/Mrp2 was accompanied by enhanced calcein excretion. Aminoguanidine attenuated the effects on transporter expression. Our data indicate that NO, produced locally by renal iNOS, regulates the expression of ABC transporters in vivo. Furthermore, we showed, for the first time, expression and subcellular localization of Abcb11/Bsep in rat kidney.
Project description:Heterochromatin Protein 1 (HP1) and the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) complex are conserved factors that play crucial role in genome stability and integrity. Despite their involvement in overlapping cellular functions, ranging from chromatin organization, telomere maintenance to DNA replication and repair, a tight functional relationship between HP1 and the MRN complex has never been elucidated. Here we show that the Drosophila HP1a protein binds to the MRN complex through its chromoshadow domain (CSD). In addition, loss of any of the MRN members reduces HP1a levels indicating that the MRN complex acts as regulator of HP1a stability. Moreover, overexpression of HP1a in nbs (but not in rad50 or mre11) mutant cells drastically reduces DNA damage associated with the loss of Nbs suggesting that HP1a and Nbs work in concert to maintain chromosome integrity in flies. We have also found that human HP1? and NBS1 interact with each other and that, similarly to Drosophila, siRNA-mediated inhibition of NBS1 reduces HP1? levels in human cultured cells. Surprisingly, fibroblasts from Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome (NBS) patients, carrying the 657del5 hypomorphic mutation in NBS1 and expressing the p26 and p70 NBS1 fragments, accumulate HP1? indicating that, differently from NBS1 knockout cells, the presence of truncated NBS1 extends HP1? turnover and/or promotes its stability. Remarkably, an siRNA-mediated reduction of HP1? in NBS fibroblasts decreases the hypersensitivity to irradiation, a characteristic of the NBS syndrome. Overall, our data provide an unanticipated evidence of a close interaction between HP1 and NBS1 that is essential for genome stability and point up HP1? as a potential target to counteract chromosome instability in NBS patient cells.