Chemical Characterization of Nanoparticles and Volatiles Present in Mainstream Hookah Smoke.
ABSTRACT: Waterpipe smoking is becoming more popular worldwide and there is a pressing need to better characterize the exposure of smokers to chemical compounds present in the mainstream smoke. We report real-time measurements of mainstream smoke for carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds and nanoparticle size distribution and chemical composition using a custom dilution flow tube. A conventional tobacco mixture, a dark leaf unwashed tobacco and a nicotine-free herbal tobacco were studied. Results show that carbon monoxide is present in the mainstream smoke and originates primarily from the charcoal used to heat the tobacco. Online measurements of volatile organic compounds in mainstream smoke showed an overwhelming contribution from glycerol. Gas phase analysis also showed that very little filtration of the gas phase products is provided by the percolation of mainstream smoke through water. Waterpipe smoking generated high concentrations of 4-100 nm nanoparticles, which were mainly composed of sugar derivatives and especially abundant in the first 10 min of the smoking session. These measured emissions of volatiles and particles are compared with those from a reference cigarette (3R4F) and represent the equivalent of the emission of one or more entire cigarettes for a single puff of hookah smoke. Considerations related to the health impacts of waterpipe smoking are discussed.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>We examined mainstream total particulate matter, nicotine, cotinine, menthol, pyrene, carbon monoxide (CO) and semivolatile furan yields from a commercial waterpipe with two methods for heating the tobacco, quick-light charcoal (charcoal) and electric head (electric) and two water bowl preparations: with (ice) and without ice (water).<h4>Methods</h4>Emissions from a single brand of popular waterpipe tobacco (10 g) were generated using machine smoking according to a two-stage puffing regimen developed from human puffing topography. Tobacco and charcoal consumption were calculated for each machine smoking session as mass lost, expressed as a fraction of presmoking mass.<h4>Results</h4>The heating method had the greatest effect on toxicant yields. Electric heating resulted in increases in the fraction of tobacco consumed (2.4 times more, p<0.0001), mainstream nicotine (1.4 times higher, p=0.002) and semivolatile furan yields (1.4 times higher, p<0.03), and a decrease in mainstream CO and pyrene yields (8.2 and 2.1 times lower, respectively, p<0.001) as compared with charcoal. Adding ice to the bowl resulted in higher furan yields for electric heating. Menthol yields were not different across the four conditions and averaged 0.16±0.03 mg/session. 2-Furaldehyde and 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furaldehyde yields were up to 230 and 3900 times higher, respectively, than those reported for cigarettes.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Waterpipe components used to heat the tobacco and water bowl preparation can significantly affect mainstream toxicant yields. Mainstream waterpipe tobacco smoke is a significant source of inhalation exposure to semivolatile furans with human carcinogenic and mutagenic potential. These data highlight the need for acute and chronic inhalation toxicity data for semivolatile furans and provide support for the establishment of limits governing sugar additives in waterpipe tobacco and educational campaigns linking waterpipe tobacco smoking behaviours with their associated harm.
Project description:In this study 11 commercial roll-your-own (RYO) tobacco brands sold in Spain and the reference tobacco 3R4F have been smoked and several components of the mainstream tobacco smoke have been analyzed. Cigarettes were prepared using commercial tubes, and were smoked under smoking conditions based on the ISO 3308. The gaseous and condensed fractions of the smoke from RYO brands and 3R4F have been analyzed and compared. RYO tobaccos, as opposed to 3R4F, present lower amounts of condensed products in the traps than in the filters. In general, RYO tobaccos also provide lower yields of most of the compounds detected in the gas fraction. The yield of CO is between 15.4 and 20.4 mg/cigarette. In most of the cases studied, RYO tobaccos deliver higher amounts of nicotine than the 3R4F tobacco. On average, the yield of the different chemical families of compounds appearing in the particulate matter retained in the cigarette filters tends to be around three times higher than those obtained from 3R4F, whereas similar values have been obtained in the particulate matter retained in the traps located after the filters. It can be concluded that RYO tobaccos are not less hazardous than the reference tobacco, which may be contrary to popular belief.
Project description:A significant portion of the increased risk of cancer and respiratory disease from exposure to cigarette smoke is attributed to volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In this study, 21 VOCs were quantified in mainstream cigarette smoke from 50U.S. domestic brand varieties that included high market share brands and 2 Kentucky research cigarettes (3R4F and 1R5F).Mainstream smoke was generated under ISO 3308 and Canadian Intense (CI) smoking protocols with linear smoking machines with a gas sampling bag collection followed by solid phase microextraction/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME/GC/MS) analysis.For both protocols, mainstream smoke VOC amounts among the different brand varieties were strongly correlated between the majority of the analytes. Overall, Pearson correlation (r) ranged from 0.68 to 0.99 for ISO and 0.36 to 0.95 for CI. However, monoaromatic compounds were found to increase disproportionately compared to unsaturated, nitro, and carbonyl compounds under the CI smoking protocol where filter ventilation is blocked.Overall, machine generated "vapor phase" amounts (µg/cigarette) are primarily attributed to smoking protocol (e.g., blocking of vent holes, puff volume, and puff duration) and filter ventilation. A possible cause for the disproportionate increase in monoaromatic compounds could be increased pyrolysis under low oxygen conditions associated with the CI protocol.This is the most comprehensive assessment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in cigarette smoke to date, encompassing 21 toxic VOCs, 50 different cigarette brand varieties, and 2 different machine smoking protocols (ISO and CI). For most analytes relative proportions remain consistent among U.S. cigarette brand varieties regardless of smoking protocol, however the CI smoking protocol did cause up to a factor of 6 increase in the proportion of monoaromatic compounds. This study serves as a basis to assess VOC exposure as cigarette smoke is a principle source of overall population-level VOC exposure in the United States.
Project description:Waterpipe tobacco smoking is increasing in popularity though the toxicant exposure and effects associated with this tobacco use method are not well understood.Sixty-one waterpipe tobacco smokers (56 males; mean age +/- SD, 30.9 +/- 9.5 years; mean number of weekly waterpipe smoking episodes, 7.8 +/- 5.7; mean duration of waterpipe smoking 8.5 +/- 6.1 years) abstained from smoking for at least 24 hr and then smoked tobacco from a waterpipe ad libitum in a laboratory. Before and after smoking, expired-air carbon monoxide (CO) and subjective effects were assessed; puff topography was measured during smoking.The mean waterpipe use episode duration was 33.1 +/- 13.1 min. Expired-air CO increased significantly from a mean of 4.0 +/- 1.7 before to 35.5 +/- 32.7 after smoking. On average, participants took 169 +/- 100 puffs, with a mean puff volume of 511 +/- 333 ml. Urge to smoke, restlessness, craving, and other tobacco abstinence symptoms were reduced significantly after smoking, while ratings of dizzy, lightheaded, and other direct effects of nicotine increased.Expired-air CO and puff topography data indicate that, relative to a single cigarette, a single waterpipe tobacco smoking episode is associated with greater smoke exposure. Abstinent waterpipe tobacco smokers report symptoms similar to those reported by abstinent cigarette smokers, and these symptoms are reduced by subsequent waterpipe tobacco smoking. Taken together, these data are consistent with the notion that waterpipe tobacco smoking is likely associated with the risk of tobacco/nicotine dependence.
Project description:Waterpipe smoking has been growing in popularity in the United States and worldwide. Most tobacco control regulations remain limited to cigarettes. Few studies have investigated waterpipe tobacco smoke exposures in a real world setting. We measured carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matter (PM)2.5, and airborne nicotine concentrations in seven waterpipe cafes in the greater Baltimore area. Area air samples were collected between two and five hours, with an average sampling duration of three hours. Waterpipe smoking behaviors were observed at each venue. Indoor air samplers for CO, PM2.5, and airborne nicotine were placed in the main seating area 1-2?m above the floor. Indoor airborne concentrations of PM2.5 and CO were markedly elevated in waterpipe cafes and exceeded concentrations that were observed in cigarette smoking bars. Air nicotine concentrations, although not as high as in venues that allow cigarette smoking, were markedly higher than in smoke-free bars and restaurants. Concentrations of PM approached occupational exposure limits and CO exceeded occupational exposure guidelines suggesting that worker protection measures need to be considered. This study adds to the literature indicating that both employees and patrons of waterpipe venues are at increased risk from complex exposures to secondhand waterpipe smoke.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:The World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco control recognizes the need for tobacco product regulation. In line with that, the WHO Study Group on Tobacco Product Regulation (TobReg) proposed to regulate nine toxicants in mainstream cigarette smoke, including aldehydes, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and carbon monoxide (CO). We analyzed their relations in 50 commercially available cigarette brands, using two different smoking regimes, and their dependence on sugar and humectant concentrations in tobacco filler. METHODS:We measured sugar and humectant in tobacco filler and aldehydes, VOCs, and tar, nicotine, and CO (TNCO) in mainstream smoke. The general statistics, correlations between emission yields, and correlations between contents and emissions yields were determined for these data. RESULTS:For aldehydes, several significant correlations were found with precursor ingredients in unburnt tobacco when smoked with the Intense regime, most prominently for formaldehyde with sucrose, glucose, total sugars, and glycerol. For VOCs, 2,5-dimethylfuran significantly correlates with several sugars under both International Standards Organization (ISO) and Intense smoking conditions. A correlation network visualization shows connectivity between a sugar cluster, an ISO cluster, and an Intense cluster, with Intense formaldehyde as a central highest connected hub. CONCLUSIONS:Our multivariate analysis showed several strong connections between the compounds determined. The toxicants proposed by WHO, in particular, formaldehyde, can be used to monitor yields of other toxicants under Intense conditions. Emissions of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and 2,5-dimethylfuran may decrease when sugar and humectants contents are lowered in tobacco filler. IMPLICATIONS:Our findings suggest that the aldehydes and VOCs proposed by TobReg are a representative selection for smoke component market monitoring purposes. In particular, formaldehyde yields may be useful to monitor emissions of other toxicants under Intense conditions. Since the most and strongest correlations were observed with the Intense regime, policymakers are advised to prescribe this regime for regulatory purposes. Policymakers should also consider sugars and humectants contents as targets for future tobacco product regulations, with the additional advantage that consumer acceptance of cigarette smoke is proportional to their concentrations in the tobacco blend.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:We examined two waterpipe tobacco smoking components advertised to reduce harm to determine if they result in lower levels of biomarkers of acute exposure. METHODS:We conducted a crossover study of 34 experienced waterpipe smokers smoking a research-grade waterpipe in three configurations ad libitum in a controlled chamber: control (quick-light charcoal), electric (electric heating) and bubble diffuser (quick-light charcoal and bubble diffuser). We collected data on smoking topography, environmental carbon monoxide (CO), subjective effects, heart rate, plasma nicotine and exhaled CO and benzene. RESULTS:Smokers' mean plasma nicotine, heart rate, and exhaled benzene and CO boost were all significantly lower for electric compared with control. However, smokers puffed more intensely and took significantly more and larger volume puffs for a larger total puffing volume (2.0 times larger, p<0.0001) when smoking electric; machine yields indicate this was likely due to lower mainstream nicotine. Smokers rated electric smoking experience less satisfying and less pleasant. For charcoal heating, the mean mass of CO emitted into the chamber was ~1?g when participants smoked for a mean of 32?minutes at a typical residential ventilation rate (2.3?hr-1). CONCLUSION:Waterpipe smokers engaged in compensation (i.e., increased and more intense puffing) to make up for decreased mainstream nicotine delivery from the same tobacco heated two ways. Waterpipe components can affect human puffing behaviours, exposures and subjective effects. Evidence reported here supports regulation of waterpipe components, smoking bans in multifamily housing and the use of human studies to evaluate modified or reduced risk claims.
Project description:Objective:Our objective was to characterize physical properties and semivolatile harmful and potentially harmful constituent yields in the mainstream smoke (MSS) of 4 popular little cigars compared to the 3R4F reference cigarette. Methods:We used the ISO and Canadian Intense Regimen protocols to generate MSS for Cheyenne (Full Flavor and Menthol) and Swisher Sweets (Original and Sweet Cherry) little cigars; and the 3R4F. We examined physical properties such as length, tobacco filler mass, pressure drop, and ventilation for each product. Nicotine, benzo[a]pyrene, and tobacco-specific nitrosamine (TSNA) yields were determined in the MSS. Results:Little cigars were longer (~15mm), contained more tobacco filler (100-200 mg), and had a higher pressure drop (~1.3X) compared to the 3R4F. Ventilation holes were found only on the filter paper of the 3R4F. Nicotine transmitted to the MSS was similar for all products under the intense smoking protocol. The highest yields of TSNAs and benzo(a)pyrene were measured for the little cigars. Conclusions:Little cigars may deliver similar levels of nicotine but higher levels of carcinogens to the MSS compared to cigarettes. Thus, previous reports on the toxicity of tobacco smoke based on cigarettes might not apply to little cigar products.
Project description:Aerosols from electronic cigarettes and heat-not-burn tobacco products have been found to contain lower levels of almost all compounds from the list of Harmful and Potentially Harmful Constituents known to be present in tobacco products and tobacco smoke than smoke from conventional cigarettes. Free radicals, which also pose potential health risks, are not considered in this list, and their levels in the different product types have not yet been compared under standardized conditions. We compared the type and quantity of free radicals in mainstream aerosol of 3R4F research cigarettes, two types of electronic cigarettes, and a heat-not-burn tobacco product. Free radicals and NO in the gas phases were separately spin trapped and quantified by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy by using a smoking machine for aerosol generation and a flow-through cell to enhance reproducibility of the quantification. Particulate matter was separated by a Cambridge filter and extracted, and persistent radicals were quantified by EPR spectroscopy. Levels of organic radicals for electronic cigarettes and the heat-not-burn product, as measured with the PBN spin trap, did not exceed 1% of the level observed for conventional cigarettes and were close to the radical level observed in air blanks. The radicals found in the smoke of conventional cigarettes were oxygen centered, most probably alkoxy radicals, whereas a signal for carbon-centered radicals near the detection limit was observed in aerosol from the heat-not-burn product and electronic cigarettes. The NO level in aerosol produced by electronic cigarettes was below our detection limit, whereas for the heat-not-burn product, it reached about 7% of the level observed for whole smoke from 3R4F cigarettes. Persistent radicals in particulate matter could be quantified only for 3R4F cigarettes. Aerosols from vaping and heat-not-burn tobacco products have much lower free radical levels than cigarette smoke, however, the toxicological implications of this finding are as yet unknown.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Few studies have comprehensively characterized toxic chemicals related to waterpipe use and secondhand waterpipe exposure. This cross-sectional study investigated biomarkers of toxicants associated with waterpipe use and passive waterpipe exposure among employees at waterpipe venues. METHOD:We collected urine specimens from employees in waterpipe venues from Istanbul, Turkey and Moscow, Russia, and identified waterpipe and cigarette smoking status based on self-report. The final sample included 110 employees. Biomarkers of exposure to sixty chemicals (metals, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nicotine, and heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCAAs)) were quantified in the participants' urine. RESULTS:Participants who reported using waterpipe had higher urinary manganese (geometric mean ratio (GMR): 2.42, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16, 5.07) than never/former waterpipe or cigarette smokers. Being exposed to more hours of secondhand smoke from waterpipes was associated with higher concentrations of cobalt (GMR: 1.38, 95% CI: 1.10, 1.75). Participants involved in lighting waterpipes had higher urinary cobalt (GMR: 1.43, 95% CI: 1.10, 1.86), cesium (GMR: 1.21, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.48), molybdenum (GMR: 1.45, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.93), 1-hydroxypyrene (GMR: 1.36, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.80), and several VOC metabolites. CONCLUSION:Waterpipe tobacco users and nonsmoking employees of waterpipe venues had higher urinary concentrations of several toxic metals including manganese and cobalt as well as of VOCs, in a distinct signature compared to cigarette smoke. Employees involved in lighting waterpipes may have higher exposure to multiple toxic chemicals compared to other employees.