Japanese Encephalitis Virus Vaccination Elicits Cross-Reactive HLA-Class I-Restricted CD8 T Cell Response Against Zika Virus Infection.
ABSTRACT: Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) exposure or vaccination could elicit cross-reactive CD8 T cell immunity against heterologous flaviviruses in humans. In addition, cross-reactive CD8 T cells induced by dengue virus (DENV) have been shown to play a protective role against Zika virus (ZIKV). However, how JEV exposure or vaccination affects ZIKV infection in humans remains unclear. In this report, epitope prediction algorithms were used to predict the cross-reactive CD8 T cell epitope restricted to human HLA between JEV and ZIKV. We found that these predicted CD8 T cell epitopes are immunogenic and cross-reactive in humanized HLA transgenic mice. Moreover, JEV vaccine immunization provided cross-protection against ZIKV infection. Furthermore, CD8 T cells were involved in the protection against ZKIV infection in vivo. Our results have an important clinical implication that vaccination with JEV SA14-14-2 may provide protection against ZIKV infection in humans.
Project description:Cross-reactive anti-flaviviral immunity can influence the outcome of infections with heterologous flaviviruses. However, it is unclear how the interplay between cross-reactive antibodies and T cells tilts the balance toward pathogenesis versus protection during secondary Zika virus (ZIKV) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infections. We show that sera and IgG from JEV-vaccinated humans and JEV-inoculated mice cross-reacted with ZIKV, exacerbated lethal ZIKV infection upon transfer to mice, and promoted viral replication and mortality upon ZIKV infection of the neonates born to immune mothers. In contrast, transfer of CD8+ T cells from JEV-exposed mice was protective, reducing the viral burden and mortality of ZIKV-infected mice and abrogating the lethal effects of antibody-mediated enhancement of ZIKV infection in mice. Conversely, cross-reactive anti-ZIKV antibodies or CD8+ T cells displayed the same pathogenic or protective effects upon JEV infection, with the exception that maternally acquired anti-ZIKV antibodies had no effect on JEV infection of the neonates. These results provide clues for developing safe anti-JEV/ZIKV vaccines.
Project description:Zika virus (ZIKV) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) are closely related to mosquito-borne flaviviruses. Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccine SA14-14-2 has been in the Chinese national Expanded Program on Immunization since 2007. The recent recognition of severe disease syndromes associated with ZIKV, and the identification of ZIKV from mosquitoes in China, prompts an urgent need to investigate the potential interaction between the two. In this study, we showed that SA14-14-2 is protective against ZIKV infection in mice. JE vaccine SA14-14-2 triggered both Th1 and Th2 cross-reactive immune responses to ZIKV; however, it was cellular immunity that predominantly mediated cross-protection against ZIKV infection. Passive transfer of immune sera did not result in significant cross-protection but did mediate antibody-dependent enhancement in vitro, though this did not have an adverse impact on survival. This study suggests that the SA14-14-2 vaccine can protect against ZIKV through a cross-reactive T cell response. This is vital information in terms of ZIKV prevention or precaution in those ZIKV-affected regions where JEV circulates or SA14-14-2 is in widespread use, and opens a promising avenue to develop a novel bivalent vaccine against both ZIKV and JEV. KEY POINTS: • JEV SA14-14-2 vaccine conferred cross-protection against ZIKV challenge in mice. • T cell immunity rather than antibody mediated the cross-protection. • It provides important information in terms of ZIKV prevention or precaution.
Project description:Zika virus (ZIKV) and dengue virus (DENV) are antigenically related flaviviruses that share cross-reactivity in antibody and T cell responses, and co-circulate in increasing numbers of countries. Whether pre-existing DENV immunity can cross-protect or enhance ZIKV infection during sequential infection of the same host is unknown. Here, we show that DENV-immune Ifnar1 <sup>-/-</sup> or wild-type C57BL/6 mice infected with ZIKV have cross-reactive immunity to subsequent ZIKV infection and pathogenesis. Adoptive transfer and cell depletion studies demonstrate that DENV-immune CD8<sup>+</sup> T cells predominantly mediate cross-protective responses to ZIKV. In contrast, passive transfer studies suggest that DENV-immune serum does not protect against ZIKV infection. Thus, CD8<sup>+</sup> T cell immunity generated during primary DENV infection can confer protection against secondary ZIKV infection in mice. Further optimization of current DENV vaccines for T cell responses might confer cross-protection and prevent antibody-mediated enhancement of ZIKV infection.
Project description:The epidemic spread of Zika virus (ZIKV), associated with devastating neurologic syndromes, has driven the development of multiple ZIKV vaccines candidates. An effective vaccine should induce ZIKV-specific T cell responses, which are shown to improve the establishment of humoral immunity and contribute to viral clearance. Here we investigated how previous immunization against Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and yellow fever virus (YFV) influences T cell responses elicited by a Zika purified-inactivated virus (ZPIV) vaccine. We demonstrate that three doses of ZPIV vaccine elicited robust CD4 T cell responses to ZIKV structural proteins, while ZIKV-specific CD4 T cells in pre-immunized individuals with JEV vaccine, but not YFV vaccine, were more durable and directed predominantly toward conserved epitopes, which elicited Th1 and Th2 cytokine production. In addition, T cell receptor repertoire analysis revealed preferential expansion of cross-reactive clonotypes between JEV and ZIKV, suggesting that pre-existing immunity against JEV may prime the establishment of stronger CD4 T cell responses to ZPIV vaccination. These CD4 T cell responses correlated with titers of ZIKV-neutralizing antibodies in the JEV pre-vaccinated group, but not in flavivirus-naïve or YFV pre-vaccinated individuals, suggesting a stronger contribution of CD4 T cells in the generation of neutralizing antibodies in the context of JEV-ZIKV cross-reactivity.
Project description:How previous immunity influences immune memory recall and protection against related flaviviruses is largely unknown, yet encounter with multiple flaviviruses in a lifetime is increasingly likely. Using sequential challenges with dengue virus (DENV), yellow fever virus (YFV), and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), we induced cross-reactive cellular and humoral immunity among flaviviruses from differing serocomplexes. Antibodies against JEV enhanced DENV replication; however, JEV immunity was protective in vivo during secondary DENV1 infection, promoting rapid gains in antibody avidity. Mechanistically, JEV immunity activated dendritic cells and effector memory T cells, which developed a T follicular helper cell phenotype in draining lymph nodes upon secondary DENV1 infection. We identified cross-reactive epitopes that promote recall from a pool of flavivirus serocomplex cross-reactive memory CD4 T cells and confirmed that a similar serocomplex cross-reactive immunity occurs in humans. These results show that sequential immunizations for flaviviruses sharing CD4 epitopes should promote protection during a subsequent heterologous infection.
Project description:As Zika virus (ZIKV) emerges into Dengue virus (DENV)-endemic areas, cases of ZIKV infection in DENV-immune pregnant women may rise. Here we show that prior DENV immunity affects maternal and fetal ZIKV infection in pregnancy using sequential DENV and ZIKV infection models. Fetuses in ZIKV-infected DENV-immune dams were normal sized, whereas fetal demise occurred in non-immune dams. Moreover, reduced ZIKV RNA is present in the placenta and fetuses of ZIKV-infected DENV-immune dams. DENV cross-reactive CD8<sup>+</sup> T cells expand in the maternal spleen and decidua of ZIKV-infected dams, their depletion increases ZIKV infection in the placenta and fetus, and results in fetal demise. The inducement of cross-reactive CD8<sup>+</sup> T cells via peptide immunization or adoptive transfer results in decreased ZIKV infection in the placenta. Prior DENV immunity can protect against ZIKV infection during pregnancy in mice, and CD8<sup>+</sup> T cells are sufficient for this cross-protection. This has implications for understanding the natural history of ZIKV in DENV-endemic areas and the development of optimal ZIKV vaccines.
Project description:CD8+ T cells play an important role in controlling Flavivirus infection, including Zika virus (ZIKV). Here, we have identified 25 HLA-B*0702-restricted epitopes and 1 HLA-A*0101-restricted epitope using interferon (IFN)-? enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) and intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) in ZIKV-infected IFN-?/? receptor-deficient HLA transgenic mice. The cross-reactivity of ZIKV epitopes to dengue virus (DENV) was tested using IFN-?-ELISPOT and IFN-?-ICS on CD8+ T cells from DENV-infected mice, and five cross-reactive HLA-B*0702-binding peptides were identified by both assays. ZIKV/DENV cross-reactive CD8+ T cells in DENV-immune mice expanded post ZIKV challenge and dominated in the subsequent CD8+ T cell response. ZIKV challenge following immunization of mice with ZIKV-specific and ZIKV/DENV cross-reactive epitopes elicited CD8+ T cell responses that reduced infectious ZIKV levels, and CD8+ T cell depletions confirmed that CD8+ T cells mediated this protection. These results identify ZIKV-specific and ZIKV/DENV cross-reactive epitopes and demonstrate both an altered immunodominance pattern in the DENV-immune setting relative to naive, as well as a protective role for epitope-specific CD8+ T cells against ZIKV. These results have important implications for ZIKV vaccine development and provide a mouse model for evaluating anti-ZIKV CD8+ T cell responses of human relevance.
Project description:Memory cross-reactive CD8+ T-cell responses may induce protection or immunopathology upon secondary viral challenge. To elucidate the potential role of T cells in sequential flavivirus infection, we characterized cross-reactive CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses between attenuated and pathogenic Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and pathogenic West Nile virus (WNV). A previously reported WNV NS4b CD8+ T-cell epitope and its JEV variant elicited CD8+ T-cell responses in both JEV- and WNV-infected mice. The peptide variant homologous to the immunizing virus induced greater cytokine secretion and activated higher frequencies of epitope-specific CD8+ T cells. However, there was a virus-dependent, peptide variant-independent pattern of cytokine secretion; the IFNgamma+-to-IFNgamma+TNFalpha+ CD8+ T-cell ratio was greater in JEV- than in WNV-infected mice. Despite similarities in viral burden for pathogenic WNV and JEV viruses, CD8+ T cells from pathogenic JEV-immunized mice exhibited functional and phenotypic profiles similar to those seen for the attenuated JEV strain. Patterns of killer cell lectin-like receptor G1 (KLRG1) and CD127 expression differed by virus type, with a rapid expansion and contraction of short-lived effector cells in JEV infection and persistence of high levels of short-lived effector cells in WNV infection. Such cross-reactive T-cell responses to primary infection may affect the outcomes of sequential flavivirus infections.
Project description:Zika virus (ZIKV), a flavivirus with homology to dengue virus (DENV), is spreading to areas of DENV hyper-endemicity. Heterologous T cell immunity, whereby virus-specific memory T cells are activated by variant peptides derived from a different virus, can lead to enhanced viral clearance or diminished protective immunity and altered immunopathology. In mice, CD8+ T cells specific for DENV provide in vivo protective efficacy against subsequent ZIKV infection. In humans, contrasting studies report complete absence or varying degrees of DENV/ZIKV T cell cross-reactivity. Moreover, the impact of cross-reactive T cell recognition on the anti-viral capacity of T cells remains unclear. Here, we show that DENV-specific memory T cells display robust cross-reactive recognition of ZIKV NS3 ex vivo and after in vitro expansion in respectively n = 7/10 and n = 9/9 dengue-immune individuals tested. In contrast, cross-reactivity toward ZIKV capsid is low or absent. Cross-reactive recognition of DENV or ZIKV NS3 peptides elicits similar production of the anti-viral effector mediators IFN-?, TNF-?, and CD107a. We identify 9 DENV/ZIKV cross-reactive epitopes, 7 of which are CD4+ and 2 are CD8+ T cell epitopes. We also show that cross-reactive CD4+ and CD8+ T cells targeting novel NS3 epitopes display anti-viral effector potential toward ZIKV-infected cells, with CD8+ T cells mediating direct lyses of these cells. Our results demonstrate that DENV NS3-specific memory T cells display anti-viral effector capacity toward ZIKV, suggesting a potential beneficial effect in humans of pre-existing T cell immunity to DENV upon ZIKV infection.
Project description:Dengue viruses (DENVs) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) are closely related mosquito-borne flaviviruses that cause very high global disease burdens. Although cross-reactivity and cross-protection within flaviviruses have been demonstrated, the effect of JEV vaccination on susceptibility to DENV infection has not been well elucidated. In this study, we found that vaccination with the JEV inactivated vaccine (INV) and live attenuated vaccine (LAV) could induce cross-immune responses and cross-protection against DENV1-4 in mice. Despite the theoretical risk of immune enhancement, no increased mortality was observed in our mouse model. Additionally, low but consistently detectable cross-neutralizing antibodies against DENV2 and DENV3 were also observed in the sera of JEV vaccine-immunized human donors. The results suggested that both JEV-LAV and JEV-INV could elicit strong cross-immunity and protection against DENVs, indicating that inoculation with JEV vaccines may influence the distribution of DENVs in co-circulated areas and that the cross-protection induced by JEV vaccines against DENVs might provide important information in terms of DENV prevention.