Increased Healthcare Resource Utilization and Direct and Indirect Costs in Patients with Depression and Comorbid Overactive Bladder: Evidence From a Retrospective, Matched Case-Control Cohort Analysis.
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION:This study sought to compare healthcare resource utilization (HCRU), costs, and workplace productivity among patients with depression, with and without overactive bladder (OAB). METHODS:This retrospective, case-control cohort analysis compares HCRU, costs, and workplace productivity among propensity score matched patients with depression and OAB (case cohort) and patients with depression without OAB (control cohort). Patients were aged 18 years or older, insured/on Medicare, and had diagnosed depression and an antidepressant medication claim pre index. First OAB-related event was index for cases; controls were assigned a proxy (study period 12 months). Comparisons of HCRU and costs and regression models assessed the relationship between OAB and costs. For the workplace productivity subset analyses cases and controls were balanced on baseline covariates for the short-term disability analyses but as they were unbalanced for the absentee analyses, multivariate regression analyses were used for this subset. RESULTS:The study criteria were met by 39,085 cases and 308,736 controls, from which, 37,997 patients were successfully matched 1:1 (mean age 55 years; 81% female). Most depression-related HCRU measures were similar across cohorts; however, outpatient visits, ER visits, and number of unique depression medications were significantly higher (all p?
Project description:Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms have a substantial effect on quality of life (QoL). We report QoL and mental health results from a LUTS prevalence study in three Asian countries.A cross-sectional, population-representative, internet-based study among individuals aged ?40 years in China, Taiwan and South Korea. Instruments included: Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS); International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS); other International Continence Society (ICS) symptom questions; health-related QoL 12-item short-form (HRQoL-SF12v2); Work Limitations Questionnaire (WLQ); Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Presence of LUTS was determined according to ICS criteria, with three symptom groups (storage, voiding and post-micturition). Post-stratification weighting matched the age and sex population distribution per country. Initial data analyses were based on descriptive statistics. Significance testing undertaken post hoc included: independent-samples t-test (differences in HRQoL between sexes and between individuals with/without LUTS; relationship between HRQoL score and OABSS; differences in HADS anxiety and depression scores between individuals with/without LUTS; association between HADS anxiety/depression scores and OABSS), chi-square test (association between LUTS prevalence and workplace productivity) and analysis of variance (differences in HRQoL score and in HADS anxiety/depression scores between individuals with different symptom groups, association between HADS anxiety/depression scores and IPSS).In total, 8284 participants were included. HRQoL scores were significantly worse (p < 0.001) among individuals with versus without LUTS (ICS criteria): mean physical health domain scores were 61.1 (standard deviation [SD], 20.1) and 76.7 (17.0), respectively; corresponding mental health domain scores were 34.8 (12.7) and 43.7 (10.7). Workplace productivity was best among individuals without LUTS (difficulties reported by 2-3% of individuals), and worst in those with all three ICS symptom groups (difficulties reported by 29-38% of individuals; p = 0.001). Mean HADS scores showed significantly worse (p < 0.001) levels of anxiety and depression among individuals with versus without LUTS: anxiety, 6.5 (SD, 3.7) and 4.0 (3.3); corresponding mean depression scores were 6.8 (4.3) and 4.2 (3.6). Increasing OAB severity was also associated with decreasing HRQoL physical and mental health scores.LUTS and increasing OAB severity are both associated with impaired QoL, reduced workplace productivity, and increased tendency towards anxiety and depression. These results highlight the need to ensure that individuals with LUTS receive appropriate, effective treatment.ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02618421 , registered 26 November 2015 (retrospectively registered).
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Policy makers require evidence-based estimates of the economic costs of substance use-attributable lost productivity to set strategies aimed at reducing substance use-related harms. Building on a study by Rehm et al. (2006), we provide estimates of workplace costs using updated methods and data sources.<h4>Methods</h4>We estimated substance use-attributable productivity losses due to premature mortality, long-term disability, and presenteeism/absenteeism in Canada between 2007 and 2014. Lost productivity was estimated using a hybrid prevalence and incidence approach. Substance use prevalence data were drawn from three national self-report surveys. Premature mortality data were from the Canadian Vital Statistics Death Database, and long-term disability and workplace interference data were from the Canadian Community Health Survey.<h4>Results</h4>In 2014, the total cost of lost productivity due to substance use was $15.7 billion, or approximately $440 per Canadian, an increase of 8% from 2007. Substances responsible for the greatest economic costs were alcohol (38% of per capita costs), tobacco (37%), opioids (12%), other central nervous system (CNS) depressants (4%), other CNS stimulants (3%), cannabis (2%), cocaine (2%), and finally other psychoactive substances (2%).<h4>Conclusion</h4>In 2014, alcohol and tobacco represent three quarters of substance use-related lost productivity costs in Canada, followed by opioids. These costs provide a valuable baseline that can be used to assess the impact of future substance use policy, practice, and other interventions, especially important given Canada's opioid crisis and recent cannabis legalization.
Project description:Aims:Hypoglycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with poor health outcomes, such as reduced health-related quality of life (HRQoL). This study aimed to assess the impact of hypoglycaemic events by severity on HRQoL, work productivity and healthcare costs in patients with T2DM. Materials and Methods:European patients with T2DM selected from the National Health and Wellness Survey who were currently receiving pharmacologic therapy were stratified into 3 groups based on the reported history and severity of hypoglycaemic events (no event, nonsevere, severe) experienced in the previous 3 months. Patients' work productivity, HRQoL, healthcare resource use (HCRU) and associated costs were assessed as self-reported outcomes. Results:Of 1269 patients included in the study, 652 (51.4%) patients had not experienced an event, while 533 (42.0%) and 84 (6.6%) patients had experienced nonsevere and severe hypoglycaemic events, respectively, in the previous 3 months. An increase in hypoglycaemia severity was associated with a decrease in HRQoL, and an increase in HCRU and healthcare costs. Conclusions:The impact of hypoglycaemia varies by severity and has a negative impact on HRQoL and overall HCRU and costs.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Comparative data on the burden of atopic dermatitis (AD) in adults relative to the general population are limited. We performed a large-scale evaluation of the burden of disease among US adults with AD relative to matched non-AD controls, encompassing comorbidities, healthcare resource utilization (HCRU), and costs, using healthcare claims data. The impact of AD disease severity on these outcomes was also evaluated.<h4>Methods</h4>Adult AD patients in the Commercial (n = 83,106), Medicare (n = 31,060), and Medi-Cal (n = 5550) databases were matched (1:1) to non-AD controls by demographic characteristics. AD patients were stratified by disease severity (higher, lower) using treatment as a surrogate measure of severity. The comorbidity burden, HCRU, and costs were evaluated during a 12-month follow-up period.<h4>Results</h4>In the Commercial, Medicare, and Medi-Cal populations, patients with AD had a significantly higher overall comorbidity burden (P < 0.0001), an increased risk of asthma and allergic rhinitis (both P < 0.0001), higher HCRU (P < 0.05), and higher mean total per patient costs (Commercial: US$10,461 versus US$7187; Medicare: US$16,914 versus US$13,714; Medi-Cal; US$19,462 versus US$10,408; all P < 0.0001), compared with matched non-AD controls. Higher disease severity was associated with an increased comorbidity burden (P < 0.0001), HCRU (P < 0.05), and total costs (Commercial: US$14,580 versus US$7192; Medicare: US$21,779 versus US$12,490; Medi-Cal; US$22,123 versus US$16,639; all P < 0.0001) relative to lower severity disease.<h4>Conclusion</h4>In this large-scale, healthcare claims database analysis, AD patients had a significantly higher comorbidity burden, HCRU, and costs compared with matched non-AD controls. Higher disease severity was associated with an even greater comorbidity and economic burden.<h4>Funding</h4>Sanofi and Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Project description:Occupational injuries and illnesses lead to significant health care costs and productivity losses for millions of workers each year. This study used national survey data to test for differences between members of minority groups and non-Hispanic white workers in the risk of workplace injuries and the prevalence of work-related disabilities. Non-Hispanic black workers and foreign-born Hispanic workers worked in jobs with the highest injury risk, on average, even after adjustment for education and sex. These elevated levels of workplace injury risk led to a significant increase in the prevalence of work-related disabilities for non-Hispanic black and foreign-born Hispanic workers. These findings suggest that disparities in economic opportunities expose members of minority groups to increased risk of workplace injury and disability.
Project description:Objectives: Emerging evidence indicates that alterations to the urinary microbiome are related to lower urinary tract symptoms. Overactive bladder (OAB) is a common disorder with complex etiologies and usually accompanied by psychological diseases. More information concerning the urinary microbiome and psychological factors in OAB is required. The aim of this study was to characterize the female urinary microbiome associated with OAB and investigate the relationships between urinary microbiome and psychological factors. Methods: Thirty women with OAB and 25 asymptomatic controls were recruited and asked to finish the Overactive Bladder Symptom Score, Self-Rating Anxiety Scale and Self-Rating Depression Scale. Urine specimens were collected by transurethral catheterization and processed for 16S rRNA gene sequencing using Illumina MiSeq. Sequencing reads were processed using QIIME. LEfSe revealed significant differences in bacterial genera between controls and OAB patients. The relationships between the diversity of the urinary microbiome and psychological scores were identified by Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: We found that bacterial diversity (Simpson index) and richness (Chao1) were lower in OAB samples compared to controls (P both = 0.038). OAB and control bacterial communities were significantly different (based on weighted UniFrac distance metric, R = 0.064, P = 0.037). LEfSe demonstrated that 7 genera were increased (e.g., Proteus and Aerococcus) and 13 were reduced (e.g., Lactobacillus and Prevotella) in OAB group compared to controls. There were negative correlations between scores on Self-Rating Depression Scale and both richness (Chao1, r = -0.458, P = 0.011) and diversity (Shannon index, r = -0.516, P = 0.003) of urinary microbiome in OAB group. Some bacterial genera of OAB women with anxiety or depression were significantly different from those without. Conclusions: The aberrant urinary microbiome with decreased diversity and richness may have strong implications in pathogenesis and treatment of OAB. Psychological conditions were correlated with characteristics of urinary microbiome in women with OAB. Further research is needed to understand the connection between central nervous system and urinary microbiome.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To investigate the relationship between sleep disturbance, fatigue, and urinary incontinence (UI) and overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms among patients with OAB. METHODS:Patients who were diagnosed with OAB and age-matched control subjects without OAB were enrolled. Sleep disturbance and fatigue symptoms were assessed using the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) short forms. UI and OAB symptoms were assessed using the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Urinary Incontinence (ICIQ-UI), the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Overactive Bladder (ICIQ-OAB), the Overactive Bladder Questionnaire (OAB-q), the Urogenital Distress Inventory Short Form (UDI-6), and the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire Short Form (IIQ-7). Psychosocial health (depression, anxiety, and perceived stress level) was also assessed. RESULTS:Patients with OAB reported a significantly greater sleep disturbance compared with controls (PROMIS 8b T-scores: 54.3?±?10.3 vs 43.8?±?9.2). Patients with OAB also reported a significantly greater fatigue compared with controls (PROMIS 7a T-scores: 54.7?±?9.6 vs 46.0?±?6.4). After adjusting for nocturia, the differences in sleep disturbance between OAB and controls became insignificant (P?=?.21), whereas the differences in fatigue between OAB and controls remained significant (P?=?.014). Among patients with OAB, there were positive correlations between sleep disturbance and the severity of OAB symptoms (ICIQ-OAB), poorer health-related quality of life (OAB-q QOL), the severity of UI symptoms (ICIQ-UI), greater incontinence impact (IIQ-7), and urinary bother (UDI-6). Positive correlations were also observed between fatigue and worse UI and OAB symptoms and quality of life. Both sleep disturbance and fatigue were associated with poor psychosocial health (depression, anxiety, and higher stress level) among patients with OAB. CONCLUSION:Sleep disturbance and fatigue are present in substantial percentages of patients with OAB. Among patients with OAB, sleep disturbance and fatigue were associated with more severe UI and OAB symptoms, worse health-related quality of life, and poorer psychosocial health.
Project description:Although the global economic burden of asthma is well described, detailed data regarding Asia, particularly for Japan, are relatively scarce. This retrospective study aims to fill this evidence gap by evaluating asthma-associated healthcare resource utilization (HCRU) and economic burden in Japanese patients aged ≥16 years, identified using anonymized patient data from the Japan Medical Data Center (JMDC) database from April 2009 to March 2015. Asthma severity was classified according to asthma treatment guidelines from the Japanese Society of Allergology. HCRU was calculated based on hospitalizations, emergency room visits, outpatient visits, and prescriptions. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for HCRU and per-patient-per-year direct costs were reported. In addition, differences across HCRU and cost variables for severe versus non-severe asthma patients were also compared. Of 541,434 asthma cases identified from the JMDC database during the study period, 54,433 patients who met the inclusion criteria were included in this analysis. HCRU and costs were heavily concentrated within severe asthma, a subgroup comprising 12.7% of total study population. Moreover, patients with severe asthma had significantly higher all-cause hospitalizations, outpatient visits, outpatient prescriptions (IRR [95% CI], 1.60 [1.46-1.76]; 1.43 [1.41-1.45]; 1.24 [1.22-1.25], respectively), and total medical costs (mean ± SD costs, US$ 4345 ± 11,104 versus US$ 1528 ± 3989, P < 0.001 (t-test); US$ 1 = 110 JPY) compared with those with non-severe asthma. The burden of asthma is significantly and disproportionately concentrated in Japanese severe asthma patients, suggesting clinical failure to achieve adequate disease control. This study highlights the unmet needs for severe asthma in Japan and provides a catalyst for important dialogues in advancing public health.
Project description:Our objective was to estimate the economic outcomes of using mirabegron versus antimuscarinics in the treatment of patients with overactive bladder (OAB) from a societal perspective in the UK.A Markov model was developed using Microsoft Excel®. The time horizon and cycle length are 12 and 1 months, respectively; and the hypothetical cohort size 100 patients. Antimuscarinic comparators are fesoterodine, oxybutynin extended release (ER) and immediate release (IR), solifenacin, tolterodine ER/IR, trospium ER/IR, darifenacin and flavoxate. Model inputs included real-world treatment patterns data, healthcare resource use (e.g. clinic visits) and direct and indirect costs (e.g. drug acquisition and productivity loss). Model outputs included patient disposition, healthcare resource use, drug acquisition costs and other treatment-related costs over a 1-year time horizon. A one-way sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the key drivers of the model.In a hypothetical cohort of 100 patients, total annual costs per patient were lower with mirabegron than with all antimuscarinics (£1270.84 vs. 1321.71-1607.48). Healthcare resource use was lower with mirabegron than with all antimuscarinics (115 vs. 119-123 general practitioner visits; 173 vs. 178-185 specialist visits and 0.0042 vs. 0.0050-0.0060 surgical operations) and fewer work hours were lost (4017 vs. 5114-6990 [all per 100 patients]). Sensitivity analysis showed the model was sensitive to persistence and switching rates, although the impact on the overall results was minimal.In the UK, using mirabegron to treat OAB may improve persistence and lead to reductions in switching treatment, healthcare resource utilization, productivity costs, and overall treatment costs versus antimuscarinics.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:(1) To compare the severity and distribution of nonurologic and urogenital pain between overactive bladder (OAB), interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) and controls, and (2) To examine the relationships between the severity of urogenital pain and severity of urinary symptoms among patients with OAB. SUBJECTS AND METHODS:Fifty-one OAB patients, 27 IC/BPS patients, and 30 controls were recruited. Nonurologic pain was assessed using a whole body map and Brief Pain Inventory. Urologic pain was assessed using the Interstitial Cystitis Symptom and Problem indexes, Genitourinary Pain Index, and 0-10 pain scale. Urogenital pain was assessed using a genital map, and report of pain related to bladder filling and urination. RESULTS:Among OAB patients, 6% reported pelvic pain only while 28% reported pelvic pain and beyond. 18% reported widespread pain. The distribution of nonurologic pain and urogenital pain in OAB patients were intermediate between IC/BPS and controls (IC/BPS>OAB>controls, P all <.05). The intensity of pain reported by OAB patients was intermediate between controls and IC/BPS (average 2.3 vs 0.8 vs 4.3 out of 10, P <.001). Among OAB patients, the pain severity (GUPI-pain, ICSI-pain, ICPI-pain) was positively correlated with urinary severity (UDI-6, IIQ-7, OABq-SS, OABq-QOL, P all < .05). OAB patients with pelvic pain have worse urinary symptoms and psychosocial health (anxiety, depression) compared to OAB patients without pelvic pain. CONCLUSION:A subset of OAB patients has pain inside and/or outside the pelvis. The intensity and distribution of pain in OAB was intermediate between IC/BPS and controls. Systemic processes such as central sensitization should be examined in this population.