Sleep problems increase the risk of musculoskeletal pain in boys but not girls: a prospective cohort study.
ABSTRACT: Adults with sleep problems are at higher risk for onset of musculoskeletal pain, but the evidence is less clear for children. This prospective cohort study investigated whether children with sleep problems are at higher risk for onset of musculoskeletal pain and explored whether sex is a modifier of this association. In a prospective cohort study of Australian schoolchildren (n?=?1239, mean age 9 years), the associations between sleep problems at baseline and new onset of both musculoskeletal pain and persistent musculoskeletal pain (pain lasting >?3 months) 1 year later were investigated using logistic regression. The potential modifying effect of sex was also assessed. One-year incidence proportion for musculoskeletal pain onset is 43% and 7% for persistent musculoskeletal pain. Sleep problems were associated with musculoskeletal pain onset and persistent musculoskeletal pain onset in boys, odds ratio 2.80 (95% CI 1.39, 5.62) and OR 3.70 (1.30, 10.54), respectively, but not girls OR 0.58 (0.28, 1.19) and OR 1.43 (0.41, 4.95), respectively.Conclusions: Rates of musculoskeletal pain are high in children. Boys with sleep problems are at greater risk of onset of musculoskeletal pain, but girls do not appear to have higher risk. Consideration of sleep health may help prevent persistent musculoskeletal pain in children. What is Known: • Sleep problems are associated with the onset of musculoskeletal pain in adults. • It is not clear if the association between sleep problems and the onset of musculoskeletal pain is present also in children and if sex plays a role in this association. What is New: • This is the first large population-based study that has prospectively investigated the relationship between sleep problems and onset of musculoskeletal pain in school-aged children. • Children, especially boys with sleep problems, were at increased risk for the development of persistent musculoskeletal pain.
Project description:Sleep disorders, such as insomnia and nightmares, are commonly associated with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) in adulthood. Whether nightmares and sleep-onset and maintenance problems predate BPD symptoms earlier in development is unknown. We addressed this gap in the literature using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Participants included 6050 adolescents (51.4 % female) who completed the UK Childhood Interview for DSM-IV BPD at 11 to 12 years of age. Nightmares and sleep onset and maintenance problems were prospectively assessed via mother report when children were 2.5, 3.5, 4.8 and 6.8 years of age. Psychopathological (i.e., emotional temperament; psychiatric diagnoses; and emotional and behavioural problems) and psychosocial (i.e., abuse, maladaptive parenting, and family adversity) confounders were assessed via mother report. In logistic regressions, persistent nightmares (i.e., regular nightmares at 3 or more time-points) were significantly associated with BPD symptoms following adjustment for sleep onset and maintenance problems and all confounders (Adjusted Odds Ratio = 1.62; 95 % Confidence Interval = 1.12 to 2.32). Persistent sleep onset and maintenance problems were not significantly associated with BPD symptoms. In path analysis controlling for all associations between confounders, persistent nightmares independently predicted BPD symptoms (Probit co-efficient [?] = 0.08, p = 0.013). Emotional and behavioural problems significantly mediated the association between nightmares and BPD (? =0.016, p < 0.001), while nightmares significantly mediated associations between emotional temperament (? = 0.001, p = 0.018), abuse (? = 0.015, p = 0.018), maladaptive parenting (? = 0.002, p = 0.021) and subsequent BPD. These findings tentatively support that childhood nightmares may potentially increase the risk of BPD symptoms in early adolescence via a number of aetiological pathways. If replicated, the current findings could have important implications for early intervention, and assist clinicians in the identification of children at risk of developing BPD.
Project description:Musculoskeletal pain is common in childhood and adolescence, and may be long-lasting and recurrent. Musculoskeletal problems tend to follow adolescents into adulthood, and therefore it is important to design better prevention strategies and early effective treatment. To this end, we need in-depth knowledge about the epidemiology of musculoskeletal extremity problems in this age group, and therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, frequency and course of musculoskeletal pain in the upper and lower extremities in a cohort of Danish school children aged 8-14 years at baseline.This was a prospective 3-year school-based cohort study, with information about musculoskeletal pain collected in two ways. Parents answered weekly mobile phone text messages about the presence or absence of musculoskeletal pain in their children, and a clinical consultation was performed in a subset of the children.We found that approximately half the children had lower extremity pain every study year. This pain lasted on average for 8 weeks out of a study year, and the children had on average two and a half episodes per study year. Approximately one quarter of the children had upper extremity pain every study year that lasted on average 3 weeks during a study year, with one and a half episodes being the average. In general, there were more non-traumatic pain episodes compared with traumatic episodes in the lower extremities, whereas the opposite was true in the upper extremities. The most common anatomical pain sites were 'knee' and 'ankle/ft'.Lower extremity pain among children and adolescents is common, recurrent and most often of non-traumatic origin. Upper extremity pain is less common, with fewer and shorter episodes, and usually with a traumatic onset. Girls more frequently reported upper extremity pain, whereas there was no sex-related difference in the lower extremities. The most frequently reported locations were 'knee' and 'ankle/ft'.
Project description:The course of pediatric musculoskeletal pain from acute to chronic has not been well described and there is limited understanding of how to identify individuals with new-onset pain who may be predisposed to developing persisting symptoms. Thus, the purpose of this study was to describe the clinical phonotype of treatment-seeking youth with new-onset musculoskeletal pain compared with youth with and without chronic pain. Further, we tested predictors of pain-related disability and pain sensitivity in the new-onset pain sample.Participants were 191 youth, ages 10 to 17 years, representing 3 cohorts (new-onset musculoskeletal pain, chronic musculoskeletal pain, and a comparison group without chronic pain). Participants completed questionnaire measures of pain characteristics, psychological functioning, sleep, and pain-related disability. They also attended a laboratory visit to complete an experimental pain assessment using heat and cold stimuli to assess pain sensitivity and conditioned pain modulation.Findings revealed youth with new-onset musculoskeletal pain had a distinct clinical phenotype where symptoms of pain and disability were in the mid-range between those of youth with diagnosed chronic musculoskeletal pain and youth in the community without chronic pain. Linear regressions within the new-onset pain sample demonstrated poorer sleep quality and higher pain fear predicted greater pain-related disability, and pain catastrophizing predicted cold pressor sensitivity.Clinical phenotyping of youth with new-onset musculoskeletal pain highlights factors relevant to the pain experience. Future research can examine the roles of these variables in predicting longitudinal risk for chronic pain and disability.
Project description:<b>Objectives:</b> To assess sleep quality and timing in children with Angelman syndrome (AS) with sleep problems using questionnaires and actigraphy and contrast sleep parameters to those of typically developing (TD) children matched for age and sex. <b>Methods:</b> Week-long actigraphy assessments were undertaken with children with AS (n = 20) with parent-reported sleep difficulties and compared with age and sex matched TD controls. The presence of severe sleep problems was assessed using the modified Simonds and Parraga sleep questionnaire. Sleep hygiene was measured using the Family Inventory of Sleep Habits. <b>Results:</b> Actigraphy and parent-completed sleep diary data indicated that children with AS had significantly earlier bedtimes (p = .003, Cohen d = .47) and poorer sleep efficiency (78%, p = .04, d = .33) than TD children (84%). No significant differences in total sleep time, sleep onset latency or wake after sleep onset were found between the two groups. The expected relationship between later bedtimes and increasing age found for the TD group (p < .001, ?.78) was not evidenced for the AS group (p = .09, ?.39). Considerable inter-individual and night to night variation in actigraphy assessed total sleep time and wake after sleep onset was found for children with AS compared to TD children. Parent report indicated that a greater proportion of children with AS had severe night waking problems compared to TD children (81 versus 5%). No significant differences in sleep hygiene and excessive daytime sleepiness were found between the two groups (p > .05). <b>Conclusions:</b> This study reports the largest objective dataset of sleep quality parameters in children with AS. Sleep quality in this group was characterised by poor efficiency and significant intra- and inter-individual variability that warrants further investigation. This variability should inform assessment and intervention for sleep in children with AS, as averages of total sleep, even across a 7 day period may not capture the difficulties with night waking highlighted by parental questionnaire report.
Project description:To investigate the prevalence of cannabis use and problem use in boys and girls at age 16 years, and to investigate the role of adversity in early life and of conduct disorder between the ages of 4 and 13 years as risk factors for these outcomes.Birth cohort study.England.A total of 4159 (2393 girls) participants in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort providing information on cannabis use at age 16.Cannabis use and problem cannabis use at age 16 were assessed by postal questionnaire. Material adversity, maternal substance use, maternal mental health and child conduct disorder were all assessed by maternal report.Cannabis use was more common among girls than boys (21.4% versus 18.3%, P = 0.005). Problem cannabis use was more common in boys than girls (3.6% versus 2.8%, P = 0.007). Early-onset persistent conduct problems were associated strongly with problem cannabis use [odds ratio (OR) = 6.46, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 4.06-10.28]. Residence in subsidized housing (OR = 3.10, 95% CI = 1.95, 4.92); maternal cannabis use (OR 8.84, 95% CI 5.64-13.9) and any maternal smoking in the postnatal period (OR = 2.69, 95% CI = 1.90-3.81) all predicted problem cannabis use. Attributable risks for adolescent problem cannabis use associated with the above factors were 25, 13, 17 and 24%, respectively.Maternal smoking and cannabis use, early material disadvantage and early-onset persistent conduct problems are important risk factors for adolescent problem cannabis use. This may have implications for prevention.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The aims of this study were to examine whether dispositional interpersonal callousness, negative emotionality, and hyperactivity/impulsivity uniquely influence the development of childhood-onset conduct problems and persistent criminal behavior in males, and to determine whether specific facets of negative emotionality (dysregulated anger versus anxiety) in childhood are differentially associated with the development of chronic antisocial behavior. METHOD:Childhood dispositional features and conduct problems were assessed semiannually using parent- and teacher-report measures across 9 consecutive assessments in a school-based sample of 503 boys (?7-11 years of age). Participants' criminal behavior was assessed using official records from adolescence into the early 30s. RESULTS:Interpersonal callousness, dysregulated anger, and hyperactivity/impulsivity were uniquely associated with the development of childhood-onset conduct problems. None of these features significantly predicted official records of juvenile offending after controlling for co- occurring conduct problems. However, interpersonal callousness was robustly and uniquely associated with a pattern of persistent and violent adult offending that continued into the early 30s. In contrast, anxiety problems were inversely associated with criminal offending in adolescence and adulthood after controlling for conduct problems and the other dispositional factors. CONCLUSION:Findings are consistent with theoretical models indicating that interpersonal callousness, dysregulated anger, and hyperactivity/impulsivity influence the development of childhood conduct problems. In contrast, anxiety problems in childhood tend to reduce the likelihood that boys will engage in later criminal offending. Results suggest that delinquency prevention programs should target children exhibiting features of interpersonal callousness, given that they are at high risk for engaging in chronic and violent offending in adulthood.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Nocturnal awakening is the most frequent insomnia complaint in the general population. In contrast to a growing knowledge based on adults, little is known about its prevalence, correlated factors, and associations with subjective sleep perception and daytime sleepiness in children. This study was designed to assess the prevalence and the correlate factors of frequent nocturnal awakening (FNA) among Chinese school-aged children. Furthermore, the associations of FNA with subjective sleep perception and daytime sleepiness were examined. METHODS: A random sample of 20,505 children aged 5.00 to 11.92 years old (boys: 49.5% vs. girls: 50.5%) participated in a cross-sectional survey, which was conducted in eight cities of China. Parent-administered questionnaires were used to collect information on children's sleep behaviors, sleep perception, and potential influential factors of FNA from six domains. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were performed. RESULTS: The prevalence of FNA was 9.8% (10.0% for boys vs. 8.9% for girls) in our sampled children. The prominent FNA-related factors inclued biological health problems, such as overweight/obesity (OR = 1.70), chronic pain during night (OR = 2.47), and chronic respiratory condition (OR = 1.23), poor psychosocial condition, such as poor mental and emotional functioning (OR = 1.34), poor sleep hygiene, such as frequently doing exciting activities before bedtime (OR = 1.24) and bedtime resistance (OR = 1.42), and parents' history of insomnia (OR = 1.31). FNA was associated with subjective poor sleep quality (OR = 1.24), subjective insufficient sleep (OR = 1.21), and daytime sleepiness (OR = 1.35). CONCLUSION: FNA was associated with poor sleep and daytime sleepiness. Compared to sleep environment and family susceptibility, chronic health problems, poor psychosocial condition, and poor sleep hygiene had greater impact on FNA, indicating childhood FNA could be partly prevented by health promotion, by psychological intervention, and by improving sleep hygiene routine.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To identify baseline patient characteristics that are (1) associated with a poor outcome on follow-up regardless of which treatment was provided (prognosis) or (2) associated with a successful outcome to a specific treatment (treatment effect modifiers). DESIGN:Systematic literature review according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines. DATA SOURCES:Medline, Embase, Cinahl, Web of Science, Cochrane, SportDiscus, OT Seeker and PsychInfo were searched for prospective cohort studies up to February 2019 without limitation in publication date. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA:Prospective cohort studies reporting either prognostic factors or treatment effect modifiers on persistent musculoskeletal pain in 0-year-old to 19-year-old children and adolescents. Pain caused by tumours, fractures, infections, systemic and neurological conditions were excluded. OUTCOME MEASURES:Our primary outcome was musculoskeletal pain at follow-up and identification of any baseline characteristics that were associated with this outcome (prognostic factors). No secondary outcomes were declared. METHOD:Two reviewers independently screened abstracts and titles. We included prospective cohort studies investigating the prognosis or treatment effect modifiers of 0-year-old to 19-year-old children and adolescents with self-reported musculoskeletal pain. Risk of bias assessment was conducted with the Quality in Prognostic Studies tool. RESULTS:Twenty-six studies yielding a total of 111 unique prognostic factors were included. Female sex and psychological symptoms were the most frequent investigated prognostic factors. Increasing age, generalised pain, longer pain duration and smoking were other identified prognostic factors. No treatment effect modifiers were identified. CONCLUSION:Several prognostic factors are associated with a poor prognosis in children and adolescents with musculoskeletal pain. These prognostic factors may help guide clinical practice and shared decision-making. None of the included studies was conducted within a general practice setting which highlights an area in need of research. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER:CRD42016041378.
Project description:We examined children's sleep at age 9 as a predictor of developmental trajectories of cognitive performance from ages 9 to 11 years. The effects of sleep on cognition are not uniform and thus we tested race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and sex as moderators of these associations. At the first assessment, 282 children aged 9.44 years (52% boys, 65% European American [EA], 35% African American [AA]) participated. Two more waves of data collection spaced 1 year apart followed. The majority of children (63%) were living at or below the poverty line. Children's sleep was measured objectively with actigraphy and 2 well-established sleep parameters were derived: duration, indexed by sleep minutes between sleep onset and wake time, and quality, indexed by efficiency. Multiple cognitive functioning domains were examined with the Woodcock Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities (WJ III). Across the sample, higher sleep efficiency, but not duration, was associated with better cognitive performance. Significant moderation effects emerged. Controlling for SES, AA children scored lower on general intellectual ability and working memory (WM) at age 11 only if they experienced lower sleep efficiency at age 9. Further, boys scored lower on general abilities and processing speed (PS) at age 11 only if their sleep efficiency was lower at age 9. Findings indicate that lower sleep efficiency may contribute to lower cognitive functioning especially for AA children and boys. These vulnerabilities appear to emerge early in development and are maintained over time. Results underscore the importance of individual differences in explicating relations between sleep and children's cognitive performance. (PsycINFO Database Record
Project description:Children of alcoholic parents are at greater risk for developing substance use problems. Having a parent with any mental illness increases the risk for sleep disorders in children. Using actigraphy, this study characterized sleep in children of alcoholics and community controls over a period of 1?week. This study further examined whether sleep characteristics of the children mediated the relationship between self-regulation indices (i.e. undercontrol and resiliency) and outcome measures of function (e.g. problem behaviours and perceived conflict at home). Eighty-two children (53 boys, 29 girls, 7.2-13.0 years old) were recruited from the ongoing Michigan Longitudinal Study. Seventeen participants had no parental history of alcohol abuse or dependence family history negative (FH-), 43 had at least one parent who was a recovered alcoholic, and 22 had at least one parent who met diagnostic criteria within the past 3 years. Sleep was assessed with actigraphy and sleep diaries for 1?week, and combined with secondary analysis of data collected for the longitudinal study. FH- children had more objectively measured total sleep time. More total sleep time was associated with greater resiliency and behavioural control, fewer teacher-reported behavioural problems, and less child-reported conflict at home. Further, total sleep time partially mediated the relationship between resiliency and perceived conflict, and between resiliency and externalizing problems. These findings suggest that in high-risk homes, the opportunity to obtain sufficient sleep is reduced, and that insufficient sleep further exacerbates the effects of impaired dispositional self-regulatory capacity on behavioural and emotional regulation.