Relation of High Lipoprotein (a) Concentrations to Platelet Reactivity in Individuals with and Without Coronary Artery Disease.
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION:Lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] is a risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study addressing the relationship between Lp(a) and platelet reactivity in primary and secondary prevention. METHODS:Lp(a) was evaluated in 396 individuals with (82.3%) and without (17.7%) obstructive CAD. The population was divided into two groups according to Lp(a) concentrations with a cutoff value of 50 mg/dL. The primary objective was to evaluate the association between Lp(a) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet reactivity using the VerifyNow™ P2Y12 assay. Platelet reactivity was also induced by arachidonic acid and collagen-epinephrine (C-EPI) and assessed by Multiplate™, platelet function analyzer™ 100 (PFA-100), and light transmission aggregometry (LTA) assays. Secondary objectives included the assessment of the primary endpoint in individuals with or without CAD. RESULTS:Overall, 294 (74.2%) individuals had Lp(a)??0.05). Finally, multivariable analysis did not show a significant association between ADP-induced platelet reactivity and Lp(a)???50 mg/dL [adjusted OR?=?1.00 [(95% CI 0.99-1.01), P?=?0.590]. CONCLUSION:In individuals with or without CAD, Lp(a)???50 mg/dL was not associated with higher platelet reactivity.
Project description:Background:High lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] levels are an independent factor for worse prognosis in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). However, the association between serum Lp(a) level and coronary plaque vulnerability remains to be determined. Methods:A total of 255 consecutive patients with CAD who underwent optical coherence tomography imaging of culprit lesions were included. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to their Lp(a) levels (the higher Lp(a) group [?25?mg/dL], n?=?87; or the lower Lp(a) group [<25?mg/dL], n?=?168). Results:The prevalence of thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA) was significantly higher in the higher Lp(a) group than in the lower Lp(a) group (23% [n?=?20] vs. 11% [n?=?19], p?=?0.014). Although the prevalence of TCFA was comparable between the 2 groups among patients with a lower LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) level (<100?mg/dL), TCFA was significantly more prevalent in the higher Lp(a) group than in the lower Lp(a) group (39% [14/36] vs. 10% [5/50], p?=?0.001) among patients with a higher LDL-C level (?100?mg/dL). Conclusions:A higher Lp(a) level was associated with a higher frequency of TCFA, particularly in patients with a higher LDL-C level.
Project description:Lp(a) is an independent, causal, genetic risk factor for cardiovascular disease and aortic stenosis. Current pharmacological lipid-lowering therapies do not optimally lower Lp(a), particularly in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH).In 4 phase III trials, 382 patients on maximally tolerated lipid-lowering therapy were randomized 2:1 to weekly subcutaneous mipomersen 200 mg (n=256) or placebo (n=126) for 26 weeks. Populations included homozygous FH, heterozygous FH with concomitant coronary artery disease (CAD), severe hypercholesterolemia, and hypercholesterolemia at high risk for CAD. Lp(a) was measured 8× between baseline and week 28 inclusive. Of the 382 patients, 57% and 44% had baseline Lp(a) levels >30 and >50 mg/dL, respectively. In the pooled analysis, the mean percent decrease (median, interquartile range in Lp(a) at 28 weeks was significantly greater in the mipomersen group compared with placebo (-26.4 [-42.8, -5.4] versus -0.0 [-10.7, 15.3]; P<0.001). In the mipomersen group in patients with Lp(a) levels >30 or >50 mg/dL, attainment of Lp(a) values ?30 or ?50 mg/dL was most frequent in homozygous FH and severe hypercholesterolemia patients. In the combined groups, modest correlations were present between percent change in apolipoprotein B-100 and Lp(a) (r=0.43; P<0.001) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and Lp(a) (r=0.36; P<0.001) plasma levels.Mipomersen consistently and effectively reduced Lp(a) levels in patients with a variety of lipid abnormalities and cardiovascular risk. Modest correlations were present between apolipoprotein B-100 and Lp(a) lowering but the mechanistic relevance mediating Lp(a) reduction is currently unknown.
Project description:Malignant coronary artery disease (CAD) refers to a severe and extensive atherosclerotic process involving multiple coronary arteries in young individuals (aged <45 years in men and <50 years in women) with a low or no burden of established risk factors. Indians, in general, develop acute myocardial infarction (AMI) about 10 years earlier; AMI rates are threefold to fivefold higher in young Indians than in other populations. Although established CAD risk factors have a predictive value, they do not fully account for the excessive burden of CAD in young Indians. Lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) is increasingly recognized as the strongest known genetic risk factor for premature CAD, with high levels observed in Indians with malignant CAD. High Lp(a) levels confer a twofold to threefold risk of CAD-a risk similar to that of established risk factors, including diabetes. South Asians have the second highest Lp(a) levels and the highest risk of AMI from the elevated levels, more than double the risk observed in people of European descent. Approximately 25% of Indians and other South Asians have elevated Lp(a) levels (?50 mg/dl), rendering Lp(a) a risk factor of great importance, similar to or surpassing diabetes. Lp(a) measurement is ready for clinical use and should be an essential part of all CAD research in Indians.
Project description:The objective was to compare the pharmacodynamic (PD) and pharmacokinetic (PK) effects of ticagrelor with clopidogrel among subjects of Hispanic ethnicity, as the PD and PK effects of antiplatelet agents among Hispanics are not specifically known. This was a randomised, open-label, crossover PD/PK study of 40 Hispanic subjects with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). Subjects were allocated to either ticagrelor 180 mg loading dose (LD)/90 mg twice-daily maintenance dose (MD) followed by clopidogrel 600 mg LD/75 mg once-daily MD with an intervening washout period, or vice versa. The primary endpoint was on-treatment reactivity (OTR) at 2 h post-LD according to the VerifyNow P2Y12 test. OTR was significantly lower at 2 h post-LD with ticagrelor compared with clopidogrel (34 PRU vs. 201 PRU, least square means difference = -167 PRU [95 % CI, -197, -137], P < 0.001). OTR was also lower with ticagrelor at 30 min and 8 h post-LD (P < 0.001). The greater magnitude of antiplatelet effect with ticagrelor persisted after 7 days of MD (52 PRU [95 % CI, 30, 73] vs. 182 PRU [95 % CI, 160, 205], P < 0.001). Mean plasma concentration of ticagrelor and its active metabolite were greatest at 2 h post-LD, with similar levels at 2 h post-MD after 7 days of MD. Among Hispanic subjects with stable CAD, ticagrelor provides a more rapid onset of platelet inhibition and a significantly greater antiplatelet effect compared with clopidogrel during both the loading and maintenance phases of treatment.
Project description:Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with enhanced platelet reactivity and impaired response to oral antiplatelet therapy, including clopidogrel. This post hoc analysis investigated the pharmacodynamic effects of ticagrelor versus clopidogrel loading dose (LD) in troponin-negative acute coronary syndrome patients with or without DM undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention in the Ad Hoc PCI study.Patients randomized (1:1) to receive ticagrelor 180 mg LD or clopidogrel 600 mg LD were assessed by diabetic status. Platelet reactivity (P2Y12 reaction units [PRU] on VerifyNow® assay) was measured pre-LD, at 0.5, 2, and 8 hours post-LD, and at the end of the percutaneous coronary intervention. The primary endpoint was PRU levels 2 hours post-LD; secondary endpoints included rates of high on-treatment platelet reactivity (PRU?208). Of 100 randomized patients, 51 received ticagrelor (DM, n=20; non-DM, n=31) and 49 clopidogrel (DM, n=16; non-DM, n=33). At 2 hours post-LD, mean (SD) PRU levels in DM patients were 130.1 (111.7) with ticagrelor versus 287.6 (71.9) with clopidogrel (mean [95%CI] difference -157.5 [-225.3, -89.8]; P<0.001); in non-DM patients, they were 75.3 (75.7) versus 243.0 (72.4) (mean difference -167.7 [-207.1, -128.3]; P<0.001). High on-treatment platelet reactivity rates at 2 hours post-LD were also significantly (P<0.001) reduced with ticagrelor versus clopidogrel in DM and non-DM patients. Between-treatment differences for PRU and high on-treatment platelet reactivity were not significant at earlier time points but were at 8 hours post-LD (P<0.001).Compared with clopidogrel, ticagrelor achieved faster, enhanced platelet inhibition and reduced high on-treatment platelet reactivity rates, in DM and non-DM patients.URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01603082.
Project description:Objective- Lp(a) [lipoprotein(a)] is a well-described risk factor for atherosclerosis, but Lp(a)-associated risk may vary by race/ethnicity. We aimed to determine whether race/ethnicity modifies Lp(a)-related risk of carotid atherosclerotic plaque outcomes among black, white, Chinese, and Hispanic individuals. Approach and Results- Carotid plaque presence and score were assessed by ultrasonography at baseline (n=5155) and following a median 9.4 year period (n=3380) in MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) participants. Lp(a) concentrations were measured by immunoassay and examined as a continuous and categorical variable using clinically-based cutoffs, 30 and 50 mg/dL. Lp(a) was related to greater risk of prevalent carotid plaque at baseline in whites alone (all P<0.001): per log unit (relative risk, 1.05); Lp(a)?30 mg/dL (relative risk, 1.16); and Lp(a)?50 mg/dL (relative risk, 1.20). Lp(a) levels over 50 mg/dL were associated with a higher plaque score at baseline in whites (all P<0.001) and Hispanics ( P=0.04). In prospective analyses, whites with Lp(a) ?50 mg/dL were found to have greater risk of plaque progression (relative risk, 1.12; P=0.03) and higher plaque scores (all P<0.001) over the 9.4-year follow-up. Race-based differences between whites and black participants were significant for cross-sectional associations and for carotid plaque score following the 9.4 year study period. Conclusions- Race was found to be a modifying variable in Lp(a)-related risk of carotid plaque, and Lp(a) levels may have greater influence on plaque burden in whites than in black individuals. Borderline results in Hispanics suggest that elevated Lp(a) may increase the risk of carotid plaque, but follow-up studies are needed.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to assess the prognostic utility of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] in individuals with coronary artery disease (CAD).Data regarding an association between Lp(a) and cardiovascular (CV) risk in secondary prevention populations are sparse.Plasma Lp(a) was measured in 6,708 subjects with CAD from 3 studies; data were then combined with 8 previously published studies for a total of 18,978 subjects.Across the 3 studies, increasing levels of Lp(a) were not associated with the risk of CV events when modeled as a continuous variable (odds ratio [OR]: 1.03 per log-transformed SD, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.96 to 1.11) or by quintile (Q5:Q1 OR: 1.05, 95% CI: 0.83 to 1.34). When data were combined with previously published studies of Lp(a) in secondary prevention, subjects with Lp(a) levels in the highest quantile were at increased risk of CV events (OR: 1.40, 95% CI: 1.15 to 1.71), but with significant between-study heterogeneity (p = 0.001). When stratified on the basis of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, the association between Lp(a) and CV events was significant in studies in which average LDL cholesterol was ?130 mg/dl (OR: 1.46, 95% CI: 1.23 to 1.73, p < 0.001), whereas this relationship did not achieve statistical significance for studies with an average LDL cholesterol <130 mg/dl (OR: 1.20, 95% CI: 0.90 to 1.60, p = 0.21).Lp(a) is significantly associated with the risk of CV events in patients with established CAD; however, there exists marked heterogeneity across trials. In particular, the prognostic value of Lp(a) in patients with low cholesterol levels remains unclear.
Project description:We aimed to examine associations of lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) concentrations with coronary heart disease (CHD) and determine whether current Lp(a) clinical laboratory cut points identify risk of disease incidence in 4 races/ethnicities of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).A subcohort of 1323 black, 1677 white, 548 Chinese American, and 1044 Hispanic MESA participants were followed up during a mean 8.5-year period in which 235 incident CHD events were recorded. Lp(a) mass concentrations were measured using a turbidimetric immunoassay. Cox regression analysis determined associations of Lp(a) with CHD risk with adjustments for lipid and nonlipid variables. Lp(a) concentrations were continuously associated with risk of CHD incidence in black (hazard ratio [HR], 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-2.04] and white participants (HR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.02-1.45). Examining Lp(a) risk by the 50 mg/dL cut point revealed higher risks of incident CHD in all races except Chinese Americans: blacks (HR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.03-2.76), whites (HR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.15-2.88); Hispanics (HR, 2.37; 95% CI, 1.17-4.78). The lower Lp(a) cut point of 30 mg/dL identified higher risk of CHD in black participants alone (HR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.08-3.21).Our findings suggest that the 30 mg/dL cutoff for Lp(a) is not appropriate in white and Hispanic individuals, and the higher 50 mg/dL cutoff should be considered. In contrast, the 30 mg/dL cutoff remains suitable in black individuals. Further research is necessary to develop the most clinically useful Lp(a) cutoff values in individual races/ethnicities.
Project description:Interindividual variability in platelet aggregation is common among patients treated with clopidogrel and both high on-treatment platelet reactivity (HTPR) and low on-treatment platelet reactivity (LTPR) increase risks for adverse clinical outcomes. CYP2C19 influences clopidogrel response but only accounts for ?12% of the variability in platelet reactivity. To identify novel variants implicated in on-treatment platelet reactivity, patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) with extreme pharmacodynamic responses to clopidogrel and wild-type CYP2C19 were subjected to exome sequencing. Candidate variants that clustered in the LTPR subgroup subsequently were genotyped across the discovery cohort (n = 636). Importantly, carriers of B4GALT2 c.909C>T had lower on-treatment P2Y12 reaction units (PRUs; P = 0.0077) and residual platelet aggregation (P = 0.0008) compared with noncarriers, which remained significant after adjusting for CYP2C19 and other clinical variables in both the discovery (P = 0.0298) and replication (n = 160; PRU: P = 0.0001) cohorts. B4GALT2 is a platelet-expressed galactosyltransferase, indicating that B4GALT2 c.909C>T may influence clopidogrel sensitivity through atypical cell-surface glycoprotein processing and platelet adhesion.
Project description:Background The balance between ischemic and bleeding events and their association with platelet reactivity in patients receiving antiplatelet therapy after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), which differs among regions, is not fully evaluated for East Asians. We examined ischemic/bleeding events and platelet reactivity in Japanese patients undergoing PCI and determined associations between high/low platelet reactivity and clinical outcomes. Methods and Results PENDULUM (Platelet Reactivity in Patients with Drug Eluting Stent and Balancing Risk of Bleeding and Ischemic Event) is a prospective, multicenter registry of Japanese patients with PCI. Primary end points were incidence of first major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) and first major bleeding events at 12 months post-PCI. Platelet reactivity (P2Y12 reaction unit [PRU] value) was measured at 12 to 48 hours post-PCI; patients were grouped as having high PRU (>208), optimal PRU (>85 to ?208), and low PRU (?85). MACCE and major bleeding occurred in 4.4% and 2.8% of 6267 patients, respectively. The mean±SD PRU value was 182.1±77.1. MACCE was significantly higher in the high PRU (5.7%; n=2227) versus the optimal PRU group (3.6%; n=3002). The hazard ratio (HR) for high PRU versus optimal PRU level was significantly higher for MACCE (adjusted HR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.14-2.06 [P=0.004]); stent thrombosis followed the same trend. Incidence of major bleeding did not differ significantly between groups. A high PRU level was significantly associated with MACCE in both patients with and patients without acute coronary syndrome. Conclusions These real-world data suggest an association between high platelet reactivity and cardiovascular events in Japanese patients undergoing PCI. The trend was the same in both patients with and patients without acute coronary syndrome. REGISTRATION URL: https://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr. Unique identifier: UMIN 000020332.