Novel heterozygous truncating titin variants affecting the A-band are associated with cardiomyopathy and myopathy/muscular dystrophy.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Variants in TTN are frequently identified in the genetic evaluation of skeletal myopathy or cardiomyopathy. However, due to the high frequency of TTN variants in the general population, incomplete penetrance, and limited understanding of the spectrum of disease, interpretation of TTN variants is often difficult for laboratories and clinicians. Currently, cardiomyopathy is associated with heterozygous A-band TTN variants, whereas skeletal myopathy is largely associated with homozygous or compound heterozygous TTN variants. Recent reports show pathogenic variants in TTN may result in a broader phenotypic spectrum than previously recognized. METHODS:Here we report the results of a multisite study that characterized the phenotypes of probands with variants in TTN. We investigated TTN genotype-phenotype correlations in probands with skeletal myopathy and/or cardiomyopathy. Probands with TTN truncating variants (TTNtv) or pathogenic missense variants were ascertained from two academic medical centers. Variants were identified via clinical genetic testing and reviewed according to the American College of Medical Genetics criteria. Clinical and family history data were documented via retrospective chart review. Family studies were performed for probands with atypical phenotypes. RESULTS:Forty-nine probands were identified with TTNtv or pathogenic missense variants. Probands were classified by clinical presentation: cardiac (n = 30), skeletal muscle (n = 12), or both (cardioskeletal, n = 7). Within the cardioskeletal group, 5/7 probands had heterozygous TTNtv predicted to affect the distal (3') end of the A-band. All cardioskeletal probands had onset of proximal-predominant muscle weakness before diagnosis of cardiovascular disease, five pedigrees support dominant transmission. CONCLUSION:Although heterozygous TTNtv in the A-band is known to cause dilated cardiomyopathy, we present evidence that these variants may in some cases cause a novel, dominant skeletal myopathy with a limb-girdle pattern of weakness. These findings emphasize the importance of multidisciplinary care for patients with A-band TTNtv who may be at risk for multisystem disease.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Pathogenic variants in TTN (OMIM 188840), encoding the largest human protein, are known to cause dilated cardiomyopathy and several forms of skeletal myopathy. The clinical interpretation of TTN variants is challenging, however, due to the frequency of missense changes, variable testing and reporting practices in commercial laboratories, and incomplete understanding of the spectrum of TTN-related disease. METHODS:We report a heterozygous TTN deletion segregating in a family with an unusual skeletal myopathy phenotype associated with facial weakness, gait abnormality, and dilated cardiomyopathy. RESULTS:A novel 16.430 kb heterozygous deletion spanning part of the A- and M-bands of TTN was identified in the proband and his symptomatic son, as well as in an additional son whose symptoms were identified on clinical evaluation. The deletion was found to be de novo in the proband. CONCLUSION:Pathogenic variants in TTN may be an unrecognized cause of skeletal myopathy phenotypes, particularly when accompanied by dilated cardiomyopathy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Truncating titin (TTN) mutations, especially in A-band region, represent the most common cause of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Clinical interpretation of these variants can be challenging, as these variants are also present in reference populations. We carried out systematic analyses of TTN truncating variants (TTNtv) in publicly available reference populations, including, for the first time, data from Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC). The goal was to establish more accurate estimate of prevalence of different TTNtv to allow better clinical interpretation of these findings. METHODS AND RESULTS:Using data from 1000 Genomes Project, Exome Sequencing Project (ESP) and ExAC, we estimated the prevalence of TTNtv in the population. In the three population datasets, 52-54% of TTNtv were not affecting all TTN transcripts. The frequency of truncations affecting all transcripts in ExAC was 0.36% (0.32% - 0.41%, 95% CI) and 0.19% (0.16% - 0.23%, 95% CI) for those affecting the A-band. In the A-band region, the prevalences of frameshift, nonsense and essential splice site variants were 0.057%, 0.090%, and 0.047% respectively. Cga/Tga (arginine/nonsense-R/*) transitional change at CpG mutation hotspots was the most frequent type of TTN nonsense mutation accounting for 91.3% (21/23) of arginine residue nonsense mutation (R/*) at TTN A-band region. Non-essential splice-site variants had significantly lower proportion of private variants and higher proportion of low-frequency variants compared to essential splice-site variants (P = 0.01; P = 5.1 X 10-4, respectively). CONCLUSION:A-band TTNtv are more rare in the general population than previously reported. Based on this analysis, one in 500 carries a truncation in TTN A-band suggesting the penetrance of these potentially harmful variants is still poorly understood, and some of these variants do not manifest as autosomal dominant DCM. This calls for caution when interpreting TTNtv in individuals and families with no history of DCM. Considering the size of TTN, expertise in DNA library preparation, high coverage NGS strategies, validated bioinformatics approach, accurate variant assessment strategy, and confirmatory sequencing are prerequisites for reliable evaluation of TTN in clinical settings, and ideally with the inclusion of mRNA and/or protein level assessment for a definite diagnosis.
Project description:The recent discovery of heterozygous human mutations that truncate full-length titin (TTN, an abundant structural, sensory, and signaling filament in muscle) as a common cause of end-stage dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) promises new prospects for improving heart failure management. However, realization of this opportunity has been hindered by the burden of TTN-truncating variants (TTNtv) in the general population and uncertainty about their consequences in health or disease. To elucidate the effects of TTNtv, we coupled TTN gene sequencing with cardiac phenotyping in 5267 individuals across the spectrum of cardiac physiology and integrated these data with RNA and protein analyses of human heart tissues. We report diversity of TTN isoform expression in the heart, define the relative inclusion of TTN exons in different isoforms (using the TTN transcript annotations available at http://cardiodb.org/titin), and demonstrate that these data, coupled with the position of the TTNtv, provide a robust strategy to discriminate pathogenic from benign TTNtv. We show that TTNtv is the most common genetic cause of DCM in ambulant patients in the community, identify clinically important manifestations of TTNtv-positive DCM, and define the penetrance and outcomes of TTNtv in the general population. By integrating genetic, transcriptome, and protein analyses, we provide evidence for a length-dependent mechanism of disease. These data inform diagnostic criteria and management strategies for TTNtv-positive DCM patients and for TTNtv that are identified as incidental findings.
Project description:Recent advancements in next generation sequencing (NGS) technology have led to the identification of the giant sarcomere gene, titin (TTN), as a major human disease gene. Truncating variants of TTN (TTNtv) especially in the A-band region account for 20% of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) cases. Much attention has been focused on assessment and interpretation of TTNtv in human disease; however, missense and non-frameshifting insertions/deletions (NFS-INDELs) are difficult to assess and interpret in clinical diagnostic workflow. Targeted sequencing covering all exons of TTN was performed on a cohort of 530 primary DCM patients from three cardiogenetic centres across Europe. Using stringent bioinformatic filtering, twenty-nine and two rare TTN missense and NFS-INDELs variants predicted deleterious were identified in 6.98% and 0.38% of DCM patients, respectively. However, when compared with those identified in the largest available reference population database, no significant enrichment of such variants was identified in DCM patients. Moreover, DCM patients and reference individuals had comparable frequencies of splice-region missense variants with predicted splicing alteration. DCM patients and reference populations had comparable frequencies of rare predicted deleterious TTN missense variants including splice-region missense variants suggesting that these variants are not independently causative for DCM. Hence, these variants should be classified as likely benign in the clinical diagnostic workflow, although a modifier effect cannot be excluded at this stage.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Titin-truncating variants (TTNtv) have been recognized as the most prevalent genetic cause of dilated cardiomyopathy. However, their effects on phenotypes of left ventricular non-compaction cardiomyopathy (LVNC) remain largely unknown. HYPOTHESIS:The presence of TTNtv may have an effect on the phenotype of LVNC. METHODS:TTN was comprehensively screened by targeted sequencing in a cohort of 83 adult patients with LVNC. Baseline and follow-up data of all participants were collected. The primary endpoint was a composite of death and heart transplantation. The secondary endpoint was heart failure (HF) events, a composite of HF-related death, heart transplantation, and HF hospitalization. RESULTS:Overall, 13 TTNtv were identified in 13 patients, with 9 TTNtv located in the A-band of titin. There was no significant difference in baseline characteristics between patients with and without TTNtv. During a median follow-up of 4.4 years, no significant difference in death and heart transplantation between the two groups was observed. However, more HF events occurred in TTNtv carriers than in non-carriers (P = 0.006). Multivariable analyses showed that TTNtv were associated with an increased risk of HF events independent of sex, age, and baseline cardiac function (hazard ratio: 3.25, 95% confidence interval: 1.50-7.01, P = 0.003). Sensitivity analysis excluding non-A-band TTNtv yielded similar results, but with less strength. CONCLUSIONS:The presence of TTNtv may be a genetic modifier of LVNC and confer a higher risk of HF events among adult patients. Studies of larger cohorts are needed to confirm our findings.
Project description:Heart failure (HF) is a complex clinical syndrome defined by the inability of the heart to pump enough blood to meet the body's metabolic demands. Major causes of HF are cardiomyopathies (diseases of the myocardium associated with mechanical and/or electrical dysfunction), among which the most common form is dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). DCM is defined by ventricular chamber enlargement and systolic dysfunction with normal left ventricular wall thickness, which leads to progressive HF. Over 60 genes are linked to the etiology of DCM. Titin (TTN) is the largest known protein in biology, spanning half the cardiac sarcomere and, as such, is a basic structural and functional unit of striated muscles. It is essential for heart development as well as mechanical and regulatory functions of the sarcomere. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) in clinical DCM cohorts implicated truncating variants in titin (TTNtv) as major disease alleles, accounting for more than 25% of familial DCM cases, but these variants have also been identified in 2-3% of the general population, where these TTNtv blur diagnostic and clinical utility. Taking into account the published TTNtv and their association to DCM, it becomes clear that TTNtv harm the heart with position-dependent occurrence, being more harmful when present in the A-band TTN, presumably with dominant negative/gain-of-function mechanisms. However, these insights are challenged by the depiction of position-independent toxicity of TTNtv acting via haploinsufficient alleles, which are sufficient to induce cardiac pathology upon stress. In the current review, we provide an overview of TTN and discuss studies investigating various TTN mutations. We also present an overview of different mechanisms postulated or experimentally validated in the pathogenicity of TTNtv. DCM-causing genes are also discussed with respect to non-truncating mutations in the etiology of DCM. One way of understanding pathogenic variants is probably to understand the context in which they may or may not affect protein-protein interactions, changes in cell signaling, and substrate specificity. In this regard, we also provide a brief overview of TTN interactions in situ. Quantitative models in the risk assessment of TTNtv are also discussed. In summary, we highlight the importance of gene-environment interactions in the etiology of DCM and further mechanistic studies used to delineate the pathways which could be targeted in the management of DCM.
Project description:Titin-truncating variants (TTNtv) commonly cause dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). TTNtv are also encountered in ?1% of the general population, where they may be silent, perhaps reflecting allelic factors. To better understand TTNtv, we integrated TTN allelic series, cardiac imaging and genomic data in humans and studied rat models with disparate TTNtv. In patients with DCM, TTNtv throughout titin were significantly associated with DCM. Ribosomal profiling in rat showed the translational footprint of premature stop codons in Ttn, TTNtv-position-independent nonsense-mediated degradation of the mutant allele and a signature of perturbed cardiac metabolism. Heart physiology in rats with TTNtv was unremarkable at baseline but became impaired during cardiac stress. In healthy humans, machine-learning-based analysis of high-resolution cardiac imaging showed TTNtv to be associated with eccentric cardiac remodeling. These data show that TTNtv have molecular and physiological effects on the heart across species, with a continuum of expressivity in health and disease.
Project description:Importance:Mutations in the titin gene (TTN) cause a wide spectrum of genetic diseases. The interpretation of the numerous rare variants identified in TTN is a difficult challenge given its large size. Objective:To identify genetic variants in titin in a cohort of patients with muscle disorders. Design, Setting, and Participants:In this case series, 9 patients with titinopathy and 4 other patients with possibly disease-causing variants in TTN were identified. Titin mutations were detected through targeted resequencing performed on DNA from 504 patients with muscular dystrophy, congenital myopathy, or other skeletal muscle disorders. Patients were enrolled from 10 clinical centers in April 2012 to December 2013. All of them had not received a diagnosis after undergoing an extensive investigation, including Sanger sequencing of candidate genes. The data analysis was performed between September 2013 and January 2017. Sequencing data were analyzed using an internal custom bioinformatics pipeline. Main Outcomes and Measures:The identification of novel mutations in the TTN gene and novel patients with titinopathy. We performed an evaluation of putative causative variants in the TTN gene, combining genetic, clinical, and imaging data with messenger RNA and/or protein studies. Results:Of the 9 novel patients with titinopathy, 5 (55.5%) were men and the mean (SD) age at onset was 25 (15.8) years (range, 0-46 years). Of the 4 other patients (3 men and 1 woman) with possibly disease-causing TTN variants, 2 (50%) had a congenital myopathy and 2 (50%) had a slowly progressive distal myopathy with onset in the second decade. Most of the identified mutations were previously unreported. However, all the variants, even the already described mutations, require careful clinical and molecular evaluation of probands and relatives. Heterozygous truncating variants or unique missense changes are not sufficient to make a diagnosis of titinopathy. Conclusions and Relevance:The interpretation of TTN variants often requires further analyses, including a comprehensive evaluation of the clinical phenotype (deep phenotyping) as well as messenger RNA and protein studies. We propose a specific workflow for the clinical interpretation of genetic findings in titin.
Project description:Titin (TTN) is a large gene with 363 exons that encodes a large abundant protein (longest known polypeptide in nature) that is expressed in cardiac and skeletal muscles. TTN has an important role in the sarcomere organization, assembly of muscles, transmission of the force at the Z-line, passive myocyte stiffness, and resting tension maintenance in the I-band region. Mutation in extreme C terminus of TTN, situated at the end of M-band of the TTN in chromosome 2q31, results in tibial muscular dystrophy (TMD), also called Udd Distal Myopathy, which is an autosomal dominant distal myopathy. In this article, we report a novel mutation in TTN gene in a Saudi patient with bilateral facial weakness and scapular winging. This report adds to the literature a heterozygous missense variant c.85652C>G, p.(Pro28551Arg) in TTN gene, which may be related to genes that cause the disease, but more case validation is needed. The novel mutation described in the present study widened the genetic spectrum of TTN-associated diseases, which may benefit studies addressing this disease in the future.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The titin gene (TTN) encodes the largest human protein, which plays a central role in sarcomere organization and passive myocyte stiffness. TTN truncating mutations cause dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM); however, the role of TTN missense variants in DCM has been difficult to elucidate because of the presence of background TTN variation. METHODS AND RESULTS:A cohort of 147 DCM index subjects underwent DNA sequencing for 313 TTN exons covering the N2B and N2BA cardiac isoforms of TTN. Of the 348 missense variants, we identified 44 "severe" rare variants by using a bioinformatic filtering process in 37 probands. Of these, 5 probands were double heterozygotes (additional variant in another DCM gene) and 7 were compound heterozygotes (2 TTN "severe" variants). Segregation analysis allowed the classification of the "severe" variants into 5 "likely" (cosegregating), 5 "unlikely" (noncosegregating), and 34 "possibly" (where family structure precluded segregation analysis) disease-causing variants. Patients with DCM carrying "likely" or "possibly" pathogenic TTN "severe" variants did not show a different outcome compared with "unlikely" and noncarriers of a "severe" TTN variant. However, the "likely" and "possibly" disease-causing variants were overrepresented in the C-zone of the A-band region of the sarcomere. CONCLUSIONS:TTN missense variants are common and present a challenge for bioinformatic classification, especially when informative families are not available. Although DCM patients carrying bioinformatically "severe" TTN variants do not appear to have a worse clinical course than noncarriers, the nonrandom distribution of "likely" and "possibly" disease-causing variants suggests a potential biological role for some TTN missense variants.