Lipid Deprivation Induces a Stable, Naive-to-Primed Intermediate State of Pluripotency in Human PSCs.
ABSTRACT: Current challenges in capturing naive human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) suggest that the factors regulating human naive versus primed pluripotency remain incompletely defined. Here we demonstrate that the widely used Essential 8 minimal medium (E8) captures hPSCs at a naive-to-primed intermediate state of pluripotency expressing several naive-like developmental, bioenergetic, and epigenomic features despite providing primed-state-sustaining growth factor conditions. Transcriptionally, E8 hPSCs are marked by activated lipid biosynthesis and suppressed MAPK/TGF-? gene expression, resulting in endogenous ERK inhibition. These features are dependent on lipid-free culture conditions and are lost upon lipid exposure, whereas short-term pharmacological ERK inhibition restores naive-to-primed intermediate traits even in the presence of lipids. Finally, we identify de novo lipogenesis as a common transcriptional signature of E8 hPSCs and the pre-implantation human epiblast in vivo. These findings implicate exogenous lipid availability in regulating human pluripotency and define E8 hPSCs as a stable, naive-to-primed intermediate (NPI) pluripotent state.
Project description:Naive and primed human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have provided useful insights into the regulation of pluripotency. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating naive conversion remain elusive. Here, we report intermediate naive conversion induced by overexpressing nuclear receptor 5A1 (NR5A1) in hPSCs. The cells displayed some naive features, such as clonogenicity, glycogen synthase kinase 3?, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) independence, expression of naive-associated genes, and two activated X chromosomes, but lacked others, such as KLF17 expression, transforming growth factor ? independence, and imprinted gene demethylation. Notably, NR5A1 negated MAPK activation by fibroblast growth factor 2, leading to cell-autonomous self-renewal independent of MAPK inhibition. These phenotypes may be associated with naive conversion, and were regulated by a DPPA2/4-dependent pathway that activates the selective expression of naive-associated genes. This study increases our understanding of the mechanisms regulating the conversion from primed to naive pluripotency.
Project description:The extent of naive characteriztics of recently reported naive human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) obtained in different naive-permissive media, is unclear. Moreover, these naive hPSCs were mainly derived by conversion from primed hPSCs or by direct derivation from human embryos rather than by somatic cell reprogramming. Here, we derived genetically matched human naive hPSCs by direct reprogramming of fibroblasts as well as primed-to-naive conversion using different naive conditions (NHSM, RSeT, 5iLAF and t2iLGöY). Comprehensive characterization showed that naive hPSCs obtained in these different conditions represent a spectrum of naive characteriztics irrespective of whether they were derived by conversion or reprograming. Importantly, only t2iLGöY hPSCs displayed a similar transcriptome to human cells from the inner cell mass, karyotypic stability and require re-priming for trilineage differentiation. Furthermore, our analyses identified KLF4 as a key reprogramming factor which enables conversion of primed hPSCs into naive t2iLGöY hPSCs. These findings underscore the role that reprogramming factors can play for the derivation of bona fide naive hPSCs and provide a molecular and functional reference for all the analysed conditions, which will help accelerate the downstream applications of naive hiPSCs. Overall design: Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have been traditionally maintained in a primed state. In the context of the current study we used a number of published or commercially available media to generated naive-like hiPS cells from fibroblasts by different reprogramming strategies as well as convert primed hPSCs into a naive-like state. Five hiPS cell lines were derived directly via somatic cell reprogramming using human fibroblasts in E8, NHSM, RSeT, 5iLAF and t2iLGöY conditions, P12 32F E8 primed line was used as the control. We also included a cell line obtained by converting naive rt2iLGöY iPSCs to primed iPSCs in E8 condition. Targeted methylation study was performed (n=1) to investigate and compare the DNA methylation profiles in these six samples.
Project description:We assessed the pluripotency of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) maintained on an automated platform using StemFlex and TeSR-E8 media. Analysis of transcriptome of single cells revealed similar expression of core pluripotency genes, as well as genes associated with naive and primed states of pluripotency. Analysis of individual cells from four samples consisting of two different iPSC lines each grown in the two culture media revealed a shared subpopulation structure with three main subpopulations different in pluripotency states. By implementing a machine learning approach, we estimated that most cells within each subpopulation are very similar between all four samples. The single-cell RNA sequencing analysis of iPSC lines grown in both media reports the molecular signature in StemFlex medium and how it compares to that observed in the TeSR-E8 medium.
Project description:Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) represent a promising platform for studying embryonic development, and different states of pluripotency reflect the different stages of embryo development. Here, we successfully converted three in-house-derived primed hPSC lines (H10, H24, and iPS) to a naive state and an expanded pluripotent stem cell (EPS) state. Primed, naive and EPS cells displayed state-specific morphologies and expressed pluripotent markers. The expression of SSEA4 and TRA-1-60 was downregulated in the conversion process. The H3K27me3 expression level also decreased, indicating that global methylation was reduced and that the X chromosome started to reactivate. RNA-sequencing analysis results revealed that differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were significantly enriched in both naive hPSCs and EPS cells when compared to the primed state. However, imprinted gene expression barely changed before and after state reversion. Gene ontology (GO) analyses showed that the upregulated DEGs were mostly enriched in RNA processing, DNA replication and repair, and regulation of cell cycle process, while downregulated DEGs were related to extracellular adhesion and various tissue developmental processes. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis showed that EPS cells were enriched in the PI3K-Akt and Wnt signaling pathways. Analysis of the lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network between primed, naive hPSCs and EPS cells revealed that hsa-miR-424-5p, has-miR-16-5p, has-miR-27b-3p, has-miR-29c-3p, and KCNQ1OT1 were crucial nodes with high degrees of connectivity. Our work may represent new insight into the intrinsic molecular features of different hPSC states.
Project description:Conventional human embryonic stem cells are considered to be primed pluripotent but can be induced to enter a naive state. However, the transcriptional features associated with naive and primed pluripotency are still not fully understood. Here we used single-cell RNA sequencing to characterize the differences between these conditions. We observed that both naive and primed populations were mostly homogeneous with no clear lineage-related structure and identified an intermediate subpopulation of naive cells with primed-like expression. We found that the naive-primed pluripotency axis is preserved across species, although the timing of the transition to a primed state is species specific. We also identified markers for distinguishing human naive and primed pluripotency as well as strong co-regulatory relationships between lineage markers and epigenetic regulators that were exclusive to naive cells. Our data provide valuable insights into the transcriptional landscape of human pluripotency at a cellular and genome-wide resolution.
Project description:Pluripotency is highly dynamic and progresses through a continuum of pluripotent stem cell states. The two states that bookend the pluripotency continuum, naive and primed, are well characterized, but our understanding of the intermediate states and transitions between them remains incomplete. Here, we dissect the dynamics of pluripotent state transitions underlying pre- to post-implantation epiblast differentiation. Through comprehensive mapping of the proteome, phosphoproteome, transcriptome, and epigenome of embryonic stem cells transitioning from naive to primed pluripotency, we find that rapid, acute, and widespread changes to the phosphoproteome precede ordered changes to the epigenome, transcriptome, and proteome. Reconstruction of the kinase-substrate networks reveals signaling cascades, dynamics, and crosstalk. Distinct waves of global proteomic changes mark discrete phases of pluripotency, with cell-state-specific surface markers tracking pluripotent state transitions. Our data provide new insights into multi-layered control of the phased progression of pluripotency and a foundation for modeling mechanisms regulating pluripotent state transitions (www.stemcellatlas.org).
Project description:Culture conditions play an important role in regulating the genomic integrity of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells (HPSCs). We report that HPSCs cultured in Essential 8 (E8) and mTeSR, two widely used media for feeder-free culturing of HPSCs, had many fold higher levels of ROS and higher mitochondrial potential than cells cultured in Knockout Serum Replacement containing media (KSR). HPSCs also exhibited increased levels of 8-hydroxyguanosine, phospho-histone-H2a.X and p53, as well as increased sensitivity to ?-irradiation in these two media. HPSCs in E8 and mTeSR had increased incidence of changes in their DNA sequence, indicating genotoxic stress, in addition to changes in nucleolar morphology and number. Addition of antioxidants to E8 and mTeSR provided only partial rescue. Our results suggest that it is essential to determine cellular ROS levels in addition to currently used criteria i.e. pluripotency markers, differentiation into all three germ layers and normal karyotype through multiple passages, in designing culture media.
Project description:Although the broad and unique differentiation potential of pluripotent stem cells relies on a complex transcriptional network centered around Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog, two well-distinct pluripotent states, called "naive" and "primed", have been described in vitro and markedly differ in their developmental potential, their expression profiles, their signaling requirements, and their reciprocal conversion. Aiming to determine the key features that segregate and coordinate these two states, data-driven optimization of network models is performed to identify relevant parameter regimes and reduce network complexity to its core structure. Decision dynamics of optimized networks is characterized by signal-dependent multistability and strongly asymmetric transitions among naive, primed, and nonpluripotent states. Further model perturbation and reduction approaches reveal that such a dynamical landscape of pluripotency involves a functional partitioning of the regulatory network. Specifically, two overlapping positive feedback modules, Klf4/Esrrb/Nanog and Oct4/Nanog, stabilize the naive or the primed state, respectively. In turn, their incoherent feedforward and negative feedback coupling mediated by the Erk/Gsk3 module is critical for robust segregation and sequential progression between naive and primed states before irreversible exit from pluripotency.
Project description:Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can self-renew or differentiate into any cell type, a phenomenon known as pluripotency. Distinct pluripotent states, termed naive and primed pluripotency, have been described. However, the mechanisms that control naive-primed pluripotent transition are poorly understood. Here, we perform a targeted screen for kinase inhibitors, which modulate the naive-primed pluripotent transition. We find that XMD compounds, which selectively inhibit Erk5 kinase and BET bromodomain family proteins, drive ESCs toward primed pluripotency. Using compound selectivity engineering and CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing, we reveal distinct functions for Erk5 and Brd4 in pluripotency regulation. We show that Erk5 signaling maintains ESCs in the naive state and suppresses progression toward primed pluripotency and neuroectoderm differentiation. Additionally, we identify a specialized role for Erk5 in defining ESC lineage selection, whereby Erk5 inhibits a cardiomyocyte-specific differentiation program. Our data therefore reveal multiple critical functions for Erk5 in controlling ESC identity.
Project description:In contrast to conventional human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) that are related to post-implantation embryo stages, naive hPSCs exhibit features of pre-implantation epiblast. Naive hPSCs are established by resetting conventional hPSCs, or are derived from dissociated embryo inner cell masses. Here we investigate conditions for transgene-free reprogramming of human somatic cells to naive pluripotency. We find that Wnt inhibition promotes RNA-mediated induction of naive pluripotency. We demonstrate application to independent human fibroblast cultures and endothelial progenitor cells. We show that induced naive hPSCs can be clonally expanded with a diploid karyotype and undergo somatic lineage differentiation following formative transition. Induced naive hPSC lines exhibit distinctive surface marker, transcriptome, and methylome properties of naive epiblast identity. This system for efficient, facile, and reliable induction of transgene-free naive hPSCs offers a robust platform, both for delineation of human reprogramming trajectories and for evaluating the attributes of isogenic naive versus conventional hPSCs.