Effect of Dairy Protein Intake on Muscle Mass among Korean Adults: A Prospective Cohort Study.
ABSTRACT: This cohort study aimed to identify the associations of dairy protein intake with the risk of developing a low muscle mass during a 12-year follow-up period, using data from 4412 middle-aged Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study participants with a normal baseline muscle mass. Dairy protein intake at baseline was assessed using a semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire. Skeletal muscle mass index (SMI), defined as the weight-adjusted skeletal muscle mass, was measured biennially using multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analyses. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to calculate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Overall, 395 subjects developed a low SMI (%) during an average follow-up of 141 (19-152) months. The average consumption of milk and other dairy products was 73.6 and 104.1 g/day, respectively. In men, a higher dairy protein intake was associated with a decreased risk of developing a low SMI (tertile 3 [T3] vs. T1, HR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.42, 0.94; p for trend = 0.029). In a stratified analysis according to a total protein intake, this association was stronger in the lower-protein intake group (HR: 0.59; 95% CI: 0.35, 0.99; p for trend = 0.036) but not detected in the higher-protein intake group. Men who consumed milk ?1 time/day had a significantly lower risk of developing a low SMI (HR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.39, 0.98; p for trend = 0.023). No significant associations were observed in women. In summary, dairy consumption appears to be beneficial for decreasing the risk of developing a low muscle mass in middle-aged Korean men.
Project description:We aimed to identify the association between low skeletal muscle, sarcopenic obesity, and the incidence of albuminuria in the general population using a longitudinal study. Data from 29,942 subjects who underwent two or more routine health examinations from 2006 to 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Relative skeletal muscle mass was presented using the skeletal muscle mass index (SMI), a measure of body weight-adjusted appendicular skeletal muscle mass estimated by bioelectrical impedance analysis. The cumulative incidence of albuminuria was 981 (3.3%) during the 7-year follow-up period. The hazard ratio of incident albuminuria was 1.44 (95% CI: 1.22-1.71, p for trend <0.001) in the lowest SMI tertile relative to the highest SMI tertile after multivariable adjustment. After additionally adjusting for general and central obesity, the hazard ratio was 1.35 (95% CI: 1.13-1.61, p for trend = 0.001) and 1.30 (95% CI: 1.08-1.56, p for trend = 0.003), respectively. Furthermore, the risk of developing albuminuria was much higher in the sarcopenic obesity group (HR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.21-1.81, p for trend <0.001) compared to the other groups. Sarcopenic obesity, as well as low skeletal muscle, may lead to albuminuria in general populations.
Project description:The aim of this study was to investigate the association between total and types of dairy product intake and risk of developing incident type 2 diabetes, using a food diary.A nested case-cohort within the EPIC-Norfolk Study was examined, including a random subcohort (n?=?4,000) and cases of incident diabetes (n?=?892, including 143 cases in the subcohort) followed-up for 11 years. Diet was assessed using a prospective 7-day food diary. Total dairy intake (g/day) was estimated and categorised into high-fat (?3.9%) and low-fat (<3.9% fat) dairy, and by subtype into yoghurt, cheese and milk. Combined fermented dairy product intake (yoghurt, cheese, sour cream) was estimated and categorised into high- and low-fat. Prentice-weighted Cox regression HRs were calculated.Total dairy, high-fat dairy, milk, cheese and high-fat fermented dairy product intakes were not associated with the development of incident diabetes. Low-fat dairy intake was inversely associated with diabetes in age- and sex-adjusted analyses (tertile [T] 3 vs T1, HR 0.81 [95% CI 0.66, 0.98]), but further adjustment for anthropometric, dietary and diabetes risk factors attenuated this association. In addition, an inverse association was found between diabetes and low-fat fermented dairy product intake (T3 vs T1, HR 0.76 [95% CI 0.60, 0.99]; p(trend)?=?0.049) and specifically with yoghurt intake (HR 0.72 [95% CI 0.55, 0.95]; p(trend)?=?0.017) in multivariable adjusted analyses.Greater low-fat fermented dairy product intake, largely driven by yoghurt intake, was associated with a decreased risk of type 2 diabetes development in prospective analyses. These findings suggest that the consumption of specific dairy types may be beneficial for the prevention of diabetes, highlighting the importance of food group subtypes for public health messages.
Project description:BACKGROUND:A loss of muscle mass may be influenced by multiple factors. Insulin sensitivity and metabolic acidosis are associated with muscle wasting and may be improved with potassium intake. This study evaluated the association between dietary potassium intake and skeletal muscle mass. METHODS:We performed a cross-sectional study with data obtained from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) (2008-2011). Participant's daily food intake was assessed using a 24-h recall method. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) was calculated as the sum of muscle mass in both arms and legs, measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The skeletal muscle index (SMI) was calculated as ASM divided by height2 (kg/m2). Low muscle mass was defined as a SMI <?7.0?kg/m2 for men and?<?5.4?kg/m2 for women. RESULTS:Data from 16,558 participants (age???19?years) were analyzed. Participants were categorized into quintiles according to their potassium intake. Sex-specific differences were found in the association between potassium intake and muscle mass (PInteraction?<?0.001). In men, higher potassium intake was associated with lower odds for low muscle mass; the fully adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 0.78 (0.60-1.03), 0.71 (0.54-0.93), 0.68 (0.51-0.90), and 0.71 (0.51-0.98) for the top four quintiles (referenced against the lowest quintile), respectively. However, this association was attenuated in women after adjusting for total energy intake. Higher potassium intakes were also associated with a greater SMI. CONCLUSIONS:Higher dietary potassium intake decreased the odds of low muscle mass in men but not in women.
Project description:Background:Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have an increased risk of muscle mass reduction. However, the association between muscle mass and mortality in T2DM remains unknown. Methods:This was a historical cohort study with the endpoint of all-cause mortality. This study included 163 Japanese men and 141 postmenopausal women with T2DM whose body compositions were evaluated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Low muscle mass was defined as a skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) of <7.0?kg/m2 for men and <5.4?kg/m2 for women. Results:During the 6-year follow-up period, 32 men and 14 women died. In a Cox regression analysis adjusted for age, T2DM duration, glycated hemoglobin, serum creatinine, fasting C-peptide, body mass index, and lean body mass were associated with the risk of mortality in men [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.00-3.28 per standard deviation (SD) decrease, p = 0.049] and women (HR = 4.53, 95% CI = 1.14-17.96 per SD decrease, p = 0.032). Neither fat mass nor bone mineral content was associated with mortality. Low SMI was associated with increased mortality in women (HR = 5.97, 95% CI = 1.04-34.37, p = 0.045), while the association between low SMI and mortality was marginal in men (HR = 2.38, 95% CI = 0.92-6.14, p = 0.074). Conclusions:Low muscle mass was independently associated with all-cause mortality in patients with T2DM. The preservation of skeletal muscle mass is important to protect patients with T2DM from increased mortality risk.
Project description:Previous studies have shown that low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), visceral obesity and low muscle mass may share pathophysiological mechanisms, such as insulin resistance and chronic inflammation. In this study, we investigated whether low CRF is associated with low muscle mass, visceral obesity, and visceral obesity combined with low muscle mass.The associations between CRF and low muscle mass and combined low muscle mass and visceral obesity were examined in 298 apparently healthy adults aged 20-70 years. Low muscle mass was defined using a skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) that was calculated using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Visceral obesity was defined as a visceral fat area (VFA) exceeding 100 cm2 in women and 130 cm2 in men. We classified the participants into 4 low muscle mass/visceral obesity groups according to SMI and VFA. CRF was measured using a cycle ergometer test.CRF level correlated positively with SMI and negatively with VFA. Individuals with low muscle mass had lower CRF values than those without low muscle mass. After adjustment for age, sex, lifestyle factors, and markers for insulin resistance and inflammation, participants in the lowest quartile of CRF had an odds ratio (OR) for low muscle mass of 4.98 compared with those in the highest quartile (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.19-12.99; P for trend = 0.001) and an OR for combined low muscle mass and visceral obesity of 31.46 (95% CI = 4.31-229.68; P for trend = 0.001).Individuals with lower CRF exhibited increased risk of low muscle mass and combined low muscle mass and visceral obesity. These results suggest that low CRF may be a potential indicator for low muscle mass and combined low muscle mass and visceral obesity in Korean adults.
Project description:Body composition measures may predict outcomes of cancer surgery. Whereas low muscle mass shown on preoperative computed tomography (CT) scans has been associated with worse outcomes after surgery for pancreatic cancer, less consideration has been given to low muscle attenuation, reflecting poor muscle quality. Studies relating muscle mass and muscle attenuation with outcomes for patients with periampullary, nonpancreatic cancer are lacking.Skeletal muscle mass and attenuation were assessed in 166 consecutive patients undergoing pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) for periampullary, nonpancreatic cancer at a single center between 2000 and 2012. The skeletal muscle index (SMI) was calculated from cross-sectional muscle area on preoperative CT imaging at the third lumbar vertebra level (L3) and normalized for height. The skeletal muscle attenuation index (MAI) was calculated by measuring the average Hounsfield units of the total muscle area at the L3 level. Overall survival (OS) and the rate of major postoperative complications (Clavien-Dindo ?3) were extracted from prospectively maintained databases.Low SMI was present in 78.3 % and low MAI in 48.8 % of the patients. The multivariate analysis showed lymph node metastasis [hazard ratio (HR) 1.8; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.1-2.9], microscopic radicality (HR 2.0; 95 % CI 1.2-3.4), and low MAI (HR 2.0; 95 % CI 1.2-3.3), but not low SMI to be significantly associated with decreased OS. Low MAI (HR 1.9; 95 % CI 1.0-3.8) was the only independent risk factor for major postoperative complications.Skeletal muscle quality, but not muscle mass, predicted survival and major complications after PD for periampullary, nonpancreatic cancer. Preoperative CT-derived body composition measures may stratify patients into risk categories and support shared decision making.
Project description:To prospectively examine the association between commonly consumed dairy products and the risk of Parkinson disease (PD) in women and men.Analyses were based on data from 2 large prospective cohort studies, the Nurses' Health Study (n = 80,736) and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (n = 48,610), with a total of 26 and 24 years of follow-up, respectively. Both US-based studies were conducted via mailed biennial questionnaires. Dietary intake was assessed with food frequency questionnaires administered repeatedly over the follow-up period. Incident cases of PD (n = 1,036) were identified via questionnaires and subsequently confirmed by reviewing medical records. We also conducted a meta-analysis to combine our study with 3 previously published prospective studies on total milk intake and PD risk and 1 study on total dairy intake and PD risk.While total dairy intake was not significantly associated with PD risk in our cohorts, intake of low-fat dairy foods was associated with PD risk. The pooled, multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) comparing people who consumed at least 3 servings of low-fat dairy per day to those who consumed none was 1.34 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.79, p trend = 0.04). This association appeared to be driven by an increased risk of PD associated with skim and low-fat milk (HR 1.39, 95% CI 1.12-1.73, p trend <0.01). Results were similar in women and men (p for heterogeneity >0.05). In the meta-analysis, the pooled relative risk comparing extreme categories of total milk intake was 1.56 (95% CI 1.30-1.88), and the association between total dairy and PD became significant (HR 1.27, 95% CI 1.04-1.55).Frequent consumption of dairy products appears to be associated with a modest increased risk of PD in women and men.
Project description:Whether milk and dairy intake after a prostate cancer diagnosis is associated with a poorer prognosis is unknown. We investigated postdiagnostic milk and dairy intake in relation to risk of lethal prostate cancer (metastases and prostate cancer death) among participants in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study.The cohort consisted of 3,918 men diagnosed with apparently localized prostate cancer between 1986 and 2006, and followed to 2008. Data on milk and dairy intake were available from repeated questionnaires. We used Cox proportional hazards models to calculate HRs and 95% CIs of the association between postdiagnostic milk and dairy intake and prostate cancer outcomes.We ascertained 229 prostate cancer deaths and an additional 69 metastases during follow-up. In multivariate analysis, total milk and dairy intakes after diagnosis were not associated with a greater risk of lethal prostate cancer. Men with the highest versus lowest intake of whole milk were at an increased risk of progression (HR = 2.15, 95% CI: 1.28-3.60; P(trend) < 0.01). Men in the highest versus lowest quintile of low-fat dairy intake were at a decreased risk of progression (HR = 0.62; 95% CI: 0.40-0.95; P(trend) = 0.07).With the exception of whole milk, our results suggest that milk and dairy intake after a prostate cancer diagnosis is not associated with an increased risk of lethal prostate cancer.This is the first larger prospective study investigating the relation between postdiagnostic milk and dairy intake and risk of lethal prostate cancer.
Project description:High lactose intake has been suggested to increase epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk. We evaluated the association between lactose consumed during specific life periods (high school, premenopause, and postmenopause) and later risk of EOC.We assessed the association of dairy food and nutrient intake with risk of EOC during 28 years of follow-up including 764 cases in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and NHSII. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to model the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for EOC across categories of dairy food or nutrient intake. We examined dietary intake in adulthood overall, as well as during premenopausal/postmenopausal years and high school.In analyses of the highest versus lowest cumulative average intake in adulthood, we observed a non-significant inverse association with skim milk intake (HR 0.76, 95% CI 0.54-1.06, p(trend) = 0.05), a non-significant inverse association with lactose intake (HR 0.87, 95% CI 0.69-1.11, p(trend) = 0.22) and no association with consumption of whole milk, dairy calcium, or dairy fat. Similar risk estimates were observed for dairy food/nutrient intake during high school, premenopause or postmenopause. Lactose intake in adulthood was inversely associated with risk of endometrioid EOC (HR 0.32, 95% CI 0.16-0.65, p(trend) < 0.001).These findings do not support the hypothesis that higher lactose intake increases EOC risk. The inverse association with endometrioid tumors deserves further study.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Sarcopenia is the loss of skeletal muscle mass and function that occurs with advancing age and certain diseases. It is thought to have a negative impact on survival in cancer patients. Routine computed tomography imaging is often used to quantify skeletal muscle in cancer patients. Sarcopenia is defined by a low skeletal muscle index (SMI). Skeletal muscle radiation attenuation (SMRA) is used to define muscle quality. The primary aim of this meta-analysis was to study the association between sarcopenia or SMRA and overall survival (OS) or complications in patients with ovarian cancer. METHODS:Medline, Embase, CINAHL, and PEDro databases were searched from inception to 15 February 2019. Studies evaluating the prognostic effect of SMI and SMRA on ovarian cancer survival or surgical complications were included. Risk of bias and study quality were evaluated with the Quality in Prognosis Studies Instrument (QUIPS) according to the modified Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) framework. RESULTS:The search strategy yielded 4262 hits in all four databases combined. Ten and eight studies were included for qualitative and quantitative analysis, respectively. Meta-analysis revealed a significant association between the SMI and OS [0.007; hazard ratio (HR): 1.11, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-1.20]. SMRA was also significantly associated with OS (P < 0.001; HR: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.08-1.20). Association between the SMI and surgical complications had borderline statistical significance (0.05; HR: 1.23, 95% CI: 1.00-1.52). The risk of bias assessed with QUIPS was high in all studies. The quality of the evidence was very low. CONCLUSIONS:Whereas our meta-analysis indicated that a low SMI and low SMRA are associated with survival in ovarian cancer patients, the low quality of the source data precludes drawing definitive conclusions.