Targeting rehabilitation to improve outcomes after total knee arthroplasty in patients at risk of poor outcomes: randomised controlled trial.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:To evaluate whether a progressive course of outpatient physiotherapy offers superior outcomes to a single physiotherapy review and home exercise based intervention when targeted at patients with a predicted poor outcome after total knee arthroplasty. DESIGN:Parallel group randomised controlled trial. SETTING:13 secondary and tertiary care centres in the UK providing postoperative physiotherapy. PARTICIPANTS:334 participants with knee osteoarthritis who were defined as at risk of a poor outcome after total knee arthroplasty, based on the Oxford knee score, at six weeks postoperatively. 163 were allocated to therapist led outpatient rehabilitation and 171 to a home exercise based protocol. INTERVENTIONS:All participants were reviewed by a physiotherapist and commenced 18 sessions of rehabilitation over six weeks, either as therapist led outpatient rehabilitation (progressive goal oriented functional rehabilitation protocol, modified weekly in one-one contact sessions) or as physiotherapy review followed by a home exercise based regimen (without progressive input from a physiotherapist). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Primary outcome was Oxford knee score at 52 weeks, with a 4 point difference between groups considered to be clinically meaningful. Secondary outcomes included additional patient reported outcome measures of pain and function at 14, 26, and 52 weeks post-surgery. RESULTS:334 patients were randomised. Eight were lost to follow-up. Intervention compliance was more than 85%. The between group difference in Oxford knee score at 52 weeks was 1.91 (95% confidence interval -0.18 to 3.99) points, favouring the outpatient rehabilitation arm (P=0.07). When all time point data were analysed, the between group difference in Oxford knee score was a non-clinically meaningful 2.25 points (0.61 to 3.90, P=0.01). No between group differences were found for secondary outcomes of average pain (0.25 points, -0.78 to 0.28, P=0.36) or worst pain (0.22 points, -0.71 to 0.41, P=0.50) at 52 weeks or earlier time points, or of satisfaction with outcome (odds ratio 1.07, 95% confidence interval 0.71 to 1.62, P=0.75) or post-intervention function (4.64 seconds, 95% confidence interval -14.25 to 4.96, P=0.34). CONCLUSIONS:Outpatient therapist led rehabilitation was not superior to a single physiotherapist review and home exercise based regimen in patients at risk of poor outcomes after total knee arthroplasty. No clinically relevant differences were observed across primary or secondary outcome measures. TRIALS REGISTRATION:Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN23357609 and ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01849445.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Physical rehabilitation is required to enhance functional outcomes and overall recovery following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, there are no universally accepted clinical guidelines available to consistently structure rehabilitation for TKA patients. A common method is rehabilitation provided in an outpatient setting, on a one-to-one treatment basis. This method is resource-intensive and outcomes must be compared to less costly alternatives such as home-based rehabilitation. The current study will analyse a novel home-based rehabilitation program. The Maxm skate is a portable, lower-limb, postoperative, rehabilitation exercise device for individual use in a hospital or home-based setting. This study was developed to compare the safety, efficacy and cost-effectiveness of the Maxm Skate rehabilitation program to standard rehabilitative care following TKA. The primary outcome is the range of motion (ROM) achieved by patients who received the Maxm Skate program compared to standard care at three?months post TKA. Secondary outcomes include patient-reported outcomes, costs and functional evaluations which will be collected at multiple time-points up to 12?months after TKA.<h4>Methods</h4>This is a single-blinded, randomised controlled trial (RCT) in which 116 eligible participants consented for primary TKA will be randomly allocated to receive either the Maxm Skate rehabilitation program or standard rehabilitative care. Fifty-eight participants per group will provide 90% power (??=?0.05) to detect 10° of difference in ROM between groups at three months after TKA, assuming a within-group standard deviation of 16° and allowing for 5% loss to follow-up. Participants randomised to the Maxm Skate group will use the skate device and accompanying iOS App and sensors to complete rehabilitation exercises, as outlined in the Maxm Skate Rehabilitation Guide. Outcomes will be compared to those receiving standard rehabilitative care. A blinded physiotherapist will evaluate functional outcomes preoperatively and at 2, 4, 6, 12, 26 and 52?weeks after TKA. The functional assessment will include measures of knee ROM, pain, isometric knee strength, balance and knee/thigh circumference. Limited measures will also be assessed at day 2 postoperatively by an alternate, unblinded physiotherapist. Clinical outcome measures will be administered preoperatively and at 6, 12 and 52?weeks postoperatively. An economic evaluation will be conducted and participants will be screened for adverse event occurrences from the time of consent to 12?months postoperatively.<h4>Discussion</h4>This RCT will be the first to investigate the safety, efficacy and cost-effectiveness of the home-based Maxm Skate Rehabilitation program, in comparison to standard rehabilitative care following primary TKA.<h4>Trial registration</h4>Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN12616001081404p . Registered on 11 August 2016.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>To assess a targeted 'therapy as required' model of post-discharge outpatient physiotherapy provision. Specifically, we investigated what proportion of patients accessed post-discharge physiotherapy following total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA), whether accessing therapy was associated with post-arthroplasty patient reported outcomes and whether it was possible to predict which patients would access post-discharge physiotherapy from pre-operative data.<h4>Design</h4>Prospective, observational, longitudinal cohort study.<h4>Setting</h4>Single National Health Service orthopaedic teaching hospital in the UK.<h4>Participants</h4>1395 patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty and 1374 patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty.<h4>Primary and secondary outcome measures</h4>Self-reported access of post-discharge physiotherapy, the Oxford Hip or Knee Score, EuroQol 5-dimension questionnaire and post-operative surgical episode satisfaction metric.<h4>Results</h4>662 (48.2%) patients with TKA and 493 (35.3%) patients with THA accessed additional post-discharge physiotherapy. Patient-reported outcomes (p<0.001) and surgical episode satisfaction (p=0.001) in both THA and TKA were higher in patients that did not participate in post-discharge physiotherapy. Regression models using pre-operative symptom burden and demographic data predicted post-discharge therapy access with an accuracy of only 17% greater than chance in patients with THA and 7% greater than chance in patients with TKA.<h4>Conclusions</h4>In a choice-based service model of 'therapy as required' following hip and knee arthroplasty only a third of THA and half of TKA patients accessed post-discharge therapy. Patients who did not access physiotherapy reported greater post-operative outcomes. This variation in the need for post-discharge physiotherapy suggests that targeting of rehabilitation may be a cost-effective model, however it was not possible to reliably predict which patients would access post-discharge physiotherapy from pre-operative data.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Femoroacetabular impingement is a common cause of hip/groin symptoms and impaired functional performance in younger sporting populations and results from morphological abnormalities of the hip in which the proximal femur abuts against the acetabular rim. Many people with symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement undergo arthroscopic hip surgery to correct the bony abnormalities. While many case series over the past decade have reported favourable surgical outcomes, it is not known whether formal rehabilitation is needed as part of the management of patients undergoing this surgical procedure. This randomised controlled trial will investigate the efficacy of a progressive physiotherapist-supervised rehabilitation program (Takla-O'Donnell Protocol) in improving health-related quality of life, physical function and symptoms in individuals undergoing arthroscopic management of femoroacetabular impingement. METHODS/DESIGN: 100 people aged 16-35 years undergoing hip arthroscopy for symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement will be recruited from surgical practices in Melbourne, Australia and randomly allocated to either a physiotherapy or control group. Both groups will receive written information and one standardised post-operative physiotherapy visit whilst in hospital as per usual care. Those in the physiotherapy group will also receive seven individual 30-minute physiotherapy sessions, including one pre-operative visit (within 2 weeks of surgery) and six post-operative visits at fortnightly intervals (commencing two weeks after surgery). The physiotherapy intervention will incorporate education and advice, manual techniques and prescription of a progressive rehabilitation program including home, aquatic and gym exercises. The control group will not receive additional physiotherapy management. Measurements will be taken at baseline (2 weeks pre-operatively) and at 14 and 24 weeks post-surgery. Primary outcomes are the International Hip Outcome Tool and the sports subscale of the Hip Outcome Score at 14 weeks post-surgery. Secondary outcomes include the Copenhagen Hip and Groin Outcome Score, the activities of daily living subscale of the Hip Outcome Score, the Heidelberg Sports Activity Score, a modified Tegner Activity Scale and participant-perceived overall change. DISCUSSION: The findings from this randomised controlled trial will provide evidence for the efficacy of a specific physiotherapist-supervised rehabilitation program in improving outcomes following arthroscopic management of symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry reference number: ACTRN12613000282785.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Approximately 20% of patients are not satisfied with the outcome of total knee replacement, great volumes of which are carried out yearly. Physiotherapy is often provided by the NHS to address dysfunction following knee replacement; however the efficacy of this is unknown. Although clinically it is accepted that therapy is useful, provision of physiotherapy to all patients post-operatively does not enhance outcomes at one year. No study has previously assessed the effect of targeting therapy to individuals struggling to recover in the early post-operative phase.The aim of the TRIO study is to determine whether stratifying care by targeting physiotherapy to those individuals performing poorly following knee replacement is effective in improving the one year outcomes. We are also investigating whether the structure of the physiotherapy provision itself influences outcomes. METHODS/DESIGN:The study is a multi-centre prospective randomised controlled trial (RCT) of patients undergoing primary total knee replacement, with treatment targeted at those deemed most susceptible to gain from it. Use of the national PROMS programme for pre-operative data collection allows us to screen all patients at initial post-operative clinical review, and recruit only those deemed to be recovering slowly.We aim to recruit 440 patients through various NHS orthopaedic centres who will undergo six weeks of physiotherapy. The intervention will be either 'intensive' involving both hospital and home-based functional exercise rehabilitation, or 'standard of care' consisting of home exercises. Patients will be randomised to either group using a web-based system. Both groups will receive pre and post-intervention physiotherapy review. Patients will be followed-up to one year post-operation. The primary outcome measure is the Oxford Knee Score. Secondary outcomes are patient satisfaction, functional ability, pain scores and cost-effectiveness. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN23357609. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01849445.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Emerging evidence indicates that rehabilitation can improve ataxia, mobility and independence in everyday activities in individuals with hereditary cerebellar ataxia. However, with the rarity of the genetic ataxias and known recruitment challenges in rehabilitation trials, most studies have been underpowered, non-randomised or non-controlled. This study will be the first, appropriately powered randomised controlled trial to examine the efficacy of an outpatient and home-based rehabilitation programme on improving motor function for individuals with hereditary cerebellar ataxia.<h4>Methods and analysis</h4>This randomised, single-blind, parallel group trial will compare a 30-week rehabilitation programme to standard care in individuals with hereditary cerebellar ataxia. Eighty individuals with a hereditary cerebellar ataxia, aged 15 years and above, will be recruited. The rehabilitation programme will include 6?weeks of outpatient land and aquatic physiotherapy followed immediately by a 24-?week home exercise programme supported with fortnightly physiotherapy sessions. Participants in the standard care group will be asked to continue their usual physical activity. The primary outcome will be the motor domain of the Functional Independence Measure. Secondary outcomes will measure the motor impairment related to ataxia, balance, quality of life and cost-effectiveness. Outcomes will be administered at baseline, 7?weeks, 18 weeks and 30 weeks by a physiotherapist blinded to group allocation. A repeated measures mixed-effects linear regression model will be used to analyse the effect of the treatment group for each of the dependent continuous variables. The primary efficacy analysis will follow the intention-to-treat principle.<h4>Ethics and dissemination</h4>The study has been approved by the Monash Health Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC/18/MonH/418) and the Human Research Ethics Committee of the Northern Territory Department of Health and Menzies School of Health Research (2019/3503). Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals, presented at national and/or international conferences and disseminated to Australian ataxia support groups.<h4>Trial registration number</h4>ACTRN12618000908235.
Project description:Most pulmonary rehabilitation programmes currently involve 2-3 sessions per week as recommended by international guidelines. We aimed to investigate whether relevant improvements in physical capabilities and quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) could be achieved by a long-term, low intensity, once weekly rehabilitation programme using limited resources.100 patients with moderate to severe COPD were randomised to a continuous outpatient interdisciplinary rehabilitation programme or standard care. Physiotherapy-led supervised outpatient training sessions were performed once weekly in addition to educational elements. Outcome measures at baseline and after 26 weeks were 6-minute-walk-test, cycle ergometry, and health-related quality of life.37 patients in the training group and 44 patients in the control group completed the study. After 26 weeks there were clinically significant differences between the groups for 6 minute-walk-distance (+59 m, 95% CI 28-89 m), maximum work load (+7.4 Watt, 95% CI 0.5-13.4 Watt) and St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire score (-5 points, 95% CI -10 to -1 points). Total staff costs of the programme per participant were???€625.Clinically meaningful improvements in physical capabilities and health-related quality of life may be achieved using long-term pulmonary rehabilitation programmes of lower intensity than currently recommended.clinicaltrials.gov NCT01195402.
Project description:Following stroke, many people have difficulty activating their paretic muscles quickly and with sufficient power to regain their balance by taking quick and effective steps. Reduced dynamic balance and mobility following stroke, or 'walking balance', is associated with reduced self-efficacy and restrictions in daily living activities, community integration, and quality of life. Targeted training of movement speeds required to effectively regain balance has been largely overlooked in post-stroke rehabilitation. The Fast muscle Activation and Stepping Training (FAST) program incorporates fast functional movements known to produce bursts of muscle activation essential for stepping and regaining standing balance effectively. The purpose of this study is to: 1) compare the effectiveness of an outpatient FAST program to an active control outpatient physiotherapy intervention in improving walking balance following stroke, and 2) explore potential mechanisms associated with improvements in walking balance.This will be an assessor-blinded, parallel group randomized controlled trial design. Sixty participants (30 per group) who have sustained a stroke within the previous six months will be randomly assigned with stratification for lower limb motor recovery to receive twelve 45-minute 1:1 physiotherapy intervention sessions over 6 - 10 weeks in an outpatient setting of either: 1) FAST intervention - systematic and progressive practice of fast squatting and stepping exercises, or 2) active control - conventional physiotherapy directed at improving balance and mobility that includes no targeted fast movement training. The same blinded research physiotherapist will assess outcomes at three time points: 1) baseline (prior to intervention), 2) follow up (within one week post-intervention); and 3) retention (one month post-intervention). The primary outcome is dynamic balance assessed using the Community Balance and Mobility Scale. We will also assess fast and self-selected walking speed, balance self-efficacy, and the ability to respond to internal and external perturbations to balance and associated changes in postural muscle activation.The targeted training of fast functional movements in the FAST program is expected to improve walking balance following stroke compared to the active control intervention. Unique to this study is the investigation of potential mechanisms associated with improvements in walking balance.NCT01573585.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) surgery causes postoperative pain. The use of perioperative injections around the knee containing local anaesthetic, opiates and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs has increased in popularity to manage pain. Theoretical advantages include reduced requirements for analgesia and earlier mobilisation. We propose a single-centre randomised controlled trial of multimodal periarticular anaesthetic infiltration versus femoral nerve anaesthetic blockade as analgesia for TKA. The aim is to determine, in patients undergoing TKA, if there is a difference in patient-reported pain scores on the visual analogue scale (VAS) prior to physiotherapy on day 1 postoperatively between treatment groups. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:Patients undergoing a primary unilateral TKA at University Hospitals Coventry and Warwickshire Hospitals will be assessed for eligibility. A total of 264 patients will provide 90% power to detect a difference of 12 mm on the VAS on day 1 postoperatively at the 5% level. The trial will use 1:1 randomisation, stratified by mode of anaesthetic. Primary outcome measure will be the VAS for pain prior to physiotherapy on day 1. Secondary outcome measures include VAS on day 2, total use of opiate analgesia up to 48 h, ordinal pain scores up to 40 min after surgery, independent functional knee physiotherapist assessment on days 1 and 2. Oxford knee Scores (OKS), EuroQol (EQ-5D) and Douleur Neuropathic Pain Scores (DN2) will be recorded at baseline, 6 weeks and 12 months. Adverse events will be recorded up to 12 months. Analysis will investigate differences in VAS on day 1 between the two treatment groups on an intention-to-treat basis. Tests will be two-sided and considered to provide evidence for a significant difference if p values are less than 0.05. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:NRES Committee West Midlands, 23 September 2013 (ref: 13/WM/0316). The results will be disseminated via peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBERS:ISRCTN 60611146 and EUDRACT Number 2013-002439-10 (protocol code number PAKA-33601-AS117013); Pre-results.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Ankle fractures result in significant morbidity in adults, with prognosis worsening with increasing age. Previous trials have not found evidence supporting supervised physiotherapy sessions, but these studies have not focused on older adults or tailored the exercise interventions to the complex needs of this patient group. The Ankle Fracture Treatment: Enhancing Rehabilitation study is a pilot randomised controlled trial to assess feasibility of a later definitive trial comparing best-practice advice with progressive functional exercise for adults aged 50 years and over after ankle fracture.The main objectives are to assess: (i) patient engagement with the trial, measured by the participation rate of those eligible; (ii) establish whether the interventions are acceptable to participants and therapists, assessed by intervention adherence levels, participant interviews and a therapist focus group; (iii) participant retention in the trial, measured by the proportion of participants providing outcome data at 6 months; (iv) acceptability of measuring outcomes at 3 and 6?month follow-up. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:A multicentre pilot randomised controlled trial with an embedded qualitative study. At least 48 patients aged 50 years and over with an ankle fracture requiring surgical management, or non-operative management by immobilisation for at least 4 weeks, will be recruited from a minimum of three National Health Service hospitals in the UK. Participants will be allocated 1:1 via a central web-based randomisation system to: (i) best-practice advice (one session of face-to-face self-management advice delivered by a physiotherapist and up to two optional additional sessions) or (ii) progressive functional exercise (up to six sessions of individual face-to-face physiotherapy). An embedded qualitative study will include one-to-one interviews with up to 20 participants and a therapist focus group. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:Hampshire B Research Ethics Committee (18/SC/0281) gave approval on 2nd July 2018. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:ISRCTN16612336.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Although several rehabilitation programmes following hip arthroscopy for femoracetabular impingement (FAI) syndrome have been described, there are no clinical trials evaluating whether formal physiotherapy-prescribed rehabilitation improves recovery compared with self-directed rehabilitation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of adding a physiotherapist-prescribed rehabilitation programme to arthroscopic surgery for FAI syndrome. DESIGN:Randomised controlled trial. METHODS:People aged ?16 years with FAI syndrome scheduled for hip arthroscopy were recruited and randomly allocated to physiotherapy (PT) or control. The PT group received seven PT sessions (one preoperative and six postoperative) incorporating education, manual therapy and a progressive rehabilitation programme of home, aquatic and gym exercises while the control group did not undertake PT rehabilitation. Measurements were taken at baseline (2 weeks presurgery) and 14 and 24?weeks postsurgery. The primary outcomes were the International Hip Outcome Tool (iHOT-33) and the sport subscale of the Hip Outcome Score (HOS) at week 14. RESULTS:Due to slower than expected recruitment and funding constraints, recruitment was ceased after 23 months. Thirty participants (14 PT and 16 control) were randomised and 28 (14 PT and 14 control; 93%) and 22 (11 PT and 11 control; 73%) completed week 14 and 24 measurements, respectively. For the 14-week primary outcomes, the PT group showed significantly greater improvements on the iHOT-33 (mean difference 14.2 units; 95%?CI 1.2 to 27.2) and sport subscale of the HOS (13.8 units; 95%?CI 0.3 to 27.3). There were no significant between-group differences at week 24. CONCLUSIONS:An individual PT treatment and rehabilitation programme may augment improvements in patient-reported outcomes following arthroscopy for FAI syndrome. However, given the small sample size, larger trials are needed to validate the findings. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:Trial registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry :ACTRN12613000282785, Results.