Combined primary carnitine deficiency with neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency in a Chinese newborn.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Primary carnitine deficiency (PCD) is an autosomal recessive disorder affecting the carnitine cycle and resulting in defective fatty acid oxidation. Neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency (NICCD) is an autosomal recessive disorder and one of the main causes of inherited neonatal cholestasis. Both PCD and NICCD are included in the current expanded newborn screening (NBS) targets. CASE PRESENTATION:Targeted exome sequencing was performed on a Chinese proband, and Sanger sequencing was utilised to validate the detected mutations. The patient who was initially suspected to have PCD based on the NBS results presented with neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis and ventricular septal defect. Further investigations not only confirmed PCD but also revealed the presence of NICCD. Four distinct mutations were detected, including c.51C?>?G (p.F17L) and c.760C?>?T (p.R254X) in SLC22A5 as well as c.615?+?5G?>?A and IVS16ins3kb in SLC25A13. CONCLUSIONS:This is the first reported case of PCD and NICCD occurring in the same patient. The dual disorders in a newborn broaden our understanding of inherited metabolic diseases. Thus, this study highlighted the importance of further genetic testing in patients presenting with unusual metabolic screening findings.
Project description:Citrullinemia is the earliest identifiable biochemical abnormality in neonates with intrahepatic cholestasis due to a citrin deficiency (NICCD) and it has been included in newborn screening panels using tandem mass spectrometry. However, only one neonate was positive among 600,000 infants born in Sapporo city and Hokkaido, Japan between 2006 and 2017. We investigated 12 neonates with NICCD who were initially considered normal in newborn mass screening (NBS) by tandem mass spectrometry, but were later diagnosed with NICCD by DNA tests. Using their initial NBS data, we examined citrulline concentrations and ratios of citrulline to total amino acids. Although their citrulline values exceeded the mean of the normal neonates and 80% of them surpassed +3 SD (standard deviation), all were below the cutoff of 40 nmol/mL. The ratios of citrulline to total amino acids significantly elevated in patients with NICCD compared to the control. By evaluating two indicators simultaneously, we could select about 80% of patients with missed NICCD. Introducing an estimated index comprising citrulline values and citrulline to total amino acid ratios could assure NICCD detection by NBS.
Project description:Citrin is a liver-type mitochondrial aspartate-glutamate carrier encoded by the SLC25A13 gene, and its deficiency causes adult-onset type II citrullinemia and neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency (NICCD). Here, the authors investigated clinical findings in Korean infants with NICCD and performed mutation analysis on the SLC25A13 gene. Of 47 patients with neonatal cholestasis, three infants had multiple aminoacidemia (involving citrulline, methionine, and arginine) and galactosemia, and thus were diagnosed as having NICCD. Two of these three showed failure to thrive. The laboratory findings showed hypoproteinemia and hyperammonemia, and liver biopsies revealed micro-macrovesicular fatty liver and cholestasis. The three patients each harbored compound heterozygous 1,638-1,660 dup/ S225X mutation, compound heterozygous 851del4/S225X mutation, and heterozygous 1,638-1,660 dup mutation, respectively. With nutritional manipulation, liver functions were normalized and catch-up growth was achieved. NICCD should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cholestatic jaundice in Korean infants.
Project description:Citrin deficiency is a recessively inherited metabolic disorder with age-dependent clinical manifestations. It causes neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis (NICCD) and adult-onset type II citrullinemia (CTLN2). Patients with NICCD present with intrahepatic cholestasis in the neonatal period and usually respond to the treatment with medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) supplement and lactose-restricted formula. In adulthood, CTLN2 develops in <10 % of the patients showing hyperammonemic encephalopathy. Patients with CTLN2 required liver transplantation for the most promising prognosis; however, they were successfully treated with MCT supplement with a low carbohydrate formula. Citrin deficiency is caused by mutations in SLC25A13 on chromosome 7q21.3, with a high frequency in East Asia, including Japan. Citrin is aspartate/glutamate transporter in mitochondria, a component of malate-aspartate nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrogen shuttle, and is essential for the hepatic glycolysis. Although the precise pathophysiology of citrin deficiency remains unclear, recent reports for the effective MCT supplement therapy and downregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? suggest that citrin deficiency impairs hepatic de novo lipogenesis coupled with glycolysis leading to the energy deficit of hepatocytes. Herein, we review the current therapeutic and pathological understanding of CTLN2.
Project description:Primary carnitine deficiency (PCD) is an autosomal recessive disorder of fatty acid oxidation caused by mutations in the SLC22A5 gene encoding for the carnitine transporter OCTN2. Carnitine uptake deficiency results in renal carnitine wasting and low plasma levels. PCD usually presents early in life either with acute metabolic crisis or as progressive cardiomyopathy that responds to carnitine supplementation. PCD inclusion in the newborn screening (NBS) programs has led to the identification of asymptomatic adult patients ascertained because of a positive NBS in their offspring. We extensively reviewed the literature and found that 15 of 42 adult published cases (35.7%) were symptomatic. Cardiac arrhythmias were present in five patients (12%). Here, we report the ascertainment and long-term follow-up of the first case of PCD presenting with long QT syndrome. The patient presented in her early twenties with a syncopal episode caused by ventricular tachycardia, and a prolonged QT interval. Arrhythmias were poorly controlled by pharmacologic therapy and a defibrillator was installed. Syncopal episodes escalated during her first pregnancy. A positive NBS in the patient's child suggested a carnitine uptake deficiency, which was confirmed by reduced carnitine transporter activity and by molecular testing. After starting carnitine supplementation, no further syncopal episodes have occurred and the QT interval returned to normal. As precaution, a low-dose metoprolol therapy and the defibrillator are still in place. Although rare, PCD should be ruled out as a cause of cardiac arrhythmias since oral carnitine supplementation is readily available and efficient.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The most common causes of cholestatic jaundice are biliary atresia and idiopathic neonatal hepatitis (INH). Specific disorders underlying INH, such as various infectious and metabolic causes, including neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency (NICCD) especially, in East Asian populations are increasingly being identified. Since most NICCD infants recovered from liver disease by 1 year of age, they often are misdiagnosed with INH, leading to difficulty in determining the true prevalence of NICCD. Mutation(s) of human SLC25A13 gene encoding a mitochondrial aspartate/glutamate carrier isoform 2 (AGC2), can lead to AGC2 deficiency, resulting in NICCD and an adult-onset fatal disease namely citrullinemia type II (CTLN2). To study the prevalence of NICCD and SLC25A13 mutations in Thai infants, and to compare manifestations of NICCD and non-NICCD, infants with idiopathic cholestatic jaundice or INH were enrolled. Clinical and biochemical data were reviewed. Urine organic acid and plasma amino acids profiles were analyzed. PCR-sequencing of all 18 exons of SLC25A13 and gap PCR for the mutations IVS16ins3kb and Ex16+74_IVS17-32del516 were performed. mRNA were analyzed in selected cases with possible splicing error. RESULTS: Five out of 39 (12.8%) unrelated infants enrolled in the study were found to have NICCD, of which three had homozygous 851del4 (GTATdel) and two compound heterozygous 851del4/IVS16ins3kb and 851del4/1638ins23, respectively. Two missense mutations (p.M1? and p.R605Q) of unknown functional significance were identified. At the initial presentation, NICCD patients had higher levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and lower level of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) than those in non-NICCD patients (p< 0.05). NICCD patients showed higher citrulline level and threonine/serine ratio than non-NICCD infants (p< 0.05). Fatty liver was found in 2 NICCD patients. Jaundice resolved in all NICCD and in 87.5% of non-NICCD infants at the median age of 9.5 and 4.0 months, respectively. CONCLUSION: NICCD should be considered in infants with idiopathic cholestasis. The preliminary estimated prevalence of NICCD was calculated to be 1/48,228 with carrier rate of 1/110 among Thai infants. However, this number may be underestimated and required further analysis with mutation screening in larger control population to establish the true prevalence of NICCD and AGC2 deficiency.
Project description:This retrospective study analysed a case series of subjects with citrin deficiency, and aims to present the molecular and clinical characterization of this disease in the Hong Kong Chinese population for the first time.Data from medical records of eighteen patients with citrin deficiency (years 2006-2015) were retrieved. Demographic data, biochemical parameters, radiological results, genetic testing results, management, and clinical outcome were collected and analysed.Eighteen patients with diagnosis of citrin deficiency were recruited. All 18 patients carried at least one common pathogenic variant c.852_855delTATG in SLC25A13. Prolonged jaundice (neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency, NICCD) was the most common presenting symptom, in conjunction with elevated plasma citrulline, threonine, alkaline phosphatase, and alpha-fetoprotein levels. The abnormal biochemical parameters including liver derangement returned to normal range in most of the cases by 6 months of age after the introduction of a lactose-free formula. There were a few cases with atypical presentations. Two subjects did not present with NICCD, and were subsequently diagnosed later in life after their siblings presented with symptoms of citrin deficiency at one month of age and subsequently received a molecular diagnosis. One patient with citrin deficiency also exhibited multiple liver hemangioendotheliomas, which subsided gradually after introduction of a lactose-free formula. Only one patient from this cohort was offered expanded metabolic screening at birth. She was not ascertained by conducted newborn screening and was diagnosed upon presentation with cholestatic jaundice by 1 month of age.This is the first report of the clinical and molecular characterization of a large cohort of patients with citrin deficiency in Hong Kong. The presentation of this cohort of patients expands the clinical phenotypic spectrum of NICCD. Benign liver tumors such as hemangioendotheliomas may be associated with citrin deficiency in addition to the well-known association with hepatocellular carcinoma. Citrin deficiency may manifest in later infancy period with an NICCD-like phenotype. Furthermore, this condition is not always ascertained by expanded newborn metabolic screening testing.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency (NICCD) is an autosomal recessive disorder and one of the most common inherent causes of cholestatic jaundice in Asian infants. Mutations in the SLC25A13 gene, which encodes citrin protein expressed in the liver, have been identified as the genetic cause for NICCD. CASE PRESENTATION:Here, we report a 4-month-old female with clinical features including jaundice, hyperbilirubinemia, hyperlactacidemia, and abnormal liver function. The patient was diagnosed with NICCD by differential diagnosis using genetic analysis. Mutations in 60 jaundice-related genes were tested by using amplicon sequencing, which was performed on an Ion S5XL genetic analyzer. A compound heterozygous mutation in the SLC25A13 gene was identified, consisting of a known deletion SLC25A13:c.852_855delTATG and a novel splicing mutation SLC25A13:c.1841?+?3_1841?+?4delAA. Sanger sequencing for the proband and her parents was performed to validate the result and reveal the source of mutations. CONCLUSION:A compound heterozygous mutation in the SLC25A13 gene was identified in a 4-month-old female patient with NICCD. Our data suggest that amplicon sequencing is a helpful tool for the differential diagnosis of inherited diseases with similar symptoms. Further studies of the mutation spectrum of neonatal jaundice in China are warranted.
Project description:Neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency (NICCD) is a hereditary metabolic disease arising from biallelic mutations of SLC25A13. This study aimed to explore the characteristics of fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting insulin (FINS) and C-peptide (C-P) levels in NICCD infants, analyze their SLC25A13 genetic mutations and further discuss the correlation between SLC25A13 genetic mutations and biochemical changes. Seventy-two cases of infants with cholestasis disease were gathered. Among them, 36 cases with NICCD diagnosis were case group. Meanwhile, 36 cases with unknown etiology but excluded NICCD were control group. FBG, FINS, C-P, ALT, AST, GGT, ALP, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C and Non-HDL-C were collected from all subjects, and DNA was extracted from venous blood for SLC25A13 mutations detection. The incidence of hypoglycemia was 3% in NICCD group. There were no significant statistical difference of FBG, FINS and C-P between NICCD and INC groups ( P > 0.05). ALT, LDL-C and Non-HDL-C levels in NICCD group were lower than the INC group, while SLC25A13 mutations were associated with the level of GGT ( P < 0.05). Ten different SLC25A13 genetic mutations were detected, among which, 851del4, IVS16ins3kb, IVS6+5 G > A and 1638ins23 mutations made up 82% of all mutations. The incidence of hypoglycemia may be higher in small gestational age infants with NICCD. Low LDL-C may be one of the characteristics of dyslipidemia in NICCD infants. There was a correlation between SLC25A13 gene mutations distribution and the GGT level, but the meaning of this finding remains to be further in-depth study. Impact statement This study aims to compare FBG, FINS, C-P, other biochemical and clinical manifestations between NICCD and non-NICCD infants, and discuss differential diagnosis of NICCD and INC beyond the genetic analysis. And investigate the correlation between SLC25A13 genetic mutations and biochemical changes. This work presented that incidence of hypoglycemia may be higher in small gestational age infants with NICCD. Low LDL-C may be one of the characteristics of dyslipidemia in NICCD infants. There was a correlation between SLC25A13 gene mutations distribution and the GGT level.
Project description:Citrin plays a role in the transfer of NADH-reducing equivalent from cytosol to mitochondria as part of the malate-aspartate shuttle in liver. Citrin deficiency may cause an impairment of glycolysis due to an increase in the cytosolic NADH/NAD ratio leading to an energy shortage in the liver. Mutations of the SLC25A13 gene are responsible for neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis (NICCD) and adult-onset type II citrullinemia (CTLN2). Most patients with NICCD show a resolution of symptoms within the first year of life, but some patients present with severe symptoms and require liver transplantation. We treated four patients including three siblings with NICCD by lactose (galactose)-restricted and medium-chain triglyceride (MCT)-supplemented formula. This formula rapidly improved the clinical condition and laboratory findings. Early treatment was more effective and did not require long-term administration. Lactose (galactose)-restriction can avoid further increase in the cytosolic NADH/NAD ratio in the liver and MCT supplementation can provide energy to hepatic cells by producing an excess of acetyl-CoA in mitochondria. Early treatment with lactose (galactose)-restricted and MCT-supplemented formula is recommended for patients with NICCD and possibly for patients with CTLN2.
Project description:Neonatal Intrahepatic Cholestasis caused by Citrin Deficiency (NICCD) arises from biallelic SLC25A13 mutations, and SLC25A13 analysis provides reliable evidences for NICCD definite diagnosis. However, novel large insertions/deletions in this gene could not be detected just by conventional DNA analysis. This study aimed to explore definite diagnostic evidences for an infant highly-suspected to have NICCD. Prevalent mutation screening and Sanger sequencing of SLC25A13 gene just revealed a paternally-inherited mutation c.851_854del4. Nevertheless, neither citrin protein nor SLC25A13 transcripts of maternal origin could be detected on Western blotting and cDNA cloning analysis, respectively. On this basis, the hidden maternal mutation was precisely positioned using SNP analysis and semi-quantitative PCR, and finally identified as a novel large deletion c.-3251_c.15+18443del21709bp, which involved the SLC25A13 promoter region and the entire exon 1 where locates the translation initiation codon. Hence, NICCD was definitely diagnosed in the infant. To the best of our knowledge, the novel gross deletion, which silenced the transcriptional and translational expression of the affected SLC25A13 allele, is the hitherto largest deletion in SLC25A13 mutation spectrum. The Western blotting approach using mitochondrial protein extracted from expanded peripheral blood lymphocytes, of particular note, might be a new minimally-invasive and more-feasible molecular tool for NICCD diagnosis.