Evaluation of Cross-Protection between G1a- and G2a-Genotype Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Viruses in Suckling Piglets.
ABSTRACT: To date, two genotypes, i.e., genotype 1 (G1) and genotype 2 (G2), of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) have been identified in swine, while the cross protection between the G2a and G1a subgenotypes is undetermined. Hence, in the present study, we attempted to observe a comparative pathogenicity and cross protection of G1a (CV777) and G2a (CH/JX/01) PEDVs. Initially pregnant sows were vaccinated twice with the two kinds of inactivated G1a- and G2a-based PEDV vaccines, respectively and the delivered neonatal piglets were challenged with prototype isolates of G1a and G2a PEDVs, and then the pathogenicity and cross-protection in neonatal piglets were observed. The results showed that CH/JX/01, a highly virulent and dominant G2a PEDV strain currently circulating in China had more severe pathogenicity in vitro and in vivo, and induced more strong immune responses, including higher titers of sIgA in maternal milk than that induced by CV777 PEDV, a prototype of G1a PEDV strain. All piglets from the sows immunized with CH/JX/01 could not only survive when challenged with the homologous PEDV, but also be fully protected when challenged with heterogenous G1a PEDV. In contrast, the piglets from the sows immunized with CV777 could be protected when challenged with homologous PEDV and only partially protected when challenged with heterologous G2a strain of PEDV (CH/JX/01). The findings of this study provide new insights into the pathogenicity, antigenicity, and immunogenicity of currently circulating wild type G2a PEDV, which might be valuable for the development of novel PEDV vaccine candidates with improved efficacy.
Project description:Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED), caused by porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), is a highly contagious, acute enteric viral disease of swine characterized by vomiting, watery diarrhea, dehydration and death. To identify and characterize the field PEDVs associated with the outbreaks of severe diarrhea in piglets in Jiangxi, 2013, the complete genome sequences of two representative strains of PEDV, designated CH/JX-1/2013 and CH/JX-2/2013, were determined and analyzed. The genome sequences of both emergent Jiangxi PEDV strains, CH/JX-1/2013 and CH/JX-2/2013, were 28,038 nucleotides in length excluding 3' poly (A) tail. Compared to the PEDV CV777 strain, CH/JX-1/2013 and CH/JX-2/2013 had some unique genetic characteristics in the proximal region of the 5´-UTRs. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete genomes and the structural proteins revealed that CH/JX-1/2013 and CH/JX-2/2013 had a close relationship with post-2010 Chinese PEDV strains and US strains identified in 2013. The nucleotide identity between the two Jiangxi strains (CH/JX-1/2013 and CH/JX-2/2013) and 30 strains of PEDV identified ante-2010 and post-2010 ranged from 96.3-97.0% and 97.3-99.7%, respectively. Multiple nucleotide and deduced amino acid mutations were observed in the ORF1a/b, S, ORF3, E, M and N genes among the current field PEDV strains when compared to the CV777 strain. Some of the mutations altered the amino acid charge and hydrophilicity, and notably, there was an amino acid substitution in the middle of one neutralizing epitope (L1371I) of the S gene of both CH/JX-1/2013 and CH/JX-2/2013. Taken together, the accumulated genetic variations of the current field PEDV strains might have led to antigenic changes of the viruses, which might confer the less effectiveness or failure of the CV777-based vaccines currently being widely used in Jiangxi, China.
Project description:Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a highly infectious virus infecting pigs with high morbidity, especially for newborn piglets. Several PEDV strains were isolated from the intestinal tracts of diarrheic piglets from the Beijing area, China. Sequencing of the whole-genome of the PEDV isolates (GenBank numbers MG546687-MG546690) yielded sequences of 28033-28038 nt. The phylogenetic tree revealed that these strains from the Beijing area belonged to group II, while the vaccine strain, CV777, belonged to group I. We also determined the genetic correlation between these strains and CV777 strain. However, it showed that these strains in the Beijing area had unique mutations. The sequence identity of PEDV strains showed that these strains are most similar to these strains LZW, CH/JX-1/2013, USAIllinois972013, USAKansas1252014, CH/GDZQ/2014, SHQPYM2013, AJ1102, CHZMDZY11, KoreaK14JB01, and CHYJ130330, respectively. The possible recombination events indicate that PEDV in this studies were possibly recombinant strain formed by parent strains USAIllinois972013, KoreaK14JB01, CHYJ130330, and CHZMDZY11. These PEDV strains has been genetic recombination and mutations. The variant strains characterized in this study help to the evolutionary analysis of PEDV.
Project description:Since late 2010, outbreaks of porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) have been reported in the swine industry in China. A variant PEDV strain that differs from strain CV777 causes prevalent PEDV infections which commercial vaccines based on CV777 cannot provide complete protection. In this study, we designed a new vaccine based on the epidemic PEDV strain AH2012/12, adjuvanted with flagellin, a mucosal adjuvant that induces mucosal and systemic production of IgA. Three groups of pregnant sows were immunized twice, with a 14-day interval, with PEDV adjuvanted with flagellin, PEDV alone, or PBS before farrowing, and newborn piglets from each group were selected and challenged with PEDV. Immunization with this vaccine elicited high levels of IgG, IgA, and neutralizing antibodies in the serum and colostrum of sows, and newborn piglets were protected against PEDV while suckling. This study should guide the prevention and control strategies for PEDV infection, thereby reducing the losses associated with this virus.
Project description:Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is the main causative agent of porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED). Since December 2010, a large-scale outbreak of diarrhea has been observed in swine farms in China. Accumulated evidence indicates that this large-scale outbreak of diarrhea were caused by highly virulent PEDV variants.A PEDV strain, YC2014, was isolated from intestinal samples of suckling piglets with acute diarrhea in 2014. The complete genomic sequence of YC2014 and the nucleotide sequence of S gene were aligned with sequences of published isolates using MEGA 5.1 software. The immune protective efficiency of YC2014 were determined by testing PEDV neutralizing antibodies in sera, the colostrum and the milk on 7th day after farrowing of the immunized sows. The diarrhea symptoms of piglets after challenge were also observed.Phylogenetic analysis of the complete genomic sequence of YC2014 and the nucleotide sequence of S gene demonstrated that the YC2014 PEDV strain was clustered with the PEDV epidemic strains, with >99 % nucleotide identity to these PEDV strains. The S gene sequence of YC2014 shared only 93.9 %?~ 94.4 % identities with classical CV777, DR13 and JS2008 strains, with 15 nucleotide insertion in three sites and three nucleotide deletion in one site. The amino acid (AA) sequence of S gene of YC2014 shared only 92.8 %?~ 93.4 % identities with classical CV777, DR13 and JS2008 strains, with 5 AA insertion in two sites and 1 AA deletion in one site. In the immune protective efficiency tests, the neutralizing antibody titers in sera, the colostrum and the milk on 7th day after farrowing of the inactivated YC2014 PEDV strain immunized group were significantly higher than the inactivated CV777 immunized group and the inactivated DR13 immunized group (P < 0.05). The traditional inactivated PEDV vaccines made from CV777 or DR13 could not protect piglets from YC2014 challenge, while inactivated YC2014 could provide piglets with 100 % protection against YC2014 challenge.The results showed that, great antigenicity variation had occurred to this YC2014 PEDV strain. The YC2014 PEDV strain could provide piglets against homologous challenge. It is critical for future pathogenic and antigenic studies, as well as for the development of effective preventive and control vaccines against PEDV.
Project description:Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) and porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) are epizootic swine viruses. To detect and study the evolution of PEDV and PDCoV in central China (Shanxi, Henan, Hubei province), 70 clinical intestinal and fecal samples from piglets with severe watery diarrhea during August 2015 and June 2016 were collected, tested and analyzed. PEDV was more frequently detected by PCR than PDCoV. Phylogenetic analysis of S genes showed that the 10 PEDV strains from this study clustered into G2a (n?=?7) and G2b (n?=?3) groups. Additionally, the three G2b strains (PEDV S2?) contained the same specific 3?nt deletion in S2 as other reference strains in G2b. Interestingly, complete genome analysis indicated that CH/hubei/2016 was closer to the US INDEL strain and G2a group. CH/hubei/2016 had one recombination event in S2 gene which may have resulted from AH2012-12 (from G2b group) and CH-ZMDZY-11 (from G2a group). Furthermore, 10 purifying selection sites in S gene indicated an adaptive evolution of PEDV in central China swine herds. These results suggested that Pandemic G2a and G2b are predominant PEDV genotype circulating in central China. In addition, the deletion and recombination identified in S gene suggested PEDV strains of central exhibited an evolutionary variety. However, whether these changes affect the pathogenicity and antigenicity of wild PEDV is unknown and is worth for further investigation.
Project description:A strain of porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV), namely HLJBY, was isolated in Heilongjiang province, China. To provide insight into the understanding of the phylogenetic and the current epidemiological status of PEDV, PEDV HLJBY was compared with CV777 and other PEDV strains deposited in the GenBank. The homology between the entire genomic nucleotide sequences of PEDV HLJBY and CV777 was 97.7%. The homology of M gene was the highest (99.0%). However, the homology of ORF3 gene was 97.7%, and protein of ORF3 was 90.1%. In addition, HLJBY showed the highest nucleotide identity (99.9%) with PEDV-SX/China/2017 strain and lowest similarity (91.2%) to PEDV/Belgorod/dom/2008 strain. We analysed the changes in S gene and its protein of PEDV HLJBY with 65 historic PEDV strains. The highest nucleotide identity was 99.9% compared with PEDV-SX/China/2017 strain, and the lowest nucleotide identity was 60.0% compared with PEDV/Belgorod/dom/2008 strain. The length of deduced amino acid sequences of S proteins varied from 1,372 to 1,390 amino acids (aa). Compared with most aa sequences of S proteins, HLJBY exhibited 5 aa deletions (position 55, 59-61, 144). Analysis and comparison of open reading frame 3 (ORF3) proteins between HLJBY strain and other PEDV strains were also focused in this study. We revealed that the length of deduced amino acid sequences of ORF3 proteins was 80-224 aa among tested strains and the identity of HLJBY ORF3 amino acids with other PEDV strains was 71.4%-98.9%. ORF3 protein of both HLJBY strain and PEDV-SX/China/2017 strain consists of 91 aa, with 133 aa deletions at their C' end in relation to the other tested PEDV strains. The phylogenetic tree based on different proteins or genes resulted in different phylogenetic groups. For pathogenicity evaluation of PEDV HLJBY strain, colostrum deprivation piglets were challenged with PEDV HLJBY, and PEDV reference strain CV777 as a control, the results showed that animals challenged with either of these PEDV strains developed diarrhoea, and histopathological examination of small intestines of challenged animals showed acute viral enteritis with villous atrophy in either PEDV HLJBY-P10 or PEDV CV777-P8 inoculated piglets.
Project description:Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a novel porcine enteric coronavirus that causes diarrhea, vomiting and dehydration in piglets. This newly virus has spread rapidly and has caused serious economic losses for pig industry since the outbreak in USA in 2014. In this study, 430 faecal and intestinal samples (143 faecal samples and 287 intestinal samples) were collected from individual pigs with diarrhea and 211 serum samples were also collected from the sows with mild diarrhea in 17 regions in Henan province, China from April 2015 to March 2018. The RT-PCR detection indicated that the infection of PDCoV was high up to 23.49% (101/430), and co-infection with PEDV were common (60.40%, 61/101) in Henan pigs. The prevalence of PDCoV in suckling piglets was the highest (36.43%, 94/258). We also found that PDCoV could be detected in sows faeces and sera while the sows showed mild, self-limited diarrhea in clinic. The complete genomes of 4 PDCoV Henan strains (CH-01, HNZK-02, HNZK-04, HNZK-06) were sequenced and analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis based on the complete genome, spike and nucleocapsid gene sequences revealed that the PDCoV Henan strains were closely related to other PDCoV reference strains that located in the Chinese clade. Furthermore, the phylogenetic analysis showed PDCoV CH-01 strain was closely related to CHN-HB-2014 strain and HKU15-44 strain, while the other PDCoV Henan strains were more related to PDCoV CHJXNI2 and CH-SXD1-2015 strains, indicating that the ancestor of these sequenced strains may different. These results would support the understanding of the prevalence and evolution characteristics of PDCoV in China.
Project description:Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) is a lethal infectious disease in suckling piglets with symptoms including watery diarrhea caused by PED virus (PEDV). Since the late 1990's, live vaccines based on genogroup 1 virus have been used in Japan, and a significant amount of the vaccine has been used even after new genogroups invaded in 2013. In this study, we evaluated the effect of a conventional PED live vaccine on a newly prevalent genogroup 2 field strain in experimental and field situations.Two pregnant sows were administered twice the live vaccine before farrowing. A pregnant sow was served as a negative control. All newborn piglets were challenged with the genogroup 2 virus, and clinical signs were monitored for 7 days post challenge. PEDV-specific immune responses in serum and milk of the sows were assayed by virus neutralization assay. The efficacy of PED live vaccine in vaccinated or non-vaccinated farms was evaluated by comparing the mortality rate of suckling piglets after the onset of PED.The challenged piglets exhibited watery diarrhea with or without vaccination. However, the clinical score of piglets born from vaccinated sows significantly improved after the 4th day of the challenge. The survival rate of piglets in the vaccinated group at the end of the experimental period was 80%, whereas in the control group was 0%. Neutralizing antibody titers in serum and milk of control sow was negative throughout the experimental period, whereas high titers were observed in the vaccinated sows. The vaccinated farms significantly reduced the mortality rate of suckling piglets after the onset of PED, compared to farms not vaccinated.The conventional PED live vaccine induced the lactogenic immunity to vaccinated sows and showed partial protection against the genogroup 2 virus both under the experimental and field conditions.
Project description:To investigate the epidemic characteristics of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), 135 clinical samples (including intestinal tissues and feces) were collected from diseased piglets during outbreaks of diarrhea from 2015 to 2019 on farms in Henan and Shanxi provinces of China where swine had been immunized with attenuated PEDV (CV777). A total of 86 clinical samples (86/135, 63.7%) were positive for PEDV by RT-PCR, and subsequently, the complete spike (S) and ORF3 genes of 32 PEDV samples were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the 32 PEDV strains obtained in this study belonged to group 2 (pandemic variant strains) and had a close relationship to 17 Chinese strains after 2010, two South Korean strains (KNU-1305 and KNU-1807), three American strains (PC22A-P140.BI, USA/Colorado/2013, and USA/OK10240-6/2017) and a Mexican strain (PEDV/MEX/QRO/02/2017), but differed genetically from a South Korean strain (SM98), a European strain (Br1/87), a Chinese strain (LZC), and a vaccine strain (CV777). G2-a subgroup strains were the dominant pandemic variant strains circulating in Henan and Shanxi provinces of China. Furthermore, a cross-recombination event was identified in the S region of the SX/TY2/2017 strain, and the putative parental strains were the epidemic strains CH/GDGZ/2012 and CH/YZ1/2015, identified in China in 2012 and 2015, respectively. These results provide further information about PEDV evolution, which could improve our understanding of the circulation of PEDV in Henan and Shanxi provinces. This information will also be helpful for developing new strategies for prevention and control of variant strains.
Project description:The contribution of lactogenic antibody to the protection of piglets against porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) was evaluated. Pregnant multiparous sows and their litters were allocated to one of 3 treatment groups: Group 1-6 serum antibody-negative sows and a subset (n=11) of their piglets. Group 2-8 serum antibody-positive sows and their 91 piglets. Piglets were orally inoculated with PEDV at 4 (Group 1) or 2 (Group 2) days of age. Group 3-2 PEDV serum antibody-negative sows and 22 piglets, provided a baseline for piglet survivability and growth rate. Piglets were monitored daily for clinical signs, body weight, and body temperature through day post-inoculation (DPI) 12 (Groups 2 and 3) or 14 (Group 1). Serum and mammary secretions were tested for PEDV IgG, IgA, and virus-neutralizing antibody. Feces were tested by PEDV real-time, reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR). Piglets on sows without (Group 1) or with (Group 2) anti-PEDV antibody showed significantly different responses to PEDV infection in virus shedding (p<0.05), thermoregulation (p<0.05), growth rate (p<0.05), and survivability (p<0.0001). Specifically, Group 1 piglets shed more virus on DPIs 1 to 5, were hypothermic at all sampling points except DPIs 9, 11, and 12, gained weight more slowly, and exhibited lower survivability than Group 2 piglets. Within Group 2 litters, significant differences were found in virus shedding (p<0.05), and body temperature (p<0.05), but not in piglet survival rate. The number of sows and litters in Group 2 was insufficient to derive the relationship between specific levels of lactogenic antibody (FFN, IgA, and IgG) and the amelioration of clinical effects. However, when combined with previous PEDV literature, it can be concluded that the optimal protection to piglets will be provided by dams able to deliver sufficient lactogenic immunity, both humoral and cellular, to their offspring.