Bicine promotes rapid formation of ?-sheet-rich amyloid-? fibrils.
ABSTRACT: Fibrillar aggregates of amyloid-? (A?) are the main component of plaques lining the cerebrovasculature in cerebral amyloid angiopathy. As the predominant A? isoform in vascular deposits, A?40 is a valuable target in cerebral amyloid angiopathy research. However, the slow process of A?40 aggregation in vitro is a bottleneck in the search for A?-targeting molecules. In this study, we sought a method to accelerate the aggregation of A?40 in vitro, to improve experimental screening procedures. We evaluated the aggregating ability of bicine, a biological buffer, using various in vitro methods. Our data suggest that bicine promotes the aggregation of A?40 with high speed and reproducibility, yielding a mixture of aggregates with significant ?-sheet-rich fibril formation and toxicity.
Project description:Cerebral amyloid angiopathy associated with Alzheimer's disease is characterized by cerebrovascular deposition of the amyloid-beta protein (Abeta). Abeta elicits a number of morphological and biochemical alterations in the cerebral microvasculature, which culminate in hemorrhagic stroke. Among these changes, compromise of the blood-brain barrier has been described in Alzheimer's disease brain, transgenic animal models of Alzheimer's disease, and cell culture experiments. In the current study, presented data illustrates that isolated soluble Abeta(1-40) aggregates, but not unaggregated monomer or mature fibril, enhance permeability in human brain microvascular endothelial monolayers. Abeta(1-40)-induced changes in permeability are paralleled by both a decrease in transendothelial electrical resistance and a re-localization of the tight junction-associated protein zonula occludin-1 away from cell borders and into the cytoplasm. Small soluble Abeta(1-40) aggregates are confirmed to be the most potent stimulators of endothelial monolayer permeability by establishing an inverse relationship between average aggregate size and stimulated changes in diffusional permeability coefficients. These results support previous findings demonstrating that small soluble Abeta(1-40) aggregates are also primarily responsible for endothelial activation, suggesting that these same species may elicit other changes in the cerebrovasculature associated with cerebral amyloid angiopathy and Alzheimer's disease.
Project description:Amyloid plaques, consisting of deposited beta-amyloid (A?), are a neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Cerebral vessels play a major role in AD, as A? is cleared from the brain by pathways involving the cerebrovasculature, most AD patients have cerebrovascular amyloid (cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), and cardiovascular risk factors increase dementia risk. Here we present a notable advance in vascular tissue engineering by generating the first functional 3-dimensioinal model of CAA in bioengineered human vessels. We show that lipoproteins including brain (apoE) and circulating (high-density lipoprotein, HDL) synergize to facilitate A? transport across bioengineered human cerebral vessels. These lipoproteins facilitate A?42 transport more efficiently than A?40, consistent with A?40 being the primary species that accumulates in CAA. Moreover, apoE4 is less effective than apoE2 in promoting A? transport, also consistent with the well-established role of apoE4 in A? deposition in AD.
Project description:Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), characterized by the deposition of amyloid aggregates in the walls of cerebral vasculature, is a major factor in intracerebral hemorrhage and vascular cognitive impairment and is also associated closely with Alzheimer's disease (AD). We previously reported (99m)Tc-hydroxamamide ((99m)Tc-Ham) complexes with a bivalent amyloid ligand showing high binding affinity for ?-amyloid peptide (A?(1-42)) aggregates present frequently in the form in AD. In this article, we applied them to CAA-specific imaging probes, and evaluated their utility for CAA-specific imaging. In vitro inhibition assay using A?(1-40) aggregates deposited mainly in CAA and a brain uptake study were performed for (99m)Tc-Ham complexes, and all (99m)Tc-Ham complexes with an amyloid ligand showed binding affinity for A?(1-40) aggregates and very low brain uptake. In vitro autoradiography of human CAA brain sections and ex vivo autoradiography of Tg2576 mice were carried out for bivalent (99m)Tc-Ham complexes ([(99m)Tc]SB2A and [(99m)Tc]BT2B), and they displayed excellent labeling of A? depositions in human CAA brain sections and high affinity and selectivity to CAA in transgenic mice. These results may offer new possibilities for the development of clinically useful CAA-specific imaging probes based on the (99m)Tc-Ham complex.
Project description:A hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD) is the deposition of amyloid ? (A?) in brain parenchyma and cerebral blood vessels, accompanied by cognitive decline. Previously, we showed that human apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) decreases A?(40) aggregation and toxicity. Here we demonstrate that apoA-I in lipidated or non-lipidated form prevents the formation of high molecular weight aggregates of A?(42) and decreases A?(42) toxicity in primary brain cells. To determine the effects of apoA-I on AD phenotype in vivo, we crossed APP/PS1?E9 to apoA-I(KO) mice. Using a Morris water maze, we demonstrate that the deletion of mouse Apoa-I exacerbates memory deficits in APP/PS1?E9 mice. Further characterization of APP/PS1?E9/apoA-I(KO) mice showed that apoA-I deficiency did not affect amyloid precursor protein processing, soluble A? oligomer levels, A? plaque load, or levels of insoluble A? in brain parenchyma. To examine the effect of Apoa-I deletion on cerebral amyloid angiopathy, we measured insoluble A? isolated from cerebral blood vessels. Our data show that in APP/PS1?E9/apoA-I(KO) mice, insoluble A?(40) is increased more than 10-fold, and A?(42) is increased 1.5-fold. The increased levels of deposited amyloid in the vessels of cortices and hippocampi of APP/PS1?E9/apoA-I(KO) mice, measured by X-34 staining, confirmed the results. Finally, we demonstrate that lipidated and non-lipidated apoA-I significantly decreased A? toxicity against brain vascular smooth muscle cells. We conclude that lack of apoA-I aggravates the memory deficits in APP/PS1?E9 mice in parallel to significantly increased cerebral amyloid angiopathy.
Project description:Amyloid deposits from several human diseases have been found to contain membrane lipids. Co-aggregation of lipids and amyloid proteins in amyloid aggregates, and the related extraction of lipids from cellular membranes, can influence structure and function in both the membrane and the formed amyloid deposit. Co-aggregation can therefore have important implications for the pathological consequences of amyloid formation. Still, very little is known about the mechanism behind co-aggregation and molecular structure in the formed aggregates. To address this, we study in vitro co-aggregation by incubating phospholipid model membranes with the Parkinson's disease-associated protein, ?-synuclein, in monomeric form. After aggregation, we find spontaneous uptake of phospholipids from anionic model membranes into the amyloid fibrils. Phospholipid quantification, polarization transfer solid-state NMR and cryo-TEM together reveal co-aggregation of phospholipids and ?-synuclein in a saturable manner with a strong dependence on lipid composition. At low lipid to protein ratios, there is a close association of phospholipids to the fibril structure, which is apparent from reduced phospholipid mobility and morphological changes in fibril bundling. At higher lipid to protein ratios, additional vesicles adsorb along the fibrils. While interactions between lipids and amyloid-protein are generally discussed within the perspective of different protein species adsorbing to and perturbing the lipid membrane, the current work reveals amyloid formation in the presence of lipids as a co-aggregation process. The interaction leads to the formation of lipid-protein co-aggregates with distinct structure, dynamics and morphology compared to assemblies formed by either lipid or protein alone.
Project description:Cerebral amyloid angiopathy is caused by deposition of the amyloid beta protein in the cerebral vasculature. In analogy to previous observations in Alzheimer disease, we hypothesized that analysis of amyloid beta(40) and beta(42) proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid might serve as a molecular biomarker. We observed strongly decreased cerebrospinal fluid amyloid beta(40) (p < 0.01 vs controls or Alzheimer disease) and amyloid beta(42) concentrations (p < 0.001 vs controls and p < 0.05 vs Alzheimer disease) in cerebral amyloid angiopathy patients. The combination of amyloid beta(42) and total tau discriminated cerebral amyloid angiopathy from controls, with an area under the receiver operator curve of 0.98. Our data are consistent with neuropathological evidence that amyloid beta(40) as well as amyloid beta(42) protein are selectively trapped in the cerebral vasculature from interstitial fluid drainage pathways that otherwise transport amyloid beta proteins toward the cerebrospinal fluid.
Project description:One of the principal hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is related to the aggregation of amyloid-? fibrils in an insoluble form in the brain, also known as amyloidosis. Therefore, a prominent therapeutic strategy against AD consists of either blocking the amyloid aggregation and/or destroying the already formed aggregates. Natural products have shown significant therapeutic potential as amyloid inhibitors from in vitro studies as well as in vivo animal tests. In this study, the interaction of five natural biophenols (curcumin, dopamine, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, quercetin, and rosmarinic acid) with amyloid-?(1?40) fibrils has been studied through computational simulations. The results allowed the identification and characterization of the different binding modalities of each compounds and their consequences on fibril dynamics and aggregation. It emerges that the lateral aggregation of the fibrils is strongly influenced by the intercalation of the ligands, which modulates the double-layered structure stability.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Epidemiological studies link vascular disease risk factors such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Whether there are direct links between these conditions to β-amyloid (Aβ) aggregation and tau pathology is uncertain.<h4>Methods</h4>To investigate the possible link between atherosclerosis and AD pathology, we subjected triple transgenic (3 × Tg) AD mice to a high-fat diet (HFD) at 3 months of age, which corresponds to early adulthood in humans.<h4>Results</h4>After 9 months of treatment, HFD-treated 3 × Tg mice exhibited worse memory deficits accompanied by blood hypercoagulation, thrombocytosis, and chronic platelet activation. Procoagulant platelets from HFD-treated 3 × Tg mice actively induced the conversion of soluble Aβ40 into fibrillar Aβ aggregates, associated with increased expression of integrin αIIbβ<sub>3</sub> and clusterin. At 9 months and older, platelet-associated fibrillar Aβ aggregates were observed to obstruct the cerebral blood vessels in HFD-treated 3 × Tg mice. HFD-treated 3 × Tg mice exhibited a greater cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) burden and increased cerebral vascular permeability, as well as more extensive neuroinflammation, tau hyperphosphorylation, and neuron loss. Disaggregation of preexisting platelet micro-clots with humanized GPIIIa49-66 scFv Ab (A11) significantly reduced platelet-associated fibrillar Aβ aggregates in vitro and improved vascular permeability in vivo.<h4>Conclusions</h4>These findings suggest that a major contribution of atherosclerosis to AD pathology is via its effects on blood coagulation and the formation of platelet-mediated Aβ aggregates that compromise cerebral blood flow and therefore neuronal function. This leads to cognitive decline.
Project description:Most Alzheimer's disease (AD) cases are late-onset and characterized by the aggregation and deposition of the amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide in extracellular plaques in the brain. However, a few rare and hereditary Aβ mutations, such as the Italian Glu22-to-Lys (E22K) mutation, guarantee the development of early-onset familial AD. This type of AD is associated with a younger age at disease onset, increased β-amyloid accumulation, and Aβ deposition in cerebral blood vessel walls, giving rise to cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). It remains largely unknown how the Italian mutation results in the clinical phenotype that is characteristic of CAA. We therefore investigated how this single point mutation may affect the aggregation of Aβ1-42 in vitro and structurally characterized the resulting fibrils using a biophysical approach. This paper reports that wild-type and Italian-mutant Aβ both form fibrils characterized by the cross-β architecture, but with distinct β-sheet organizations, resulting in differences in thioflavin T fluorescence and solvent accessibility. E22K Aβ1-42 oligomers and fibrils both display an antiparallel β-sheet structure, in comparison with the parallel β-sheet structure of wild-type fibrils, characteristic of most amyloid fibrils described in the literature. Moreover, we demonstrate structural plasticity for Italian-mutant Aβ fibrils in a pH-dependent manner, in terms of their underlying β-sheet arrangement. These findings are of interest in the ongoing debate that (1) antiparallel β-sheet structure might represent a signature for toxicity, which could explain the higher toxicity reported for the Italian mutant, and that (2) fibril polymorphism might underlie differences in disease pathology and clinical manifestation.
Project description:The formation of Aβ amyloid fibrils is a neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease and cerebral amyloid angiopathy. However, the structure of Aβ amyloid fibrils from brain tissue is poorly understood. Here we report the purification of Aβ amyloid fibrils from meningeal Alzheimer's brain tissue and their structural analysis with cryo-electron microscopy. We show that these fibrils are polymorphic but consist of similarly structured protofilaments. Brain derived Aβ amyloid fibrils are right-hand twisted and their peptide fold differs sharply from previously analyzed Aβ fibrils that were formed in vitro. These data underscore the importance to use patient-derived amyloid fibrils when investigating the structural basis of the disease.