Linear and branched ?-Glucans degrading enzymes from versatile Bacteroides uniformis JCM 13288T and their roles in cooperation with gut bacteria.
ABSTRACT: ?-glucans are the dietary nutrients present in oats, barley, algae, and mushrooms. The macromolecules are well known for their immune-modulatory activity; however, how the human gut bacteria digest them is vaguely understood. In this study, Bacteroides uniformis JCM 13288 T was found to grow on laminarin, pustulan, and porphyran. We sequenced the genome of the strain, which was about 5.05 megabase pairs and contained 4868 protein-coding genes. On the basis of growth patterns of the bacterium, two putative polysaccharide utilization loci for ?-glucans were identified from the genome, and associated four putative genes were cloned, expressed, purified, and characterized. Three glycoside hydrolases (GHs) that were endo-acting enzymes (BuGH16, BuGH30, and BuGH158), and one which was an exo-acting (BuGH3) enzyme. The BuGH3, BuGH16, and BuGH158 can cleave linear exo/endo- ?- 1-3 linkages while BuGH30 can digest endo- ?- 1-6 linkages. BuGH30 and BuGH158 were further explored for their roles in digesting ?- glucans and generation of oligosaccharides, respectively. The BuGH30 predominately found to cleave long chain ?- 1-6 linked glucans, and obtained final product was gentiobiose. The BuGH158 used for producing oligosaccharides varying from degree of polymerization 2 to 7 from soluble curdlan. We demonstrated that these oligosaccharides can be utilized by gut bacteria, which either did not grow or poorly grew on laminarin. Thus, B. uniformis JCM 13288 T is not only capable of utilizing ?-glucans but also shares these glycans with human gut bacteria for potentially maintaining the gut microbial homeostasis.
Project description:Marine algae produce a variety of glycans, which fulfill diverse biological functions and fuel the carbon and energy demands of heterotrophic microbes. A common approach to analysis of marine organic matter uses acid to hydrolyze the glycans into measurable monosaccharides. The monosaccharides may be derived from different glycans that are built with the same monosaccharides, however, and this approach does not distinguish between glycans in natural samples. Here we use enzymes to digest selectively and thereby quantify laminarin in particulate organic matter. Environmental metaproteome data revealed carbohydrate-active enzymes from marine flavobacteria as tools for selective hydrolysis of the algal ?-glucan laminarin. The enzymes digested laminarin into glucose and oligosaccharides, which we measured with standard methods to establish the amounts of laminarin in the samples. We cloned, expressed, purified, and characterized three new glycoside hydrolases (GHs) of Formosa bacteria: two are endo-?-1,3-glucanases, of the GH16 and GH17 families, and the other is a GH30 exo-?-1,6-glucanase. Formosa sp. nov strain Hel1_33_131 GH30 (FbGH30) removed the ?-1,6-glucose side chains, and Formosa agariphila GH17A (FaGH17A) and FaGH16A hydrolyzed the ?-1,3-glucose backbone of laminarin. Specificity profiling with a library of glucan oligosaccharides and polysaccharides revealed that FaGH17A and FbGH30 were highly specific enzymes, while FaGH16A also hydrolyzed mixed-linked glucans with ?-1,4-glucose. Therefore, we chose the more specific FaGH17A and FbGH30 to quantify laminarin in two cultured diatoms, namely, Thalassiosira weissflogii and Thalassiosira pseudonana, and in seawater samples from the North Sea and the Arctic Ocean. Combined, these results demonstrate the potential of enzymes for faster, stereospecific, and sequence-specific analysis of select glycans in marine organic matter.IMPORTANCE Marine algae synthesize substantial amounts of the glucose polymer laminarin for energy and carbon storage. Its concentrations, rates of production by autotrophic organisms, and rates of digestion by heterotrophic organisms remain unknown. Here we present a method based on enzymes that hydrolyze laminarin and enable its quantification even in crude substrate mixtures, without purification. Compared to the commonly used acid hydrolysis, the enzymatic method presented here is faster and stereospecific and selectively cleaves laminarin in mixtures of glycans, releasing only glucose and oligosaccharides, which can be easily quantified with reducing sugar assays.
Project description:Genomes of 24 sequenced Bacillus velezensis strains were characterized to identity shared and unique genes of lignocellulolytic enzymes and predict potential to degrade lignocellulose. All 24 strains had genes that encoded lignocellulolytic enzymes, with potential to degrade cellulose and hemicelluloses. Several lignocellulosic genes related to cellulose degradation were universally present, including one GH5 (endo-1,4-β-glucanase), one GH30 (glucan endo-1,6-β-glucosidase), two GH4 (6-phospho-β-glucosidase, 6-phospho-α-glucosidase), one GH1 (6-phospho-β-galactosidase), one GH16 (β-glucanase) and three GH32 (two sucrose-6-phosphate hydrolase and levanase). However, in the absence of gene(s) for cellobiohydrolase, it was predicted that none of the 24 strains would be able to directly hydrolyse cellulose. Regarding genes for hemicellulose degradation, four GH43 (1,4-β-xylosidase; except strain 9912D), one GH11 (endo-1,4-β-xylanase), three GH43 (two arabinan endo-1,5-α-L-arabinosidase and one arabinoxylan arabinofuranohydrolase), two GH51 (α-N-arabinofuranosidase), one GH30 (glucuronoxylanase), one GH26 (β-mannosidase) and one GH53 (arabinogalactan endo-1,4-β-galactosidase) were present. In addition, two PL1 (pectate lyase) and one PL9 (pectate lyase) with potential for pectin degradation were conserved among all 24 strains. In addition, all 24 Bacillus velezensis had limited representation of the auxiliary activities super-family, consistent with a limited ability to degrade lignin. Therefore, it was predicted that for these bacteria to degrade lignin, pretreatment of lignocellulosic substrates may be required. Finally, based on in silico studies, we inferred that Bacillus velezensis strains may degrade a range of polysaccharides in lignocellulosic biomasses.
Project description:The human gut microbiota (HGM) has far-reaching impacts on human health and nutrition, which are fueled primarily by the metabolism of otherwise indigestible complex carbohydrates commonly known as dietary fiber. However, the molecular basis of the ability of individual taxa of the HGM to address specific dietary glycan structures remains largely unclear. In particular, the utilization of ?(1,3)-glucans, which are widespread in the human diet as yeast, seaweed, and plant cell walls, had not previously been resolved. Through a systems-based approach, here we show that the symbiont Bacteroides uniformis deploys a single, exemplar polysaccharide utilization locus (PUL) to access yeast ?(1,3)-glucan, brown seaweed ?(1,3)-glucan (laminarin), and cereal mixed-linkage ?(1,3)/?(1,4)-glucan. Combined biochemical, enzymatic, and structural analysis of PUL-encoded glycoside hydrolases (GHs) and surface glycan-binding proteins (SGBPs) illuminates a concerted molecular system by which B. uniformis recognizes and saccharifies these distinct ?-glucans. Strikingly, the functional characterization of homologous ?(1,3)-glucan utilization loci (1,3GUL) in other Bacteroides further demonstrated that the ability of individual taxa to utilize ?(1,3)-glucan variants and/or ?(1,3)/?(1,4)-glucans arises combinatorially from the individual specificities of SGBPs and GHs at the cell surface, which feed corresponding signals to periplasmic hybrid two-component sensors (HTCSs) via TonB-dependent transporters (TBDTs). These data reveal the importance of cooperativity in the adaptive evolution of GH and SGBP cohorts to address individual polysaccharide structures. We anticipate that this fine-grained knowledge of PUL function will inform metabolic network analysis and proactive manipulation of the HGM. Indeed, a survey of 2,441 public human metagenomes revealed the international, yet individual-specific, distribution of each 1,3GUL.IMPORTANCE Bacteroidetes are a dominant phylum of the human gut microbiota (HGM) that target otherwise indigestible dietary fiber with an arsenal of polysaccharide utilization loci (PULs), each of which is dedicated to the utilization of a specific complex carbohydrate. Here, we provide novel insight into this paradigm through functional characterization of homologous PULs from three autochthonous Bacteroides species, which target the family of dietary ?(1,3)-glucans. Through detailed biochemical and protein structural analysis, we observed an unexpected diversity in the substrate specificity of PUL glycosidases and glycan-binding proteins with regard to ?(1,3)-glucan linkage and branching patterns. In combination, these individual enzyme and protein specificities support taxon-specific growth on individual ?(1,3)-glucans. This detailed metabolic insight, together with a comprehensive survey of individual 1,3GULs across human populations, further expands the fundamental roadmap of the HGM, with potential application to the future development of microbial intervention therapies.
Project description:Agarose (AP) from red algae has a long history as food ingredients in East Asia. Agaro-oligosaccharides (AO) derived from AP have shown potential prebiotic effects. However, the human gut microbes responsible for the degradation of AO and AP have not yet been fully investigated. Here, we reported that AO and AP can be degraded and utilized at various rates by fecal microbiota obtained from different individuals. Bacteroides uniformis L8 isolated from human feces showed a pronounced ability to degrade AO and generate D-galactose as its final end product. PCR-DGGE analysis showed B. uniformis to be common in the fecal samples, but only B. uniformis L8 had the ability to degrade AO. A synergistic strain, here classified as Escherichia coli B2, was also identified because it could utilize the D-galactose as the growth substrate. The cross-feeding interaction between B. uniformis L8 and E. coli B2 led to exhaustion of the AO supply. Bifidobacterium infantis and Bifidobacterium adolescentis can utilize one of the intermediates of AO hydrolysis, agarotriose. Growth curves indicated that AO was the substrate that most favorably sustained the growth of B. uniformis L8. In contrast, ?-carrageenan oligosaccharides (KCO), guluronic acid oligosaccharides (GO), and mannuronic acid oligosaccharides (MO) were found to be unusable to B. uniformis L8. Current results indicate that B. uniformis L8 is a special degrader of AO in the gut microbiota. Because B. uniformis can mitigate high-fat-diet-induced metabolic disorders, further study is required to determine the potential applications of AO.
Project description:Here we report the cloning of the Pa_3_10940 gene from the coprophilic fungus Podospora anserina, which encodes a C-terminal family 1 carbohydrate binding module (CBM1) linked to a domain of unknown function. The function of the gene was investigated by expression of the full-length protein and a truncated derivative without the CBM1 domain in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Using a library of polysaccharides of different origins, we demonstrated that the full-length enzyme displays activity toward a broad range of ?-glucan polysaccharides, including laminarin, curdlan, pachyman, lichenan, pustulan, and cellulosic derivatives. Analysis of the products released from polysaccharides revealed that this ?-glucanase is an exo-acting enzyme on ?-(1,3)- and ?-(1,6)-linked glucan substrates and an endo-acting enzyme on ?-(1,4)-linked glucan substrates. Hydrolysis of short ?-(1,3), ?-(1,4), and ?-(1,3)/?-(1,4) gluco-oligosaccharides confirmed this striking feature and revealed that the enzyme performs in an exo-type mode on the nonreducing end of gluco-oligosaccharides. Excision of the CBM1 domain resulted in an inactive enzyme on all substrates tested. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an enzyme that displays bifunctional exo-?-(1,3)/(1,6) and endo-?-(1,4) activities toward beta-glucans and therefore cannot readily be assigned to existing Enzyme Commission groups. The amino acid sequence has high sequence identity to hypothetical proteins within the fungal taxa and thus defines a new family of glycoside hydrolases, the GH131 family.
Project description:The genome of the extremely thermophilic bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor kronotskyensisencodes 19 surface layer (S-layer) homology (SLH) domain-containing proteins, the most in any Caldicellulosiruptorspecies genome sequenced to date. These SLH proteins include five glycoside hydrolases (GHs) and one polysaccharide lyase, the genes for which were transcribed at high levels during growth on plant biomass. The largest GH identified so far in this genus, Calkro_0111 (2,435 amino acids), is completely unique toC. kronotskyensisand contains SLH domains. Calkro_0111 was produced recombinantly inEscherichia colias two pieces, containing the GH16 and GH55 domains, respectively, as well as putative binding and spacer domains. These displayed endo- and exoglucanase activity on the β-1,3-1,6-glucan laminarin. A series of additional truncation mutants of Calkro_0111 revealed the essential architectural features required for catalytic function. Calkro_0402, another of the SLH domain GHs inC. kronotskyensis, when produced inE. coli, was active on a variety of xylans and β-glucans. Unlike Calkro_0111, Calkro_0402 is highly conserved in the genus Caldicellulosiruptorand among other biomass-degrading Firmicutes but missing from Caldicellulosiruptor bescii As such, the gene encoding Calkro_0402 was inserted into the C. besciigenome, creating a mutant strain with its S-layer extensively decorated with Calkro_0402. This strain consequently degraded xylans more extensively than wild-typeC. bescii The results here provide new insights into the architecture and role of SLH domain GHs and demonstrate that hemicellulose degradation can be enhanced through non-native SLH domain GHs engineered into the genomes of Caldicellulosiruptorspecies.
Project description:A novel ?-(1,3)-glucanase gene designated lamC, cloned from Corallococcus sp. strain EGB, contains a fascin-like module and a glycoside hydrolase family 16 (GH16) catalytic module. LamC displays broad hydrolytic activity toward various polysaccharides. Analysis of the hydrolytic products revealed that LamC is an exo-acting enzyme on ?-(1,3)(1,3)- and ?-(1,6)-linked glucan substrates and an endo-acting enzyme on ?-(1,4)-linked glucan and xylan substrates. Site-directed mutagenesis of conserved catalytic Glu residues (E304A and E309A) demonstrated that these activities were derived from the same active site. Excision of the fascin-like module resulted in decreased activity toward ?-(1,3)(1,3)-linked glucans. The carbohydrate-binding assay showed that the fascin-like module was a novel ?-(1,3)-linked glucan-binding module. The functional characterization of the fascin-like module and catalytic module will help us better understand these enzymes and modules.IMPORTANCE In this report of a bacterial ?-(1,3)(1,3)-glucanase containing a fascin-like module, we reveal the ?-(1,3)(1,3)-glucan-binding function of the fascin-like module present in the N terminus of LamC. LamC displays exo-?-(1,3)/(1,6)-glucanase and endo-?-(1,4)-glucanase/xylanase activities with a single catalytic domain. Thus, LamC was identified as a novel member of the GH16 family.
Project description:Laminarinase is commonly used to describe ?-1,3-glucanases widespread throughout Archaea, bacteria, and several eukaryotic lineages. Some ?-1,3-glucanases have already been structurally and biochemically characterized, but very few from organisms that are in contact with genuine laminarin, the storage polysaccharide of brown algae. Here we report the heterologous expression and subsequent biochemical and structural characterization of ZgLamAGH16 from Zobellia galactanivorans, the first GH16 laminarinase from a marine bacterium associated with seaweeds. ZgLamAGH16 contains a unique additional loop, compared with other GH16 laminarinases, which is composed of 17 amino acids and gives a bent shape to the active site cleft of the enzyme. This particular topology is perfectly adapted to the U-shaped conformation of laminarin chains in solution and thus explains the predominant specificity of ZgLamAGH16 for this substrate. The three-dimensional structure of the enzyme and two enzyme-substrate complexes, one with laminaritetraose and the other with a trisaccharide of 1,3-1,4-?-d-glucan, have been determined at 1.5, 1.35, and 1.13 ? resolution, respectively. The structural comparison of substrate recognition pattern between these complexes allows the proposition that ZgLamAGH16 likely diverged from an ancestral broad specificity GH16 ?-glucanase and evolved toward a bent active site topology adapted to efficient degradation of algal laminarin.
Project description:In this study, we characterized Gly5M, originating from a marine bacterium, as a novel ?-1,3-1,6-endoglucanase in glycoside hydrolase family 5 (GH5) in the Carbohydrate-Active enZyme database. The gly5M gene encodes Gly5M, a newly characterized enzyme from GH5 subfamily 47 (GH5_47) in Saccharophagus degradans 2-40(T) The gly5M gene was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli Through analysis of the enzymatic reaction products by thin-layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-tandem time of flight mass spectrometry, Gly5M was identified as a novel ?-1,3-endoglucanase (EC 188.8.131.52) and bacterial ?-1,6-glucanase (EC 184.108.40.206) in GH5. The ?-1,3-endoglucanase and ?-1,6-endoglucanase activities were detected by using laminarin (a ?-1,3-glucan with ?-1,6-glycosidic linkages derived from brown macroalgae) and pustulan (a ?-1,6-glucan derived from fungal cell walls) as the substrates, respectively. This enzyme also showed transglycosylase activity toward ?-1,3-oligosaccharides when laminarioligosaccharides were used as the substrates. Since laminarin is the major form of glucan storage in brown macroalgae, Gly5M could be used to produce glucose and laminarioligosaccharides, using brown macroalgae, for industrial purposes.In this study, we have discovered a novel ?-1,3-1,6-endoglucanase with a unique transglycosylase activity, namely, Gly5M, from a marine bacterium, Saccharophagus degradans 2-40(T) Gly5M was identified as the newly found ?-1,3-endoglucanase and bacterial ?-1,6-glucanase in GH5. Gly5M is capable of cleaving glycosidic linkages of both ?-1,3-glucans and ?-1,6-glucans. Gly5M also possesses a transglycosylase activity toward ?-1,3-oligosacchrides. Due to the broad specificity of Gly5M, this enzyme can be used to produce glucose or high-value ?-1,3- and/or ?-1,6-oligosaccharides.
Project description:An endo-(1 --> 6)-beta-glucanase has been isolated from the culture filtrates of the filamentous fungus Acremonium persicinum and purified by (NH4)2SO4 precipitation followed by anion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography. SDS/PAGE of the purified enzyme gave a single band with an apparent molecular mass of 42.7 kDa. The enzyme is a non-glycosylated, monomeric protein with a pI of 4.9 and pH optimum of 5.0. It hydrolysed (1 --> 6)-beta-glucans (pustulan and lutean), initially yielding a series of (1 --> 6)-beta-linked oligoglucosides, consistent with endo-hydrolytic action. Final hydrolysis products from these substrates were gentiobiose and gentiotriose, with all products released as beta-anomers, indicating that the enzyme acts with retention of configuration. The purified enzyme also hydrolysed Eisenia bicyclis laminarin, liberating glucose, gentiobiose, and a range of larger oligoglucosides, through the apparent bydrolysis of (1 --> 6)-beta- and some (1 --> 3)-beta-linkages in this substrate. K(m) values for pustulan, lutean and laminarin were 1.28, 1.38, and 1.67 mg/ml respectively. The enzyme was inhibited by N-acetylimidazole, N-bromosuccinimide, dicyclohexylcarbodi-imide, Woodward's Reagent K, 2-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzyl bromide, KMnO4 and some metal ions, whereas D-glucono-1,5-lactone and EDTA had no effect.