A Novel Transcript Isoform of TBK1 Negatively Regulates Type I IFN Production by Promoting Proteasomal Degradation of TBK1 and Lysosomal Degradation of IRF3.
ABSTRACT: TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1), an IKK-related serine/threonine kinase, is pivotal for the induction of antiviral type I interferon (IFN) by TLR and RLR signaling pathways. In a previous study, we demonstrated that TBK1 spliced isoforms (TBK1_tv1 and TBK1_tv2) from zebrafish were dominant negative regulators in the RLR antiviral pathway by targeting the functional TBK1-IRF3 complex formation. In this study, we show that the third TBK1 isoform (namely TBK1_tv3) inhibits zebrafish type I IFN production by promoting TBK1 and IRF3 degradation. First, ectopic expression of TBK1_tv3 suppresses poly(I:C)- and Spring viremia of carp virus-induced type I IFN response, and also inhibits the up-regulation of IFN promoter activities stimulated by RIG-I, MDA5, MAVS, TBK1, and IRF3. Second, TBK1_tv3 targets TBK1 and IRF3 to impair the formation of TBK1 dimer, TBK1-IRF3 complex, and IRF3 dimer. Notably, TBK1_tv3 promotes the degradation of TBK1 through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and the degradation of IRF3 through the lysosomal pathway. Further analysis demonstrates that TBK1_tv3 promotes the degradation of TBK1 for K48-linked ubiquitination by targeting the K251, K256, and K271 sites of TBK1. Collectively, our results suggest a novel TBK1 isoform-mediated negative regulation mechanism, which serves to balance the production of type I IFN and ISGs.
Project description:RNA virus invasion induces a cytosolic RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) signaling pathway by promoting assembly of the Mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS) signalosome and triggers the rapid production of type I interferons (IFNs) and proinflammatory cytokines. During this process, the pivotal kinase TANK binding kinase 1 (TBK1) is recruited to the MAVS signalosome to transduce a robust innate antiviral immune response by phosphorylating transcription factors interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB and promoting their nuclear translocation. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the negative regulation of TBK1 are largely unknown. In the present study, we found that THO complex subunit 7 homolog (THOC7) negatively regulated the cellular antiviral response by promoting the proteasomal degradation of TBK1. THOC7 overexpression potently inhibited Sendai virus- or polyI:C-induced IRF3 dimerization and phosphorylation and IFN-β production. In contrast, THOC7 knockdown had the opposite effects. Moreover, we simulated a node-activated pathway to show that THOC7 regulated the RIG-I-like receptors (RLR)-/MAVS-dependent signaling cascade at the TBK1 level. Furthermore, THOC7 was involved in the MAVS signalosome and promoted TBK1 degradation by increasing its K48 ubiquitin-associated polyubiquitination. Together, these findings suggest that THOC7 negatively regulates type I IFN production by promoting TBK1 proteasomal degradation, thus improving our understanding of innate antiviral immune responses.
Project description:TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) is an important serine/threonine-protein kinase that mediates phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of IRF3, which contributes to induction of type I interferons (IFNs) in the innate antiviral response. In mammals, TBK1 spliced isoform negatively regulates the virus-triggered IFN-? signaling pathway by disrupting the interaction between retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and mitochondria antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS). However, it is still unclear whether alternative splicing patterns and the function of TBK1 isoform(s) exist in teleost fish. In this study, we identify two alternatively spliced isoforms of TBK1 from zebrafish, termed TBK1_tv1 and TBK1_tv2. Both TBK1_tv1 and TBK1_tv2 contain an incomplete STKc_TBK1 domain. Moreover, the UBL_TBK1_like domain is also missing for TBK1_tv2. TBK1_tv1 and TBK1_tv2 are expressed in zebrafish larvae. Overexpression of TBK1_tv1 and TBK1_tv2 inhibits RIG-I-, MAVS-, TBK1-, and IRF3-mediated activation of IFN promoters in response to spring viremia of carp virus infection. Also, TBK1_tv1 and TBK1_tv2 inhibit expression of IFNs and IFN-stimulated genes induced by MAVS and TBK1. Mechanistically, TBK1_tv1 and TBK1_tv2 competitively associate with TBK1 and IRF3 to disrupt the formation of a functional TBK1-IRF3 complex, impeding the phosphorylation of IRF3 mediated by TBK1. Collectively, these results demonstrate that TBK1 spliced isoforms are dominant negative regulators in the RIG-I/MAVS/TBK1/IRF3 antiviral pathway by targeting the functional TBK1-IRF3 complex formation. Identification and functional characterization of piscine TBK1 spliced isoforms may contribute to understanding the role of TBK1 expression in innate antiviral response.
Project description:During a viral infection, the intracellular RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) sense viral RNA and signal through the mitochondrial antiviral signaling adaptor MAVS (also known as IPS-1, Cardif and VISA) whose activation triggers a rapid production of type I interferons (IFN) and of pro-inflammatory cytokines through the transcription factors IRF3/IRF7 and NF-?B, respectively. While MAVS is essential for this signaling and known to operate through the scaffold protein NEMO and the protein kinase TBK1 that phosphorylates IRF3, its mechanism of action and regulation remain unclear.We report here that RLR activation triggers MAVS ubiquitination on lysine 7 and 10 by the E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM25 and marks it for proteasomal degradation concomitantly with downstream signaling. Inhibition of this MAVS degradation with a proteasome inhibitor does not affect NF-?B signaling but it hampers IRF3 activation, and NEMO and TBK1, two essential mediators in type I IFN production, are retained at the mitochondria.These results suggest that MAVS functions as a recruitment platform that assembles a signaling complex involving NEMO and TBK1, and that the proteasome-mediated MAVS degradation is required to release the signaling complex into the cytosol, allowing IRF3 phosphorylation by TBK1.
Project description:Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes a porcine disease associated with swine epidemic diarrhea. The type I interferon (IFN-I or IFN ?/?) is a key mediator of innate antiviral response during virus infection. Different antagonistic strategies have been identified and determined as to how PEDV infection inhibits the host's IFN responses to escape the host innate immune pathway, but the pathogenic mechanisms of PEDV infection are not fully elucidated. Our preliminary results revealed that endogenous TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) and interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), the key components in the IFN signaling pathway were downregulated in PEDV infected IPEC-J2 cells by iTRAQ analysis. In this study, we screened nsp15 as the most important viral encoded protein involved in TBK1 and IRF3 reduction. Endoribonuclease (EndoU) activity has been well determined for coronavirus nsp15. Three residues (H226, H241, and K282) of PEDV nsp15 were identified as critical amino acids for PEDV EndoU but not D265, which was not well correlated with published results of other coronaviruses, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome virus (SARS-CoV). Moreover, PEDV nsp15 can directly degrade the RNA levels of TBK1 and IRF3 dependent on its EndoU activity to suppress IFN production and constrain the induction of IFN stimulated genes (ISGs), by which PEDV antagonizes the host innate response to facilitate its replication. Collectively, these results have confirmed that PEDV nsp15 was capable of subverting the IFN response by the RNA degradation of TBK1 and IRF3.
Project description:The phosphatase Cdc25A plays an important role in cell cycle regulation by dephosphorylating its substrates, such as cyclin-dependent kinases. In this study, we demonstrate that Cdc25A negatively regulates RIG-I-mediated antiviral signaling. We found that ectopic expression of Cdc25A in 293T cells inhibits the activation of beta interferon (IFN-β) induced by Sendai virus and poly(I·C), while knockdown of Cdc25A enhances the transcription of IFN-β stimulated by RNA virus infection. The inhibitory effect of Cdc25A on the antiviral immune response is mainly dependent on its phosphatase activity. Data from a luciferase assay indicated that Cdc25A can inhibit TBK1-mediated activation of IFN-β. Further analysis indicated that Cdc25A can interact with TBK1 and reduce the phosphorylation of TBK1 at S172, which in turn decreases the phosphorylation of its downstream substrate IRF3. Consistently, knockdown of Cdc25A upregulates the phosphorylation of both TBK1-S172 and IRF3 in Sendai virus-infected or TBK1-transfected 293T cells. In addition, we confirmed that Cdc25A can directly dephosphorylate TBK1-S172-p. These results demonstrate that Cdc25A inhibits the antiviral immune response by reducing the active form of TBK1. Using herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection, an IFN-β reporter assay, and reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), we demonstrated that Cdc25A can also inhibit DNA virus-induced activation of IFN-β. Using a vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) infection assay, we confirmed that Cdc25A can repress the RIG-I-like receptor (RLR)-mediated antiviral immune response and influence the antiviral status of cells. In conclusion, we demonstrate that Cdc25A negatively regulates the antiviral immune response by inhibiting TBK1 activity.IMPORTANCE The RLR-mediated antiviral immune response is critical for host defense against RNA virus infection. However, the detailed mechanism for balancing the RLR signaling pathway in host cells is not well understood. We found that the phosphatase Cdc25A negatively regulates the RNA virus-induced innate immune response. Our studies indicate that Cdc25A inhibits the RLR signaling pathway via its phosphatase activity. We demonstrated that Cdc25A reduces TBK1 activity and consequently restrains the activation of IFN-β transcription as well as the antiviral status of nearby cells. We showed that Cdc25A can also inhibit DNA virus-induced activation of IFN-β. Taken together, our findings uncover a novel function and mechanism for Cdc25A in regulating antiviral immune signaling. These findings reveal Cdc25A as an important negative regulator of antiviral immunity and demonstrate its role in maintaining host cell homeostasis following viral infection.
Project description:Viral infection activates the transcription factors NF-?B and IRF3, which contribute to the induction of type I interferons (IFNs) and cellular antiviral responses. Protein kinases play a critical role in various signaling pathways by phosphorylating their substrates. Here, we identified dual-specificity tyrosine-(Y)-phosphorylation-regulated kinase 2 (DYRK2) as a negative regulator of virus-triggered type I IFN induction. DYRK2 inhibited the virus-triggered induction of type I IFNs and promoted the K48-linked ubiquitination and degradation of TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) in a kinase-activity-dependent manner. We further found that DYRK2 phosphorylated Ser527 of TBK1, which is essential for the recruitment of NLRP4 and for the E3 ubiquitin ligase DTX4 to degrade TBK1. These findings suggest that DYRK2 negatively regulates virus-triggered signaling by targeting TBK1 for phosphorylation and priming it for degradation, and these data provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms that dictate the cellular antiviral response.
Project description:Cytosolic double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) stimulates the production of type I interferon (IFN) through the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident adaptor protein STING (stimulator of IFN genes), which activates the transcription factor interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3); however, how STING activates IRF3 is unclear. Here, we showed that STING stimulates phosphorylation of IRF3 by the kinase TBK1 (TANK-binding kinase 1) in an in vitro reconstitution system. With this system, we identified a carboxyl-terminal region of STING that was both necessary and sufficient to activate TBK1 and stimulate the phosphorylation of IRF3. We also found that STING interacted with both TBK1 and IRF3 and that mutations in STING that selectively disrupted its binding to IRF3 abrogated phosphorylation of IRF3 without impairing the activation of TBK1. These results suggest that STING functions as a scaffold protein to specify and promote the phosphorylation of IRF3 by TBK1. This scaffolding function of STING (and possibly of other adaptor proteins) may explain why IRF3 is activated in only a subset of signaling pathways that activate TBK1.
Project description:Stringent control of the type I interferon signaling pathway is important for maintaining host immune responses and homeostasis, yet the molecular mechanisms responsible for its tight regulation are still poorly understood. Here we report that the pattern-recognition receptor NLRP4 regulated the activation of type I interferon mediated by double-stranded RNA or DNA by targeting the kinase TBK1 for degradation. NLRP4 recruited the E3 ubiquitin ligase DTX4 to TBK1 for Lys48 (K48)-linked polyubiquitination at Lys670, which led to degradation of TBK1. Knockdown of either DTX4 or NLRP4 abrogated K48-linked ubiquitination and degradation of TBK1 and enhanced the phosphorylation of TBK1 and the transcription factor IRF3. Our results identify a previously unrecognized role for NLRP4 in the regulation of type I interferon signaling and provide molecular insight into the mechanisms by which NLRP4-DTX4 targets TBK1 for degradation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Coronaviruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (SCoV) and mouse hepatitis virus A59 (MHV-A59) have evolved strategies to disable the innate immune system for productive replication and spread of infection. We have previously shown that papain-like protease domain 2 (PLP2), a catalytic domain of the nonstructural protein 3 (nsp3) of MHV-A59, encodes a deubiquitinase (DUB) and inactivates IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) thereby the type I interferon (IFN) response. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:Here we provide further evidence that PLP2 may also target TANK-binding kinase-1 (TBK1), the upstream kinase of IRF3 in the IFN signaling pathway. Overexpression experiments showed that PLP2 deubiquitinated TBK1 and reduced its kinase activity, hence inhibited IFN-? reporter activity. Albeit promiscuous in deubiquitinating cellular proteins, PLP2 inactivated TBK1 and IFN-? response in TNF receptor associated factor 3 (TRAF3) deficient cells, suggesting that targeting TBK1 would be sufficient for PLP2 to inhibit IRF3 activation. This notion was further supported by in vitro kinase assays, in which prior treatment of TBK1 with PLP2 inhibited its kinase activity to phosphorylate IRF3. Intriguing enough, results of PLP2 overexpression system and MHV-A59 infection system proved that PLP2 formed an inactive complex with TBK1 and IRF3 in the cytoplasm and the presence of PLP2 stabilized the hypo-phosphorylated IRF3-TBK1 complex in a dose-dependent manner. CONCLUSIONS:These results suggest that PLP2 not only inactivates TBK1, but also prevents IRF3 nuclear translocation hence inhibits IFN transcription activation. Identification of the conserved DUB activity of PLP2 in suppression of IFN signaling would provide a useful clue to the development of therapeutics against coronaviruses infection.
Project description:Negative regulation of immune pathways is essential to achieve resolution of immune responses and to avoid excess inflammation. DNA stimulates type I IFN expression through the DNA sensor cGAS, the second messenger cGAMP, and the adaptor molecule STING Here, we report that STING degradation following activation of the pathway occurs through autophagy and is mediated by p62/SQSTM1, which is phosphorylated by TBK1 to direct ubiquitinated STING to autophagosomes. Degradation of STING was impaired in p62-deficient cells, which responded with elevated IFN production to foreign DNA and DNA pathogens. In the absence of p62, STING failed to traffic to autophagy-associated vesicles. Thus, DNA sensing induces the cGAS-STING pathway to activate TBK1, which phosphorylates IRF3 to induce IFN expression, but also phosphorylates p62 to stimulate STING degradation and attenuation of the response.