Earlier Provision of Gastric Bypass Surgery in Canada Enhances Surgical Benefit and Leads to Cost and Comorbidity Reduction.
ABSTRACT: Background: Effective provision of bariatric surgery for patients with obesity may be impeded by concerns of payers regarding costs or perceptions of patients who drop out of surgical programs after referral. Estimates of the cost and comorbidity impact of these inefficiencies in gastric bypass surgery in Canada are lacking but would aid in informing healthcare investment and resource allocation. Objectives: To estimate total and relative public payer costs for surgery and comorbidities (diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia) in a bariatric surgery population. Methods: A decision analytic model for a 100-patient cohort in Canada (91% female, mean body mass index 49.2 kg/m2, 50% diabetes, 66% hypertension, 59% dyslipidemia). Costs include surgery, surgical complications, and comorbidities over the 10-year post-referral period. Results are calculated as medians and 95% credibility intervals (CrIs) for a pathway with surgery at 1 year ("improved") compared with surgery at 3.5 years ("standard"). Sensitivity analyses were performed to test independent contributions to results of shorter wait time, better post-surgical weight loss, and randomly sampled cohort demographics. Results: Compared to standard care, the improved path was associated with reduction in patient-years of treatment for each of the three comorbidities, corresponding to a reduction of $1.1 (0.68-1.6) million, or 34% (26-41%) of total costs. Comorbidity treatment costs were 9.0- and 4.7-fold greater than surgical costs for the standard and improved pathways, respectively. Relative to non-surgical bariatric care, earlier surgery was associated with earlier return on surgical investment and 2-fold reduction in risk of prevalence of each comorbidity compared to delayed surgery. Conclusions: Comorbidity costs represent a greater burden to payers than the costs of gastric bypass surgery. Investments may be worthwhile to reduce wait times and dropout rates and improve post-surgical weight loss outcomes to save overall costs and reduce patient comorbidity prevalence.
Project description:Conventional nonsurgical management of severe obesity in the pediatric population and adolescents has focused on a multidisciplinary approach involving diet, exercise, behavioral modification, and to some extent, pharmaceuticals. Although nonsurgical strategies provide a certain degree of effective weight reduction, most of the severely obese adolescents suffer from a high relapse rate. In recent studies, long-term outcomes of bariatric surgery for severely obese adolescents have shown sustainable effects on weight loss and resolution of related comorbidities, such as hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus in this vulnerable age group. Notably, the role and practical benefits of bariatric surgery as a multidisciplinary therapeutic approach to adolescent obesity is gaining attention and acceptance. However, a surgical approach has many obstacles that prevent the timely evaluation and optimal intervention for adolescent obesity and its comorbidities. In the present review, the latest data on long-term outcomes after bariatric surgery for severely obese adolescents in terms of durability, effects on metabolic risk factors, complications, and optimal timing were summarized. The results showed the sustainability of weight loss and comorbidity resolution in adolescents following bariatric surgery. In addition, earlier surgery in patients without an extremely high body mass index increases the likelihood of a healthier life in adulthood. This review can help clarify the beneficial effects of bariatric surgery on weight reduction and resolution of comorbidities in severely obese adolescents and remove the barriers to referral of adolescents for bariatric surgery.
Project description:Increasing rates of obesity have led to growing demand for bariatric surgery. This has implications for wait times, particularly in publicly funded programs. This study examined the impact of patient and operational factors on wait times in a multidisciplinary bariatric surgery program.A retrospective study was conducted involving patients who were referred to a tertiary care centre (University Health Network, Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto) for bariatric surgery between June 2008 and July 2011. Patient characteristics, dates of clinical assessments and records describing operational changes were collected. Univariable analysis and multivariable log-linear and parametric time-to-event regressions were performed to determine whether patient and operational covariates were associated with the wait time for bariatric surgery (i.e., length of preoperative evaluation).Of the 1664 patients included in the analysis, 724 underwent surgery with a mean wait time of 440 (standard deviation 198) days and a median wait time of 445 (interquartile range 298-533) days. Wait times ranged from 3 months to 4 years. Univariable and multivariable analyses showed that patients with active substance use (? = 0.3482, p = 0.02) and individuals who entered the program in more recent operational periods (? = 0.2028, p < 0.001) had longer wait times. Additionally, the median time-to-surgery increased over 3 discrete operational periods (characterized by specific program changes related to scheduling and staffing levels, and varying referral rates and defined surgical targets; p < 0.001).Some patients could be identified at referral as being at risk for longer wait times. We also found that previous operational decisions significantly increased the wait time in the program since its inception. Therefore, careful consideration must be devoted to process-level decision-making for multistage bariatric surgical programs, because managerial and procedural changes can affect timely access to treatment.
Project description:To estimate costs and outcomes of increasing access to bariatric surgery in obese adults and in population subgroups of age, sex, deprivation, comorbidity, and obesity category.A cohort study was conducted using primary care electronic health records, with linked hospital utilization data, for 3,045 participants who underwent bariatric surgery and 247,537 participants who did not undergo bariatric surgery. Epidemiological analyses informed a probabilistic Markov model to compare bariatric surgery, including equal proportions with adjustable gastric banding, gastric bypass, and sleeve gastrectomy, with standard nonsurgical management of obesity. Outcomes were quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and net monetary benefits at a threshold of £30,000 per QALY.In a UK population of 250,000 adults, there may be 7,163 people with morbid obesity including 1,406 with diabetes. The immediate cost of 1,000 bariatric surgical procedures is £9.16 million, with incremental discounted lifetime health care costs of £15.26 million (95% confidence interval £15.18-£15.36 million). Patient-years with diabetes mellitus will decrease by 8,320 (range 8,123-8,502). Incremental QALYs will increase by 2,142 (range 2,032-2,256). The estimated cost per QALY gained is £7,129 (range £6,775-£7,506). Net monetary benefits will be £49.02 million (range £45.72-£52.41 million). Estimates are similar for subgroups of age, sex, and deprivation. Bariatric surgery remains cost-effective if the procedure is twice as costly, or if intervention effect declines over time.Diverse obese individuals may benefit from bariatric surgery at acceptable cost. Bariatric surgery is not cost-saving, but increased health care costs are exceeded by health benefits to obese individuals.
Project description:Extreme obesity affects nearly 8% of Canadians, and is debilitating, costly and ultimately lethal. Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective treatment available; is associated with reductions in morbidity/mortality, improvements in quality of life; and appears cost-effective. However, current demand for surgery in Canada outstrips capacity by at least 1000-fold, causing exponential increases in already protracted, multi-year wait-times. The objectives and hypotheses of this study were as follows: 1. To serially assess the clinical, economic and humanistic outcomes in patients wait-listed for bariatric care over a 2-year period. We hypothesize deterioration in these outcomes over time; 2. To determine the clinical effectiveness and changes in quality of life associated with modern bariatric procedures compared with medically treated and wait-listed controls over 2 years. We hypothesize that surgery will markedly reduce weight, decrease the need for unplanned medical care, and increase quality of life; 3. To conduct a 3-year (1 year retrospective and 2 year prospective) economic assessment of bariatric surgery compared to medical and wait-listed controls from the societal, public payor, and health-care payor perspectives. We hypothesize that lower indirect, out of pocket and productivity costs will offset increased direct health-care costs resulting in lower total costs for bariatric surgery.Population-based prospective cohort study of 500 consecutive, consenting adults, including 150 surgically treated patients, 200 medically treated patients and 150 wait-listed patients. Subjects will be enrolled from the Edmonton Weight Wise Regional Obesity Program (Edmonton, Alberta, Canada), with prospective bi-annual follow-up for 2 years. Mixed methods data collection, linking primary data to provincial administrative databases will be employed. Major outcomes include generic, obesity-specific and preference-based quality of life assessment, patient satisfaction, patient utilities, anthropometric indices, cardiovascular risk factors, health care utilization and direct and indirect costs.The results will identify the spectrum of potential risks associated with protracted wait times for bariatric care and will quantify the economic, humanistic and clinical impact of surgery from the Canadian perspective. Such information is urgently needed by health-service providers and policy makers to better allocate use of finite resources. Furthermore, our findings should be widely-applicable to other publically-funded jurisdictions providing similar care to the extremely obese.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00850356.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Data from a US multicenter longitudinal study of bariatric surgery were used to compare weight change (primary outcome) and comorbidities (secondary outcome) in patients who underwent sleeve gastrectomy versus Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. METHODS:This study includes participants who underwent sleeve gastrectomy and matched participants who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass from the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery-2 (LABS-2) study. Adults undergoing initial bariatric surgical procedures between 2006 and 2009 were enrolled. Participants who underwent sleeve gastrectomy were high-risk or superobese and intended to have a second-stage procedure. Mixed models were used to evaluate percent weight change from baseline through 7 years, and diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension prevalence through 5 years. RESULTS:Fifty-seven of 59 participants who underwent sleeve gastrectomy were matched one to one. Most were female (68%) and white (81%), and had a median age of 49 (37-56) years and median body mass index of 56.4 (35.5-76.8) kg/m2 presurgery. Weight loss was significantly less 1 to 7 years after sleeve gastrectomy versus matched Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (eg, year 7 mean weight loss was 23.6% vs 30.4%, respectively; P?=?.001). For both surgical groups, prevalence of diabetes, low high-density lipoprotein, and hypertension were significantly (P < .05) lower 5 years postsurgery versus baseline. CONCLUSION:Higher-risk or super-obese participants after sleeve gastrectomy lost less weight than did matched Roux-en-Y gastric bypass counterparts throughout 7 years. Both groups exhibited improvements in comorbidities from presurgery through 5 years.
Project description:The clinical evidence base demonstrating bariatric surgery's health benefits is much larger than it was when the National Institutes of Health last held a consensus panel in 1991. Still, it remains unclear whether ongoing studies will address critical questions about long-term complication rates and the sustainability of weight loss and comorbidity control.To summarize findings from a multidisciplinary workshop convened in May 2013 by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. The workshop aimed to summarize the current state of knowledge of bariatric surgery, review research findings on the long-term outcomes of bariatric surgery, and establish priorities for future research directions.The evidence presented at the workshop was selected by the planning committee for both its quality and duration of follow-up. The data review emphasized randomized clinical trials and large observational studies with long-term follow-up, with or without a control group.Several small randomized clinical trials showed greater weight loss and type 2 diabetes mellitus remission compared with nonsurgical treatments within the first 2 years of follow-up after bariatric surgery. Large, long-term observational studies have shown durable (>5 years) weight loss, diabetes, and lipid improvements with bariatric surgery. Still unclear are predictors of outcomes, long-term complications, long-term survival, microvascular and macrovascular events, mental health outcomes, and costs. The studies needed to address these knowledge gaps would be expensive and logistically difficult to perform.High-quality evidence shows that bariatric surgical procedures result in greater weight loss than nonsurgical treatments and are more effective at inducing initial type 2 diabetes mellitus remission in obese patients. More information is needed about the long-term durability of comorbidity control and complications after bariatric procedures and this evidence will most likely come from carefully designed observational studies.
Project description:This review focuses on the mechanisms underlying, and indications for, bariatric surgery in the reduction of cardiovascular disease (CVD), as well as other expected benefits of this intervention. The fundamental basis for bariatric surgery for the purpose of accomplishing weight loss is the determination that severe obesity is a disease associated with multiple adverse effects on health, which can be reversed or improved by successful weight loss in patients who have been unable to sustain weight loss by nonsurgical means. An explanation of possible indications for weight loss surgery as well as specific bariatric surgical procedures is presented, along with review of the safety literature of such procedures. Procedures that are less invasive or those that involve less gastrointestinal rearrangement accomplish considerably less weight loss but have substantially lower perioperative and longer-term risk. The ultimate benefit of weight reduction relates to the reduction of the comorbidities, quality of life, and all-cause mortality. With weight loss being the underlying justification for bariatric surgery in ameliorating CVD risk, current evidence-based research is discussed concerning body fat distribution, dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, inflammation, obstructive sleep apnea, and others. The rationale for bariatric surgery reducing CVD events is discussed and juxtaposed with impacts on all-cause mortalities. Given the improvement of established obesity-related CVD risk factors after weight loss, it is reasonable to expect a reduction of CVD events and related mortality after weight loss in populations with obesity. The quality of the current evidence is reviewed, and future research opportunities and summaries are stated.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate trends in the utilization, clinical characteristics, and inpatient outcomes among persons with knee osteoarthritis undergoing bariatric surgery. METHOD:We used the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) to examine trends of bariatric surgeries performed on adults with clinically documented knee osteoarthritis between 2005 and 2014. We abstracted hospital setting, procedure, demographic and clinical characteristics, and inpatient surgical outcomes from each discharge. We examined temporal trends using linear regression and Cochran-Armitage test for trend. RESULTS:The utilization of bariatric surgery among persons with knee osteoarthritis from 2005 to 2014 remained consistent, with an annual total of about 3,300 procedures performed nationally. The most common procedure type changed from laparoscopic Roux-en-Y (65%) in 2005-2006 to laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (58%) in 2013-2014. The median age, proportion on Medicare, and age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of diabetes increased from 46 to 51 years, 7-23%, and 28-32%, respectively. From 2005 to 2014, the median adjusted costs, in 2017 USD, for laparoscopic and open Roux-en-Y surgeries decreased from $15,100 to $13,300 (p < 0.01) and $14,100 to $10,100 (p = 0.0001), respectively, whereas the costs of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy and laparoscopic banding did not change significantly. In-hospital mortality remained at 0.0-0.1% from 2005 to 2014. CONCLUSION:Although growing evidence suggests that bariatric surgery is associated with improvements in osteoarthritis pain and functional status, the utilization of bariatric surgery among morbidly obese persons with knee osteoarthritis remained consistent from 2005 to 2014. Bariatric surgery in persons with knee osteoarthritis is generally safe, as inpatient complication and mortality rates remained low despite an increase in age and number of comorbidities.
Project description:Transcriptional profiling of subcutaneous adipose tissue before and after 2 years of bariatric surgery. This type of surgery produce a masive weight loss in morbidly obese subjects, and improve the comorbidities associated to obesity. Goal was to determine the effects of bariatric surgery on the gene expression of subcutaneous adipose tissue. Overall design: Prospective study in morbidly obese subjects: before and after bariatric surgery. Biological replicates: 8 morbidly obese women before bariatric surgery, and the same subjects (n=8) 2 years after bariatric surgery.
Project description:Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) is considered the gold standard in bariatric surgery, achieving durable long-term weight loss with improvement of obesity-related comorbidities. Lately, the laparoscopic mini gastric bypass (LMGB) has gained worldwide popularity with similar results to LRYGB in terms of weight loss and comorbidity resolution. However, there is a lack of randomized controlled trials (RCT) comparing LMGB and LRYGB. This article describes the design and protocol of a randomized controlled trial comparing the outcomes of these two bariatric procedures.The trial is designed as a single center, randomized, patient and observer blinded trial. The relevant ethics committee has approved the trial protocol. To demonstrate that LMGB is not inferior to LRYGB in terms of excess weight loss (EWL) the study is conducted as a non-inferiority trial with the sample-size calculations performed accordingly. EWL 12 months after surgery is the primary endpoint, whereas 3-year EWL, morbidity, mortality, remission of obesity related comorbidities, quality of life (QOL) and hormonal and lipid profile changes are secondary endpoints. Eighty patients, 18 years or older and with a body mass index (BMI) between 35 and 50 kg/m2 who meet the Swiss guidelines for the surgical treatment of morbid obesity will be randomized. The endpoints and baseline measurements will be assessed pre-surgery, peri-surgery and post-surgery (fixed follow up measurements are at discharge and at the time points 6 weeks and 12 and 36 months postoperatively).With its 3-year follow up time, this RCT will provide important data on the impact of LMGB and LRYGB on EWL, remission of comorbidities, QOL and hormonal and lipid profile changes.ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02601092 . Registered on 28 September 2015.