SGLT2 is not expressed in pancreatic ?- and ?-cells, and its inhibition does not directly affect glucagon and insulin secretion in rodents and humans.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors (SGLT2i), or gliflozins, are anti-diabetic drugs that lower glycemia by promoting glucosuria, but they also stimulate endogenous glucose and ketone body production. The likely causes of these metabolic responses are increased blood glucagon levels, and decreased blood insulin levels, but the mechanisms involved are hotly debated. This study verified whether or not SGLT2i affect glucagon and insulin secretion by a direct action on islet cells in three species, using multiple approaches. METHODS:We tested the in vivo effects of two selective SGLT2i (dapagliflozin, empagliflozin) and a SGLT1/2i (sotagliflozin) on various biological parameters (glucosuria, glycemia, glucagonemia, insulinemia) in mice. mRNA expression of SGLT2 and other glucose transporters was assessed in rat, mouse, and human FACS-purified ?- and ?-cells, and by analysis of two human islet cell transcriptomic datasets. Immunodetection of SGLT2 in pancreatic tissues was performed with a validated antibody. The effects of dapagliflozin, empagliflozin, and sotagliflozin on glucagon and insulin secretion were assessed using isolated rat, mouse and human islets and the in situ perfused mouse pancreas. Finally, we tested the long-term effect of SGLT2i on glucagon gene expression. RESULTS:SGLT2 inhibition in mice increased the plasma glucagon/insulin ratio in the fasted state, an effect correlated with a decline in glycemia. Gene expression analyses and immunodetections showed no SGLT2 mRNA or protein expression in rodent and human islet cells, but moderate SGLT1 mRNA expression in human ?-cells. However, functional experiments on rat, mouse, and human (29 donors) islets and the in situ perfused mouse pancreas did not identify any direct effect of dapagliflozin, empagliflozin or sotagliflozin on glucagon and insulin secretion. SGLT2i did not affect glucagon gene expression in rat and human islets. CONCLUSIONS:The data indicate that the SGLT2i-induced increase of the plasma glucagon/insulin ratio in vivo does not result from a direct action of the gliflozins on islet cells.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) have been demonstrated to be able to improve the cardiovascular and renal prognosis in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, the relative efficacy of various SGLT2 inhibitors and GLP-1 RAs on cardiorenal outcomes is unestablished.<h4>Methods</h4>We searched PubMed and Embase for relevant cardiovascular or renal outcome trials (CVOTs). Endpoints of interest were major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), stroke, myocardial infarction (MI), cardiovascular death (CVD), all-cause death (ACD), kidney function progression (KFP), and hospitalization for heart failure (HHF). Bayesian network meta-analysis was conducted to produce pooled hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). We calculated the probability values of surface under the cumulative ranking curve to rank active and placebo interventions.<h4>Results</h4>Fourteen COVTs were included in analysis. Sotagliflozin (HR 0.76, 95% CI 0.61-0.94), subcutaneous semaglutide, and albiglutide lowered MACE versus lixisenatide among others. Sotagliflozin (HR 0.59, 95% CI 0.40-0.89), canagliflozin, and empagliflozin lowered HHF versus subcutaneous semaglutide among others. Dapagliflozin and empagliflozin lowered KFP versus exenatide among others. Empagliflozin and oral semaglutide lowered CVD versus dapagliflozin among others. Sotagliflozin (HR 0.65, 95% CI 0.47-0.91) and albiglutide lowered MI versus ertugliflozin among others. Sotagliflozin (HR 0.56, 95% CI 0.37-0.85) and subcutaneous semaglutide lowered stroke versus empagliflozin among others. Oral semaglutide and empagliflozin lowered ACD versus subcutaneous semaglutide among others. The maximum surface under the cumulative ranking curve values followed sotagliflozin, subcutaneous semaglutide, and albiglutide in lowering MACE; sotagliflozin, canagliflozin, and empagliflozin in lowering HHF; dapagliflozin and empagliflozin in lowering KFP; empagliflozin and oral semaglutide in lowering CVD; sotagliflozin and albiglutide in lowering MI; sotagliflozin and subcutaneous semaglutide in lowering stroke; and oral semaglutide and empagliflozin in lowering ACD.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This updated network meta-analysis reproduced the findings in the first network meta-analysis, and moreover revealed that sotagliflozin was one of the most effective drugs as for lowering MI, stroke, MACE, and HHF, whereas ertugliflozin was not. These findings will provide the according evidence regarding the usage of specific SGLT2 inhibitors and GLP-1 RAs in T2D patients for prevention of specific cardiorenal endpoints.
Project description:Results from cardiovascular outcome trials (CVOT) with 5 different sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i; empagliflozin, canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, ertugliflozin, sotagliflozin), initially developed for their glucose-lowering effect by blocking tubular glucose reabsorption in kidney, have been shown to decrease the risk of heart failure hospitalization (HFH) across a range of patients with and without atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Following these CVOT results, SGLT2i (dapagliflozin, empagliflozin, sotagliflozin) also were reported to reduce HFH and cardiovascular death in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), regardless of existence or absence of T2DM. Ongoing studies have been conducted to evaluate the clinical benefit of SGLT2i (empagliflozin, dapagliflozin) in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Although SGLT2i brought us to the entrance of a new era for prevention of HF incidence and worsening of HF, the search for pivotal mechanism of SGLT2i to improve our pharmacological armamentarium should continue in order to protect every HF patient from fatal progression of HF disease. In this review, we summarized the updated clinical evidences on SGLT2i (rather than basic and translational evidence) for reduction of HF risk in T2DM patients and favorable clinical outcomes in both HFrEF and HFpEF patients.
Project description:Sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) are a promising second-line treatment strategy for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with a developing landscape of both beneficial cardio- and nephroprotective properties and emerging adverse drug reactions (ADRs) including diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), genetic mycotic infections, and amputations among others. A national register study (MHRA Yellow Card, UK) was used to quantify the SGLT2i's suspected ADRs relative to their Rx rate (OpenPrescribing, UK). The polypharmacology profiles of SGLT2i were data-mined (ChEMBL) for the first time. The ADR reports (n = 3629) and prescribing numbers (R<sub>x</sub> n = 5,813,325) for each SGLT2i in the United Kingdom (from launch date to the beginning December 2019) were determined. Empagliflozin possesses the most selective SGLT2/SGLT1 inhibition profile at ~2500-fold, ~10-fold more selective than cangliflozin (~260-fold). Canagliflozin was found to also inhibit CYP at clinically achievable concentrations. We find that for overall ADR rates, empagliflozin versus dapagliflozin and empagliflozin versus canagliflozin are statistically significant (χ<sup>2</sup> , p < .05), while dapagliflozin versus canagliflozin is not. In terms of overall ADRs, there is a greater relative rate for canagliflozin > dapagliflozin > empagliflozin. For fatalities, there is a greater relative rate for dapagliflozin > canagliflozin > empagliflozin. An organ classification that resulted in a statistically significant difference between SGLT2i was suspected infection/infestation ADRs between empagliflozin and dapagliflozin. Our findings at this stage of SGLT2i usage in the United Kingdom suggest that empagliflozin, the most selective SGLT2i, had the lowest suspected ADR incident rate (relative to prescribing) and in all reported classes of ADRs identified including infections, amputations, and DKA.
Project description:Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) effectively lower plasma glucose (PG) concentration in patients with type 2 diabetes, but studies have suggested that circulating glucagon concentrations and endogenous glucose production (EGP) are increased by SGLT2i, possibly compromising their glucose-lowering ability. To tease out whether and how glucagon may influence the glucose-lowering effect of SGLT2 inhibition, we subjected 12 patients with type 2 diabetes to a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, crossover, double-dummy study comprising, on 4 separate days, a liquid mixed-meal test preceded by single-dose administration of either <i>1</i>) placebo, <i>2</i>) the SGLT2i empagliflozin (25 mg), <i>3</i>) the glucagon receptor antagonist LY2409021 (300 mg), or <i>4</i>) the combination empagliflozin + LY2409021. Empagliflozin and LY2409021 individually lowered fasting PG compared with placebo, and the combination further decreased fasting PG. Previous findings of increased glucagon concentrations and EGP during acute administration of SGLT2i were not replicated in this study. Empagliflozin reduced postprandial PG through increased urinary glucose excretion. LY2409021 reduced EGP significantly but gave rise to a paradoxical increase in postprandial PG excursion, which was annulled by empagliflozin during their combination (empagliflozin + LY2409021). In conclusion, our findings do not support that an SGLT2i-induced glucagonotropic effect is of importance for the glucose-lowering property of SGLT2 inhibition.
Project description:The aim of this research was to differentiate dapagliflozin, empagliflozin, and canagliflozin based on their capacity to inhibit sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) 1 and 2 in patients with type 2 diabetes using a previously developed quantitative systems pharmacology model of renal glucose filtration, reabsorption, and excretion. The analysis was based on pooled, mean study-level data on 24-hour urinary glucose excretion, average daily plasma glucose, and estimated glomerular filtration rate collected from phase I and II clinical trials of SGLT2 inhibitors. Variations in filtered glucose across clinical studies were shown to drive the apparent differences in the glucosuria dose-response relationships among the gliflozins. A normalized dose-response analysis demonstrated similarity of dapagliflozin and empagliflozin, but not canagliflozin. At approved doses, SGLT1 inhibition by canagliflozin but not dapagliflozin or empagliflozin contributed to ~ 10% of daily urinary glucose excretion.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Hyperglycemia is associated with an increased risk of developing atrial fibrillation (AF) and atrial flutter (AFL). Sodium-glucose transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) have been reported to prevent AF/AFL in some studies, but not others. Therefore, a meta-analysis was performed to investigate whether SGLT2i use is associated with lower risks of AF/AFL.<h4>Methods</h4>PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane library databases were searched for randomized placebo-controlled trials comparing SGLT2i and placebo.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 33 trials involving 66,685 patients were included. The serious adverse events (SAEs) of AF/AFL occurrence were significantly lower in the SGLT2i group than the placebo group (0.96% vs. 1.19%; RR 0.83; 95% CI 0.71-0.96; P = 0.01; I<sup>2</sup> 25.5%). Similarly, the SAEs of AF occurrence was significantly lower in the SGLT2i group (0.82% vs. 1.06%; RR 0.81; 95% CI 0.69-0.95; P = 0.01; I<sup>2</sup> 10.2%). The subgroup analysis showed that the reduction in AF/AFL was significant only for dapagliflozin (1.02% vs. 1.49%; RR 0.73; 95% CI 0.59-0.89; P = 0.002; I2 0%), but not for canagliflozin (1.00% vs 1.08%; RR 0.83; 95% CI 0.62-1.12; P = 0.23; I<sup>2</sup> 0%), empagliflozin (0.88% vs 0.70%; RR 1.20; 95% CI 0.76-1.90; P = 0.43; I<sup>2</sup> 0%), ertugliflozin (1.01% vs 0.96%; RR 1.08; 95% CI 0.66-1.75; P = 0.76; I<sup>2</sup> 0%), and sotagliflozin (0.16% vs 0.10%; RR 1.09; 95% CI 0.13-8.86; P = 0.93; I<sup>2</sup> 0%).<h4>Conclusions</h4>SGLT2i use is associated with a 19.33% lower SAEs of AF/AFL compared with the placebo. Dapagliflozin users had the lowest SAEs of AF/AFL incidence. Further studies are needed to determine whether canagliflozin, empagliflozin, ertugliflozin, and sotagliflozin similarly exert protective effects against AF/AFL development.
Project description:Many patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) do not achieve the glycemic target goal with insulin treatment. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of add-on to insulin therapy in patients with T1D. We conducted direct and indirect network meta-analyses using Bayesian models and ranked hypoglycemic agents via mixed treatment comparison, using data from the CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Science Citation Index Expanded databases. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving patients with T1D treated with insulin and add-on metformin or sodium-glucose cotransporter inhibitors or glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists from January 1970 to September 2019 were included in this study. Twenty-three RCTs with 5,151 subjects were divided into the following groups: insulin alone, insulin+metformin, insulin+canagliflozin, insulin+dapagliflozin, insulin+empagliflozin, insulin+sotagliflozin, insulin+liraglutide, and insulin+exenatide. HbA1c level in the insulin+sotagliflozin group was significantly lower than that in the insulin alone group (mean difference: -0.43, 95% credible interval: -0.62 to -0.23). Total daily insulin dose in the insulin+sotagliflozin group was significantly lower than that in the insulin alone group. Compared with that in the insulin alone group, body weight in the groups treated with insulin+add-on canagliflozin, sotagliflozin, and exenatide was significantly decreased by 4.5, 2.8, and 5.1 kg, respectively. Hypoglycemic episodes did not differ among the groups. In patients with T1D, insulin+sotagliflozin decreased the HbA1c level, daily insulin dose, and body weight without hypoglycemia compared with insulin monotherapy. Insulin+canagliflozin or insulin+exenatide was effective in reducing body weight compared with insulin alone. In conclusion, sotagliflozin treatment decreased not only the HbA1c levels and insulin dose but also the body weight without causing hypoglycemia in patients with T1D. Treatment with canagliflozin and exenatide effectively reduced body weight in patients with T1D. However, ketoacidosis associated with the use of SGLT inhibitors should be considered in these patients. Thus, our results suggest that sotagliflozin has a high probability of being ranked first as an adjunctive therapy to insulin in patients with T1D.
Project description:Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have several beneficial effects in patients with type 2 diabetes, including glucose lowering, weight loss, blood pressure lowering, and a reduced risk of major adverse cardiovascular events. To address high unmet medical need via improved glycaemic control, several clinical trials have been done to assess the efficacy and safety of SGLT2 inhibitors in combination with insulin therapy in patients with type 1 diabetes. In this Personal View, we summarise data from eight clinical trials of canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, empagliflozin, and sotagliflozin in patients with type 1 diabetes. HbA<sub>1c</sub>-lowering efficacy was greatest at 8-12 weeks of therapy, but the magnitude of HbA<sub>1c</sub> lowering waned with longer duration of treatment (up to 52 weeks). Data are not yet available to establish for how long glycaemic efficacy could be sustained during long-term therapy in patients with type 1 diabetes. Moreover, SGLT2 inhibitor therapy induces serious adverse events, including a roughly six-times increased risk of diabetic ketoacidosis. The US Food and Drug Administration estimated that one additional case of ketoacidosis will occur for every 26 patient-years of exposure of patients with type 1 diabetes to sotagliflozin therapy. Assuming a case mortality of 0·4%, this estimate translates into 16 additional deaths per year per 100?000 patients with type 1 diabetes undergoing treatment. These considerations raise important questions about the risk-to-benefit profile of SGLT2 inhibitors when used as adjunctive therapy in patients with type 1 diabetes.
Project description:Gliflozins are inhibitors of the renal proximal tubular sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT-2), that inhibit reabsorption of urinary glucose and they are able to reduce hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. A renoprotective function of gliflozins has been proven in diabetic nephropathy, but harmful side effects on the kidney have also been described. In the current project, primary highly purified human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTCs) have been shown to express functional SGLT-2, and were used as an in vitro model to study possible cellular damage induced by two therapeutically used gliflozins: empagliflozin and dapagliflozin. Cell viability, proliferation, and cytotoxicity assays revealed that neither empagliflozin nor dapagliflozin induce effects in PTCs cultured in a hyperglycemic environment, or in co-medication with ramipril or hydro-chloro-thiazide. Oxidative stress was significantly lowered by dapagliflozin but not by empagliflozin. No effect of either inhibitor could be detected on mRNA and protein expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 and the renal injury markers KIM-1 and NGAL. In conclusion, empa- and dapagliflozin in therapeutic concentrations were shown to induce no direct cell injury in cultured primary renal PTCs in hyperglycemic conditions.
Project description:Although several treatment options are available to reduce hyperglycemia, only about half of individuals with diagnosed diabetes mellitus (DM) achieve recommended glycemic targets. New agents that reduce blood glucose concentrations by novel mechanisms and have acceptable safety profiles are needed to improve glycemic control and reduce the complications associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The renal sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) is responsible for reabsorption of most of the glucose filtered by the kidney. Inhibitors of SGLT2 lower blood glucose independent of the secretion and action of insulin by inhibiting renal reabsorption of glucose, thereby promoting the increased urinary excretion of excess glucose. Canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and empagliflozin are SGLT2 inhibitors approved as treatments for T2DM in the United States, Europe, and other countries. Canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and empagliflozin increase renal excretion of glucose and improve glycemic parameters in patients with T2DM when used as monotherapy or in combination with other antihyperglycemic agents. Treatment with SGLT2 inhibitors is associated with weight reduction, lowered blood pressure, and a low intrinsic propensity to cause hypoglycemia. Overall, canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and empagliflozin are well tolerated. Cases of genital infections and, in some studies, urinary tract infections have been more frequent in canagliflozin-, dapagliflozin-, and empagliflozin-treated patients compared with those receiving placebo. Evidence from clinical trials suggests that SGLT2 inhibitors are a promising new treatment option for T2DM.