Advances on the Valorisation and Functionalization of By-Products and Wastes from Cereal-Based Processing Industry.
ABSTRACT: Cereals have been one of the major food resources for human diets and animal feed for thousands of years, and a large quantity of by-products is generated throughout the entire processing food chain, from farm to fork. These by-products mostly consist of the germ and outer layers (bran) derived from dry and wet milling of the grains, of the brewers' spent grain generated in the brewing industry, or comprise other types obtained from the breadmaking and starch production industries. Cereal processing by-products are an excellent low-cost source of various compounds such as dietary fibres, proteins, carbohydrates and sugars, minerals and antioxidants (such as polyphenols and vitamins), among others. Often, they are downgraded and end up as waste or, in the best case, are used as animal feed or fertilizers. With the increase in world population coupled with the growing awareness about environmental sustainability and healthy life-styles and well-being, the interest of the industry and the global market to provide novel, sustainable and innovative solutions for the management of cereal-based by-products is also growing rapidly. In that respect, these promising materials can be valorised by applying various biotechnological techniques, thus leading to numerous economic and environmental advantages as well as important opportunities towards new product development (NPD) in the food and feed industry and other types such as chemical, packaging, nutraceutical (dietary supplements and food additives), cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. This review aims at giving a scientific overview of the potential and the latest advances on the valorisation of cereal-based by-products and wastes. We intended it to be a reference document for scientists, technicians and all those chasing new research topics and opportunities to explore cereal-based by-products through a circular economy approach.
Project description:Fungi have the ability to transform organic materials into a rich and diverse set of useful products and provide distinct opportunities for tackling the urgent challenges before all humans. Fungal biotechnology can advance the transition from our petroleum-based economy into a bio-based circular economy and has the ability to sustainably produce resilient sources of food, feed, chemicals, fuels, textiles, and materials for construction, automotive and transportation industries, for furniture and beyond. Fungal biotechnology offers solutions for securing, stabilizing and enhancing the food supply for a growing human population, while simultaneously lowering greenhouse gas emissions. Fungal biotechnology has, thus, the potential to make a significant contribution to climate change mitigation and meeting the United Nation's sustainable development goals through the rational improvement of new and established fungal cell factories. The White Paper presented here is the result of the 2nd Think Tank meeting held by the EUROFUNG consortium in Berlin in October 2019. This paper highlights discussions on current opportunities and research challenges in fungal biotechnology and aims to inform scientists, educators, the general public, industrial stakeholders and policymakers about the current fungal biotech revolution.
Project description:Riboflavin (RF) and its active forms, the cofactors flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), have been extensively used in the food, feed and pharmaceutical industries. Modern commercial production of riboflavin is based on microbial fermentation, but the established genetically engineered production strains are facing new challenges due to safety concerns in the food and feed additives industry. High yields of flavin mononucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide have been obtained using whole-cell biocatalysis processes. However, the necessity of adding expensive precursors results in high production costs. Consequently, developing microbial cell factories that are capable of efficiently producing flavin nucleotides at low cost is an increasingly attractive approach. The biotechnological processes for the production of RF and its cognate cofactors are reviewed in this article.
Project description:Coordinated association and linkage mapping identified 25 grain quality QTLs in multiple environments, and fine mapping of the Wx locus supports the use of high-density genetic markers in linkage mapping. There is a wide range of end-use products made from cereal grains, and these products often demand different grain characteristics. Fortunately, cereal crop species including sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] contain high phenotypic variation for traits influencing grain quality. Identifying genetic variants underlying this phenotypic variation allows plant breeders to develop genotypes with grain attributes optimized for their intended usage. Multiple sorghum mapping populations were rigorously phenotyped across two environments (SC Coastal Plain and Central TX) in 2 years for five major grain quality traits: amylose, starch, crude protein, crude fat, and gross energy. Coordinated association and linkage mapping revealed several robust QTLs that make prime targets to improve grain quality for food, feed, and fuel products. Although the amylose QTL interval spanned many megabases, the marker with greatest significance was located just 12 kb from waxy (Wx), the primary gene regulating amylose production in cereal grains. This suggests higher resolution mapping in recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations can be obtained when genotyped at a high marker density. The major QTL for crude fat content, identified in both a RIL population and grain sorghum diversity panel, encompassed the DGAT1 locus, a critical gene involved in maize lipid biosynthesis. Another QTL on chromosome 1 was consistently mapped in both RIL populations for multiple grain quality traits including starch, crude protein, and gross energy. Collectively, these genetic regions offer excellent opportunities to manipulate grain composition and set up future studies for gene validation.
Project description:Research linking agriculture and nutrition has evolved since the mid-20th century. The current focus is on child-stunting, dietary diversity and 'nutrient-rich' foods in recognition of the growing burdens of malnutrition and non-communicable diseases. This article concerns the global dietary and health contribution of major cereals, specifically maize and wheat, which are often considered not to be 'nutrient-rich' foods. Nevertheless, these cereals are major sources of dietary energy, of essential proteins and micronutrients, and diverse non-nutrient bioactive food components. Research on bioactives, and dietary fibre in particular, is somewhat 'siloed', with little attention paid by the agri-nutrition research community to the role of cereal bioactives in healthy diets, and the adverse health effects often arising through processing and manufacturing of cereals-based food products. We argue that the research agenda should embrace the whole nutritional contribution of the multiple dietary components of cereals towards addressing the triple burden of undernutrition, micronutrient malnutrition, overweight/obesity and non-communicable diseases. Agri-nutrition and development communities need to adopt a multidisciplinary and food systems research approach from farm to metabolism. Agriculture researchers should collaborate with other food systems stakeholders on nutrition-related challenges in cereal production, processing and manufacturing, and food waste and losses. Cereal and food scientists should also collaborate with social scientists to better understand the impacts on diets of the political economy of the food industry, and the diverse factors which influence local and global dietary transitions, consumer behavioural choices, dietary change, and the assessment and acceptance of novel and nutritious cereal-based products.
Project description:The Japanese government developed a strategy for plastics and laid out ambitious targets including the reduction of 25% for single-use plastic waste and the reuse/recycling of 60% for plastic containers and packaging by 2030. However, the current usage situation of single-use plastics including containers and packaging, which should be a basis of the strategy, is unclear. Here, we identify the nationwide material flow of plastics in Japan based on input-output tables. Of the domestic plastic demand of 8.4 Mt in 2015, 1.6 and 2.5 Mt were estimated to be for containers and packaging comprising household and industry inflows, respectively, through the purchase/procurement of products, services, and raw materials. Considering the current amount of recycling collected from households (1.0 Mt) and industries (0.3 to 0.4 Mt), the reuse/recycling target has already been achieved if the goal is limited to household container and packaging waste, as is the focus of Japan's recycling law. Conversely, the results indicate that it will be extremely difficult to reach the target collectively with industries. Therefore, it is essential that efforts be made throughout the entire supply chain. Food containers and packaging that flowed into the food-processing and food service sectors accounted for 15% of the inflow of containers and packaging into industries. Thus, the key to achieving the reuse/recycling target will comprise the collection of plastic food packaging from not only households but also the food industry. Furthermore, the collection of flexible plastic films used between industry sectors will put the target within reach.
Project description:Plant storage compounds such as starch and lipids are important for human and animal nutrition as well as industry. There is interest in diverting some of the carbon stored in starch-rich organs (leaves, tubers, and cereal grains) into lipids in order to improve the energy density or nutritional properties of crops as well as providing new sources of feedstocks for food and manufacturing. Previously, we generated transgenic potato plants that accumulate up to 3.3% triacylglycerol (TAG) by dry weight in the tubers, which also led to changes in starch content, starch granule morphology and soluble sugar content. The aim of this study was to investigate how TAG accumulation affects the nutritional and processing properties of high oil potatoes with a particular focus on starch structure, physical and chemical properties. Overall, TAG accumulation was correlated with increased energy density, total nitrogen, amino acids, organic acids and inorganic phosphate, which could be of potential nutritional benefit. However, TAG accumulation had negative effects on starch quality as well as quantity. Starch from high oil potatoes had lower amylose and phosphate content, reduced peak viscosity and higher gelatinization temperature. Interestingly, starch pasting properties were disproportionately affected in lines accumulating the highest levels of TAG (>2.5%) compared to those accumulating only moderate levels (0.2-1.6%). These results indicate that optimized engineering of specialized crops for food, feed, fuel and chemical industries requires careful selection of traits, and an appropriate level of transgene expression, as well as a better understanding of starch structure and carbon partitioning in plant storage organs.
Project description:Although recognized as important sources of functional compounds, milling by-products are often removed from the cereal kernel prior milling process. Indeed, the high presence of fiber in bran and the co-presence of lipids and lipase in germ are often considered as downsides for breadmaking. In this work, Lactobacillus plantarum T6B10 and Weissella confusa BAN8 were used as selected starters to ferment maize milling by-products mixtures made with heat-treated or raw germ and bran. The effects on the biochemical and nutritional features as well as the stability of the milling by-products were investigated. Lactic acid bacteria metabolisms improved the free amino acids and peptides concentrations and the antioxidant activity and caused a relevant phytic acid degradation. Moreover, fermentation allowed a marked decrease of the lipase activity, stabilizing the matrix by preventing oxidative processes. The use of fermented by-products as ingredients improved the nutritional, textural and sensory properties of wheat bread. Fortified breads (containing 25% of fermented by-products) were characterized by a concentration in dietary fiber and proteins of ca. 11 and 13% of dry matter, respectively. Compared to the use of the unfermented ones, the addition of pre-fermented by-products to bread caused a significant increase in protein digestibility (up to 60%), and a relevant decrease of the starch hydrolysis index (ca. 13%). According to the results, this study demonstrates the potential of fermentation to convert maize bran and germ, commonly considered food wastes, into nutritive improvers, meeting nutritional and sensory requests of modern consumers.
Project description:Edible insect rearing could provide one alternative for protein production by having a smaller environmental impact than traditional livestock farming due to insects' ability to convert organic side streams. Currently, the insect rearing industry utilizes soybeans as a major source of protein in the feeds. Protein-rich by-products of food industry could be used to replace them in insect feeds, but it is not known if they also meet the insects' nutritional requirements. Our study evaluated the growth performance of two widely used edible cricket species, Acheta domesticus and Gryllus bimaculatus (Orthoptera: Gryllidae), on 18 experimental diets. The experimental diets included commercial chicken feeds and cricket diets, where soybean was partly and completely replaced with by-products from food industry: potato protein, barley mash, barley feed, compressed leftover of turnip rape and mix of broad bean and pea on three levels of protein. We found that the high- and medium-protein turnip rape and barley mash diets produced the highest yield and an increase in all performance variables. Overall, the high- and medium-protein diets produced the highest yield, growth and fastest development. Our results showed that by-products of food industry could be utilized as a part of the cricket feeds and thus advance the goals of circular economy.
Project description:Whey and buttermilk are the main by-products of the dairy industry, both having excellent nutritional properties. Buttermilk contains a unique component, the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM). MFGM contains bioactive compounds with positive health effects like antitumour or cholesterol-lowering impact. Whey proteins are found in whey and are a source of bioactive peptides acting positively on coronary, gastrointestinal, immune and nervous systems. Yet, buttermilk and whey are insufficiently utilized in functional food production. Various technological solutions have been studied in order to increase the production of foods based on whey and/or buttermilk whereby the production of beverages appear to be most acceptable from the economic and technological point +of view. Thus, the aim of this paper is to give an overview of current knowledge about the possibilities of creating whey and/or buttermilk beverages.
Project description:The sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) found in animal feed additive (feed grade cupric sulfate, CuSO4) were investigated and traced back to the formation of chlorinated organic compounds in the chlor-alkali industry. PCDD/Fs could be transported through the supply chain: hydrochloric acid (HCl) by-produced during formation of chlorinated organic compounds in chlor-alkali industry ? spent acid etching solution (acid-SES) generated in printed circuit board production ? industrial cupric salt ? CuSO4 in animal feed, and finally enter the food chain. The concentration ranges in HCl and acid-SES were similar, of which the level in acid-SES was also consistent with that in various cupric salt products including CuSO4 based on Cu element content. PCDD/Fs also showed very similar congener profiles in all the sample types. This indicates a probable direct transport pathway of PCDD/Fs into the food chain, which may eventually be exposed to humans through consumption. To date this is the first study in China that systematically reports on the PCDD/Fs transport from industrial pollution sources to industrial processes and finally enters the human food chain.