Rhabdovirus Infection Is Dependent on Serine/Threonine Kinase AP2-Associated Kinase 1.
ABSTRACT: Rabies virus (RABV) causes a fatal neurological disease in both humans and animals. Understanding the mechanism of RABV infection is vital for prevention and therapy of virulent rabies infection. Our previous proteomics analysis based on isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation to identify factors revealed that RABV infection enhanced AP-2-associated protein kinase 1 (AAK1) in N2a cells. In this study, to further confirm the role of AAK1, we showed that RABV infection increased the transcription and expression of AAK1 in N2a cells. AAK1 knockdown significantly decreased RABV infection in both N2a and BHK-21 cells. AAK1 knockout inhibited RABV infection in N2a cells. Furthermore, inhibition of AAK1 kinase activity using sunitinib decreased RABV infection. However, AAK1 overexpression did not change RABV infection in vitro. Therapeutic administration of sunitinib did not significantly improve the survival rate of mice following lethal RABV challenge. In addition, AAK1 knockdown decreased infection in N2a cells by vesicular stomatitis virus, which is another rhabdovirus. These results indicate that rhabdovirus infection is dependent on AAK1 and inhibition of AAK1 is a potential strategy for the prevention and therapy of rabies.
Project description:Rabies, as the oldest known infectious disease, remains a serious threat to public health worldwide. The eukaryotic cytosolic chaperonin TRiC/CCT complex facilitates the folding of proteins through ATP hydrolysis. Here, we investigated the expression, cellular localization, and function of neuronal CCT? during neurotropic rabies virus (RABV) infection using mouse N2a cells as a model. Following RABV infection, 24 altered proteins were identified by using two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, including 20 upregulated proteins and 4 downregulated proteins. In mouse N2a cells infected with RABV or cotransfected with RABV genes encoding nucleoprotein (N) and phosphoprotein (P), confocal microscopy demonstrated that upregulated cellular CCT? was colocalized with viral proteins N and P, which formed a hollow cricoid inclusion within the region around the nucleus. These inclusions, which correspond to Negri bodies (NBs), did not form in mouse N2a cells only expressing the viral protein N or P. Knockdown of CCT? by lentivirus-mediated RNA interference led to significant inhibition of RABV replication. These results demonstrate that the complex consisting of viral proteins N and P recruits CCT? to NBs and identify the chaperonin CCT? as a host factor that facilitates intracellular RABV replication. This work illustrates how viruses can utilize cellular chaperonins and compartmentalization for their own benefit.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Rabies virus (RABV), a member of Lyssavirus of Rhabdoviridae family, is a kind of negative-strand RNA virus. The zoonosis caused by RABV leads to high mortality in animals and humans. Though with the extensive investigation, the mechanisms of RABV entry into cells have not been well characterized. METHODS:Chemical inhibitors and RNA interference (RNAi) were used to analysis RABV internalization pathway. The expression level of viral N protein was examined by quantitative PCR and western blot, and the virus infection in the cells was visualized by fluorescence microscopy. RESULTS:We firstly examined the endocytosis pathway of the challenge virus standard (CVS) -11 strain in N2a cells. Chlorpromazine treatment and knockdown of clathrin heavy chain (CHC) significantly reduced viral entry, which proved clathrin was required. Meanwhile neither nystatin nor knocking down caveolin-1 (Cav1) in N2a cells had an effect on CVS-11 infection, suggesting that caveolae was independent for CVS-11 internalization. And when cholesterol of cell membrane was extracted by MβCD, viral infection was strongly impacted. Additionally by using the specific inhibitor dynasore and ammonium chloride, we verified that dynamin and a low-pH environment were crucial for RABV infection, which was confirmed by confocal microscopy. CONCLUSIONS:Our results demonstrated that CVS-11 entered N2a cells through a clathrin-mediated, cholesterol-, pH-, dynamin-required, and caveolae-independent endocytic pathway.
Project description:Rhabdovirus is a negative strand RNA virus that packages a ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex. The RNP is composed of a genome that is encapsidated completely by the nucleoprotein (N). Structural comparisons of the RNA-nucleoprotein complexes from two members, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and rabies virus (RABV), revealed highly conserved characteristics of folding, RNA binding, and assembly despite their lack of significant homology in amino acid sequence. The RNA binding cavity is located between two conserved domains formed by alpha-helices, but the positively charged residues that coordinate with the phosphate groups are at different sites. The intermolecular interactions among N molecules have a conserved pattern that is rendered, however, by different residues. The curvature of the RABV N-RNA complex in the crystal structure is larger than that of the VSV N-RNA complex. The more relaxed curvature allows the bases in the RNA to stack more tightly, and at the same time, the helices near the C-terminus move into the created space in order to cover the bound RNA. This may explain how the RNP can adopt different conformations from being packed as a superhelix in the virion to a relaxed linear structure once being delivered into the cytoplasm.
Project description:Global health is threatened by emerging viral infections, which largely lack effective vaccines or therapies. Targeting host pathways that are exploited by multiple viruses could offer broad-spectrum solutions. We previously reported that AAK1 and GAK, kinase regulators of the host adaptor proteins AP1 and AP2, are essential for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, but the underlying mechanism and relevance to other viruses or in vivo infections remained unknown. Here, we have discovered that AP1 and AP2 cotraffic with HCV particles in live cells. Moreover, we found that multiple viruses, including dengue and Ebola, exploit AAK1 and GAK during entry and infectious virus production. In cultured cells, treatment with sunitinib and erlotinib, approved anticancer drugs that inhibit AAK1 or GAK activity, or with more selective compounds inhibited intracellular trafficking of HCV and multiple unrelated RNA viruses with a high barrier to resistance. In murine models of dengue and Ebola infection, sunitinib/erlotinib combination protected against morbidity and mortality. We validated sunitinib- and erlotinib-mediated inhibition of AAK1 and GAK activity as an important mechanism of antiviral action. Additionally, we revealed potential roles for additional kinase targets. These findings advance our understanding of virus-host interactions and establish a proof of principle for a repurposed, host-targeted approach to combat emerging viruses.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The injection of rabies immune globulin (RIG) is of the utmost importance in the management of category III exposures to rabies-suspect animals. Because of the high cost and limited availability of existing RIG, one possible replacement for RIG is monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the rabies virus (RABV). Consequently, it is necessary to determine the neutralizing activity of the MAbs against rabies viruses, especially street rabies virus. However, the method to detect the neutralizing activity of MAbs against street rabies virus remains undefined. METHODS:To establish a method for detecting the neutralizing activity of MAbs against street rabies virus, we constructed a library consisting of 12 strains of street RABV from 11 provinces in China. Using this street RABV library and the Reed-Muench formula, we established a method for detecting the neutralizing titer of the MAbs. The reliability and repeatability of the method were evaluated by repeatedly measuring the neutralizing activity of a MAb and a post vaccination serum. RESULTS:A total of 12 strains of street RABV were chosen for inclusion in the street RABV library, which covered six Chinese lineages (China I-China VI) and grew to high titers in N2A cells (>?105 FFD50/ml). On the basis of the library, we constructed the method to detect the neutralizing activity of the MAbs. The results of repeatedly measuring the MAbs and positive serum showed excellent reliability and repeatability of the method established in this study. CONCLUSIONS:This study established a street RABV library reflecting the epidemiological features of Chinese rabies viruses, which provides a platform for detecting the neutralizing activity of MAbs against rabies viruses circulating in China.
Project description:Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) is a recently emerged rhabdovirus of the genus lyssavirus considered endemic in Australian bat populations that causes a neurological disease in people indistinguishable from clinical rabies. There are two distinct variants of ABLV, one that circulates in frugivorous bats (genus Pteropus) and the other in insectivorous microbats (genus Saccolaimus). Three fatal human cases of ABLV infection have been reported, the most recent in 2013, and each manifested as acute encephalitis but with variable incubation periods. Importantly, two equine cases also arose recently in 2013, the first occurrence of ABLV in a species other than bats or humans. Similar to other rhabdoviruses, ABLV infects host cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis and subsequent pH-dependent fusion facilitated by its single fusogenic envelope glycoprotein (G). Recent studies have revealed that proposed rabies virus (RABV) receptors are not sufficient to permit ABLV entry into host cells and that the unknown receptor is broadly conserved among mammalian species. However, despite clear tropism differences between ABLV and RABV, the two viruses appear to utilize similar endocytic entry pathways. The recent human and horse infections highlight the importance of continued Australian public health awareness of this emerging pathogen.
Project description:Rabies, caused by the rabies virus (RABV), is the oldest known zoonotic infectious disease. Although the molecular mechanisms of RABV pathogenesis have been investigated extensively, the interactions between host and RABV are not clearly understood. It is now known that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) participate in various physiological and pathological processes, but their possible roles in the host response to RABV infection remain to be elucidated. To better understand the pathogenesis of RABV, RNAs from RABV-infected and uninfected human neuroblastoma cells (SK-N-SH) were analyzed using human lncRNA microarrays. We identified 896 lncRNAs and 579 mRNAs that were differentially expressed after infection, indicating a potential role for lncRNAs in the immune response to RABV. Differentially expressed RNAs were examined using Gene Ontology (GO) analysis and were tentatively assigned to biological pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). A lncRNA-mRNA-transcription factor co-expression network was constructed to relate lncRNAs to regulatory factors and pathways that may be important in virus-host interactions. The network analysis suggests that E2F4, TAF7 and several lncRNAs function as transcriptional regulators in various signaling pathways. This study is the first global analysis of lncRNA and mRNA co-expression during RABV infection, provides deeper insight into the mechanism of RABV pathogenesis, and reveals promising candidate for future investigation. Overall design: Examine the different of mRNA and lncRNA expression profiles between rabies virus infected and untreated human neuroblastoma cells
Project description:Rabies virus (RABV) is a widespread pathogen that causes fatal disease in humans and animals. It has been suggested that multiple host factors are involved in RABV host entry. Here, we showed that RABV uses integrin ?1 (ITGB1) for cellular entry. RABV infection was drastically decreased after ITGB1 short interfering RNA knockdown and moderately increased after ITGB1 overexpression in cells. ITGB1 directly interacts with RABV glycoprotein. Upon infection, ITGB1 is internalized into cells and transported to late endosomes together with RABV. The infectivity of cell-adapted RABV in cells and street RABV in mice was neutralized by ITGB1 ectodomain soluble protein. The role of ITGB1 in RABV infection depends on interaction with fibronectin in cells and mice. We found that Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide and antibody to ITGB1 significantly blocked RABV infection in cells in vitro and street RABV infection in mice via intramuscular inoculation but not the intracerebral route. ITGB1 also interacts with nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, which is the proposed receptor for peripheral RABV infection. Our findings suggest that ITGB1 is a key cellular factor for RABV peripheral entry and is a potential therapeutic target for postexposure treatment against rabies.IMPORTANCE Rabies is a severe zoonotic disease caused by rabies virus (RABV). However, the nature of RABV entry remains unclear, which has hindered the development of therapy for rabies. It is suggested that modulations of RABV glycoprotein and multiple host factors are responsible for RABV invasion. Here, we showed that integrin ?1 (ITGB1) directly interacts with RABV glycoprotein, and both proteins are internalized together into host cells. Differential expression of ITGB1 in mature muscle and cerebral cortex of mice led to A-4 (ITGB1-specific antibody), and RGD peptide (competitive inhibitor for interaction between ITGB1 and fibronectin) blocked street RABV infection via intramuscular but not intracerebral inoculation in mice, suggesting that ITGB1 plays a role in RABV peripheral entry. Our study revealed this distinct cellular factor in RABV infection, which may be an attractive target for therapeutic intervention.
Project description:The human diploid cell line Medical Research Council -5 (MRC-5) is commonly utilized for vaccine development. Although a rabies vaccine developed in cultured MRC-5 cells exists, the poor susceptibility of MRC-5 cells to the rabies virus (RABV) infection limits the potential yield of this vaccine. The underlying mechanism of MRC-5 cell resistance to RABV infection remains unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that viral infection increased exosomal release from MRC-5 cells; conversely, blocking exosome release promoted RABV infection in MRC-5 cells. Additionally, RABV infection up-regulated microRNA (miR)-423-5p expression in exosomes, resulting in feedback inhibition of RABV replication by abrogating the inhibitory effect of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) on type I interferon (IFN) signaling. Furthermore, intercellular delivery of miR-423-5p by exosomes inhibited RABV replication in MRC-5 cells. We also show that RABV infection increased IFN-β production in MRC-5 cells and that blocking the type I IFN receptor promoted RABV infection. In conclusion, MRC-5 cells were protected from RABV infection by the intercellular delivery of exosomal miR-423-5p and the up-regulation of IFN-β. These findings reveal novel antiviral mechanisms in MRC-5 cells against RABV infection. miR-423-5p, exosomes, and IFN signaling pathways may therefore be potential targets for improving MRC-5 cell-based rabies vaccine production.
Project description:The hypothesis tested in the present study was that rabies virus (RABV) infection affects the gene expression in microglial cells. Results provide important information that RABV infection led to alteration of gene expression in microglia. Overall design: A twelve-chip study was performed using total RNA isolated from RABV- or mock-infected BV-2 at 12, 24, or 48 hpi.