Chebulic Acid Prevents Methylglyoxal-Induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction in INS-1 Pancreatic ?-Cells.
ABSTRACT: To investigate the anti-diabetic properties of chebulic acid (CA) associated with the prevention of methyl glyoxal (MG)-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in INS-1 pancreatic ?-cells, INS-1 cells were pre-treated with CA (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 ?M) for 48 h and then treated with 2 mM MG for 8 h. The effects of CA and MG on INS-1 cells were evaluated using the following: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay; glyoxalase 1 (Glo-1) expression via Western blot and enzyme activity assays; Nrf-2, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 protein expression via Western blot assay; reactive oxygen species (ROS) production assay; mRNA expression of mitochondrial dysfunction related components (UCP2, uncoupling protein 2; VDAC1, voltage-dependent anion-selective channel-1; cyt c, cytochrome c via quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR; mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP); adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis; glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) assay. The viability of INS-1 cells was maintained upon pre-treating with CA before exposure to MG. CA upregulated Glo-1 protein expression and enzyme activity in INS-1 cells and prevented MG-induced ROS production. Mitochondrial dysfunction was alleviated by CA pretreatment; this occurred via the downregulation of UCP2, VDAC1, and cyt c mRNA expression and the increase of MMP and ATP synthesis. Further, CA pre-treatment promoted the recovery from MG-induced decrease in GSIS. These results indicated that CA could be employed as a therapeutic agent in diabetes due to its ability to prevent MG-induced development of insulin sensitivity and oxidative stress-induced dysfunction of ?-cells.
Project description:We have recently shown that overnight exposure of INS-1E insulinoma cells to palmitate in the presence of high glucose causes defects in both mitochondrial energy metabolism and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Here we report experiments designed to test the involvement of mitochondrial uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2) in these glucolipotoxic effects. Measuring real-time oxygen consumption in siRNA-transfected INS-1E cells, we show that deleterious effects of palmitate on the glucose sensitivity of mitochondrial respiration and on the coupling efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation are independent of UCP2. Consistently, palmitate impairs GSIS to the same extent in cells with and without UCP2. Furthermore, we knocked down UCP2 in spheroid INS-1E cell clusters (pseudoislets) to test whether or not UCP2 regulates insulin secretion during prolonged glucose exposure. We demonstrate that there are no differences in temporal GSIS kinetics between perifused pseudoislets with and without UCP2. We conclude that UCP2 is not involved in palmitate-induced impairment of GSIS in INS-1E insulinoma cells and is not needed for the amplification of insulin release. These conclusions inform ongoing debate on the disputed biochemical and physiological functions of the beta cell UCP2.
Project description:We have recently shown that the G protein-coupled receptor 142 (GPR142) is expressed in both rodent and human pancreatic ?-cells. Herein, we investigated the cellular distribution of GPR142 within islets and the effects of selective agonists of GPR142 on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in the mouse islets and INS-1832/13 cells. Double-immunostaining revealed that GPR142 immunoreactivity in islets mainly occurs in insulin-positive cells. Potentiation of GSIS by GPR142 activation was accompanied by increased cAMP content in INS-1832/13 cells. PKA/Epac inhibition markedly suppressed the effect of GPR142 activation on insulin release. Gpr142 knockdown (Gpr142-KD) in islets was accompanied by elevated release of MCP-1, IFN?, and TNF? during culture period and abolished the modulatory effect of GPR142 activation on the GSIS. Gpr142-KD had no effect on Ffar1, Ffar2, or Ffar3 mRNA while reducing Gpr56 and increasing Tlr5 and Tlr7 mRNA expression. Gpr142-KD was associated with an increased expression of Chrebp, Txnip, RhoA, and mitochondrial Vdac1 concomitant with a reduced Pdx1, Pax6, and mitochondrial Vdac2 mRNA levels. Long-term exposure of INS-1832/13 cells to hyperglycemia reduced Gpr142 and Vdac2 while increased Chrebp, Txnip, and Vdac1 mRNA expression. GPR142 agonists or Bt2-cAMP counteracted this effect. Glucotoxicity-induced decrease of cell viability in Gpr142-KD INS-1 cells was not affected by GPR142-agonists while Bt2-cAMP prevented it. The results show the importance of Gpr142 in the maintenance of pancreatic ?-cell function in rodents and that GPR142 agonists potentiate GSIS by an action, which most likely is due to increased cellular generation of second messenger molecule cAMP.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Transport of Ca<sup>2+</sup> into pancreatic β cell mitochondria facilitates nutrient-mediated insulin secretion. However, the underlying mechanism is unclear. Recent establishment of the molecular identity of the mitochondrial Ca<sup>2+</sup> uniporter (MCU) and associated proteins allows modification of mitochondrial Ca<sup>2+</sup> transport in intact cells. We examined the consequences of deficiency of the accessory protein MICU2 in rat and human insulin-secreting cells and mouse islets.<h4>Methods</h4>siRNA silencing of Micu2 in the INS-1 832/13 and EndoC-βH1 cell lines was performed; Micu2<sup>-/-</sup> mice were also studied. Insulin secretion and mechanistic analyses utilizing live confocal imaging to assess mitochondrial function and intracellular Ca<sup>2+</sup> dynamics were performed.<h4>Results</h4>Silencing of Micu2 abrogated GSIS in the INS-1 832/13 and EndoC-βH1 cells. The Micu2<sup>-/-</sup> mice also displayed attenuated GSIS. Mitochondrial Ca<sup>2+</sup> uptake declined in MICU2-deficient INS-1 832/13 and EndoC-βH1 cells in response to high glucose and high K<sup>+</sup>. MICU2 silencing in INS-1 832/13 cells, presumably through its effects on mitochondrial Ca<sup>2+</sup> uptake, perturbed mitochondrial function illustrated by absent mitochondrial membrane hyperpolarization and lowering of the ATP/ADP ratio in response to elevated glucose. Despite the loss of mitochondrial Ca<sup>2+</sup> uptake, cytosolic Ca<sup>2+</sup> was lower in siMICU2-treated INS-1 832/13 cells in response to high K<sup>+</sup>. It was hypothesized that Ca<sup>2+</sup> accumulated in the submembrane compartment in MICU2-deficient cells, resulting in desensitization of voltage-dependent Ca<sup>2+</sup> channels, lowering total cytosolic Ca<sup>2+</sup>. Upon high K<sup>+</sup> stimulation, MICU2-silenced cells showed higher and prolonged increases in submembrane Ca<sup>2+</sup> levels.<h4>Conclusions</h4>MICU2 plays a critical role in β cell mitochondrial Ca<sup>2+</sup> uptake. β cell mitochondria sequestered Ca<sup>2+</sup> from the submembrane compartment, preventing desensitization of voltage-dependent Ca<sup>2+</sup> channels and facilitating GSIS.
Project description:The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in glucose-stimulated insulin release remains controversial because ROS have been shown to both amplify and impede insulin release. In regard to preventing insulin release, ROS activates uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2), a mitochondrial inner membrane protein that negatively regulates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) by uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation. With our recent discovery that the UCP2-mediated proton leak is modulated by reversible glutathionylation, a process responsive to small changes in ROS levels, we resolved to determine whether glutathionylation is required for UCP2 regulation of GSIS. Using Min6 cells and pancreatic islets, we demonstrate that induction of glutathionylation not only deactivates UCP2-mediated proton leak but also enhances GSIS. Conversely, an increase in mitochondrial matrix ROS was found to deglutathionylate and activate UCP2 leak and impede GSIS. Glucose metabolism also decreased the total amount of cellular glutathionylated proteins and increased the cellular glutathione redox ratio (GSH/GSSG). Intriguingly, the provision of extracellular ROS (H(2)O(2), 10 ?M) amplified GSIS and also activated UCP2. Collectively, our findings indicate that the glutathionylation status of UCP2 contributes to the regulation of GSIS, and different cellular sites and inducers of ROS can have opposing effects on GSIS, perhaps explaining some of the controversy surrounding the role of ROS in GSIS.
Project description:Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely used in plastic products, through which humans are exposed to it. Accumulating evidence suggests that BPA exposure is associated with ?-cell dysfunction. Mitochondrial defects can cause impairment and failure of ? cells, but there is little information about the effects of BPA on the mitochondrial function of ? cells. In this study, we assessed the role of mitochondria-mediated mechanisms underlying BPA-induced ?-cell dysfunction and resulting ?-cell apoptosis. INS-1 cells were cultured with 0, 0.0020, 0.020, 0.20, or 2.0 ?M BPA. Cell viability, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), and mitochondrial function were examined. The mitochondrial apoptotic pathway was also analyzed at molecular level. We found that BPA suppressed cell viability and disturbed GSIS in a dose-dependent manner. Positive Annexin- propidium iodide (PI) staining and altered expression of Bcl-2 family members and caspases in INS-1 cells indicated that the cells progressively became apoptotic after BPA exposure. Additionally, BPA-induced apoptosis was associated with mitochondrial defects in ? cells, as evidenced by depletion of ATP, release of cytochrome c, loss of mitochondrial mass and membrane potential, and alterations in expression of genes involved in mitochondrial function and metabolism. Taken together, these findings provide strong evidence that BPA triggers INS-1 cells dysfunction and apoptosis may be meditated via the mitochondrial pathway.
Project description:The circadian clock has been shown to regulate metabolic homeostasis. Mice with a deletion of Bmal1, a key component of the core molecular clock, develop hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia, suggesting ?-cell dysfunction. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully known. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the regulation of ?-cell function by Bmal1. We studied ?-cell function in global Bmal1-/- mice, in vivo and in isolated islets ex vivo, as well as in rat insulinoma cell lines with shRNA-mediated Bmal1 knockdown. Global Bmal1-/- mice develop diabetes secondary to a significant impairment in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). There is a blunting of GSIS in both isolated Bmal1-/- islets and in Bmal1 knockdown cells, as compared to controls, suggesting that this is secondary to a loss of cell-autonomous effect of Bmal1. In contrast to previous studies, in these Bmal1-/- mice on a C57Bl/6 background, the loss of stimulated insulin secretion, interestingly, is with glucose but not to other depolarizing secretagogues, suggesting that events downstream of membrane depolarization are largely normal in Bmal1-/- islets. This defect in GSIS occurs as a result increased mitochondrial uncoupling with consequent impairment of glucose-induced mitochondrial potential generation and ATP synthesis, due to an upregulation of Ucp2. Inhibition of Ucp2, in isolated islets, leads to a rescue of the glucose-induced ATP production and insulin secretion in Bmal1-/- islets. Thus, Bmal1 regulates mitochondrial energy metabolism to maintain normal GSIS and its disruption leads to diabetes due to a loss of GSIS.
Project description:Pro-inflammatory cytokines cause pancreatic beta cell failure during the development of type 2 diabetes. This beta cell failure associates with mitochondrial dysfunction, but the precise effects of cytokines on mitochondrial respiration remain unclear. To test the hypothesis that pro-inflammatory cytokines impair glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) by inhibiting oxidative ATP synthesis, we probed insulin release and real-time mitochondrial respiration in rat INS-1E insulinoma cells that were exposed to a combination of 2 ng/mL interleukin-1-beta and 50 ng/mL interferon-gamma. We show that 24-h exposure to these cytokines dampens both glucose- and pyruvate-stimulated insulin secretion (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.05, respectively), but does not affect KCl-induced insulin release. Mirroring secretory defects, glucose- and pyruvate-stimulated mitochondrial respiration are lowered after cytokine exposure (P < 0.01). Further analysis confirms that cytokine-induced mitochondrial respiratory defects occur irrespective of whether fuel oxidation is coupled to, or uncoupled from, ATP synthesis. These observations demonstrate that pro-inflammatory cytokines attenuate GSIS by restricting mitochondrial pyruvate oxidation capacity. Interleukin-1-beta and interferon-gamma also increase mitochondrial superoxide levels (P < 0.05), which may reinforce the inhibition of pyruvate oxidation, and cause a modest (20%) but significant (P < 0.01) loss of INS-1E cells. Cytokine-induced INS-1E cell failure is insensitive to palmitoleate and linoleate, which is at odds with the cytoprotection offered by unsaturated fatty acids against harm caused by nutrient excess. Our data disclose a mitochondrial mechanism for cytokine-impaired GSIS in INS-1E cells, and suggest that inflammatory and nutrient-related beta cell failure emerge, at least partly, through distinct paths.
Project description:Increased basal and loss of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) are hallmarks of beta-cell dysfunction associated with type 2 diabetes. It has been proposed that elevated glucose promotes insulin secretory defects by activating sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-1c, lipogenic gene expression, and neutral lipid storage. Activation of liver X receptors (LXRs) also activates SREBP-1c and increases lipogenic gene expression and neutral lipid storage but increases basal and GSIS. This study was designed to characterize the changes in de novo fatty acid and triacylglyceride (TAG) synthesis in LXR-activated beta-cells and determine how these changes contribute to elevated basal and GSIS. Treatment of INS-1 beta-cells with LXR agonist T0901317 and elevated glucose led to markedly increased nuclear localization of SREBP-1, lipogenic gene expression, de novo synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids and TAG, and basal and GSIS. LXR-activated cells had increased fatty acid oxidation and expression of genes involved in mitochondrial beta-oxidation, particularly carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1. Increased basal insulin release from LXR-activated cells coincided with rapid turnover of newly synthesized TAG and required acyl-coenzyme A synthesis and mitochondrial beta-oxidation. GSIS from LXR-activated INS-1 cells required influx of extracellular calcium and lipolysis, suggesting production of lipid-signaling molecules from TAG. Inhibition of diacylglyceride (DAG)-binding proteins, but not classic isoforms of protein kinase C, attenuated GSIS from LXR-activated INS-1 cells. In conclusion, LXR activation in beta-cells exposed to elevated glucose concentrations increases de novo TAG synthesis; subsequent lipolysis produces free fatty acids and DAG, which are oxidized to increase basal insulin release and activate DAG-binding proteins to enhance GSIS, respectively.
Project description:Fission and fusion of mitochondrial tubules are the major processes regulating mitochondrial morphology. However, the physiological significance of mitochondrial shape change is poorly understood. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in pancreatic β-cells requires mitochondrial ATP production which evokes Ca(2+) influx through plasma membrane depolarization, triggering insulin vesicle exocytosis. Therefore, GSIS reflects mitochondrial function and can be used for evaluating functional changes associated with morphological alterations of mitochondria. Using the insulin-secreting cell line INS-1E, we found that glucose stimulation induced rapid mitochondrial shortening and recovery. Inhibition of mitochondrial fission through expression of the dominant-negative mutant DLP1-K38A eliminated this dynamic mitochondrial shape change and, importantly, blocked GSIS. We found that abolishing mitochondrial morphology change in glucose stimulation increased the mitochondrial inner membrane proton leak, and thus significantly diminished the mitochondrial ATP producing capacity in response to glucose stimulation. These results demonstrate that dynamic change of mitochondrial morphology is a previously unrecognized component for metabolism-secretion coupling of pancreatic β-cells by participating in efficient ATP production in response to elevated glucose levels.
Project description:L-type Ca(2+) channels play a key role in the integration of physiological signals regulating insulin secretion that probably requires their localization to specific subdomains of the plasma membrane. We investigated the role of the intracellular II-III loop domains of the L-type channels Ca(v)1.2 and 1.3 in coupling of Ca(2+) influx with glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) potentiated by the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1. In INS-1 cell lines expressing the Ca(v)1.2/II-III or Ca(v)1.3/II-III peptides, GLP-1 potentiation of GSIS was inhibited markedly, coincident with a decrease in GLP-1-stimulated cAMP accumulation and the redistribution of Ca(v)1.2 and Ca(v)1.3 out of lipid rafts. Neither the Ca(v)1.2/II-III nor the Ca(v)1.3/II-III peptide decreased L-type current density compared with untransfected INS-1 cells. GLP-1 potentiation of GSIS was restored by the L-type channel agonist 2,5-dimethyl-4-[2-(phenylmethyl)benzoyl]-1H-pyrrole-3-carboxylic acid methyl ester (FPL-64176). In contrast, potentiation of GSIS by 8-bromo-cAMP (8-Br-cAMP) was inhibited in Ca(v)1.2/II-III but not Ca(v)1.3/II-III cells. These differences may involve unique protein-protein interactions because the Ca(v)1.2/II-III peptide, but not the Ca(v)1.3/II-III peptide, immunoprecipitates Rab3-interacting molecule (RIM) 2 from INS-1 cell lysates. RIM2, and its binding partner Piccolo, localize to lipid rafts, and they may serve as anchors for Ca(v)1.2 localization to lipid rafts in INS-1 cells. These findings suggest that the II-III interdomain loops of Ca(v)1.2, and possibly Ca(v)1.3, direct these channels to membrane microdomains in which the proteins that mediate potentiation of GSIS by GLP-1 and 8-Br-cAMP assemble.