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G Protein-Coupled Estrogen Receptor Mediates Cell Proliferation through the cAMP/PKA/CREB Pathway in Murine Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells.


ABSTRACT: Estrogen is an important hormone to regulate skeletal physiology via estrogen receptors. The traditional estrogen receptors are ascribed to two nuclear estrogen receptors (ERs), ER? and ER?. Moreover, G protein-coupled estrogen receptor-1 (GPER-1) was reported as a membrane receptor for estrogen in recent years. However, whether GPER-1 regulated osteogenic cell biology on skeletal system is still unclear. GPER-1 is expressed in growth plate abundantly before puberty but decreased abruptly since the very late stage of puberty in humans. It indicates GPER-1 might play an important role in skeletal growth regulation. GPER-1 expression has been confirmed in osteoblasts, osteocytes and chondrocytes, but its expression in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has not been confirmed. In this study, we hypothesized that GPER-1 is expressed in bone MSCs (BMSC) and enhances BMSC proliferation. The cultured tibiae of neonatal rat and murine BMSCs were tested in our study. GPER-1-specific agonist (G-1) and antagonist (G-15), and GPER-1 siRNA (siGPER-1) were used to evaluate the downstream signaling pathway and cell proliferation. Our results revealed BrdU-positive cell counts were higher in cultured tibiae in the G-1 group. The G-1 also enhanced the cell viability and proliferation, whereas G-15 and siGPER-1 reduced these activities. The cAMP and phosphorylation of CREB were enhanced by G-1 but inhibited by G-15. We further demonstrated that GPER-1 mediates BMSC proliferation via the cAMP/PKA/p-CREB pathway and subsequently upregulates cell cycle regulators, cyclin D1/cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 6 and cyclin E1/CDK2 complex. The present study is the first to report that GPER-1 mediates BMSC proliferation. This finding indicates that GPER-1 mediated signaling positively regulates BMSC proliferation and may provide novel insights into addressing estrogen-mediated bone development.

SUBMITTER: Chuang SC 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC7555423 | BioStudies | 2020-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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