Biochemical Evaluation of the Antioxidant Effects of Hydroxytyrosol on Pancreatitis-Associated Gut Injury.
ABSTRACT: Acute pancreatitis is a severe abdominal pathology often associated with several complications including gut dysfunction. Oxidative stress is one of the most important pathways involved in this pathology. Hydroxytyrosol (HT), a phenolic compound obtained from olive oil, has shown anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. We evaluated the effects of HT administration on pancreatic and intestinal injury induced by caerulein administration. CD1 female mice were administered caerulein (50 ?g/kg) for 10 h. HT treatment (5 mg/kg) was performed 30 min after the first caerulein injection and for two consecutive hours afterwards. One hour after the last caerulein injection, mice were sacrificed and serum, colon and pancreatic tissue samples were collected. HT was able to reduce the serum hallmarks of pancreatitis (amylase and lipase), histological damage score in both pancreas and colon tissue, inflammatory cells recruitment (mast cells) in both injured tissues, intrapancreatic trypsin activity and overexpression of the adhesion molecules (Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and P-selectin) in colon. Additionally, HT reduced cytokine (interleukin 1 beta (IL- 1?), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?)) levels in serum, pancreas and colon tissue and chemokine release (monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP1/CCL2)) in pancreas and colon tissue. HT decreased lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity) by enhancing the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) in both injured tissues. Moreover, HT preserved intestinal barrier integrity, as shown by the diamine oxidase (DAO) serum levels and tight junction (zonula occludens (ZO) and occludin) expression in pancreas and colon. Our findings demonstrated that HT would be an important therapeutic tool against pancreatitis-induced injuries in the pancreas and gut.
Project description:The cystic fibrosis (CF) mouse pancreas has constitutively elevated expression of the Reg/PAP cell stress genes (60-fold greater Reg3alpha, and 10-fold greater PAP/Reg3beta and Reg3gamma). These genes are suggested to be involved in protection or recovery from pancreatic injury.To test this idea the supramaximal caerulein model was used to induce acute pancreatitis in wild type and CF mice. Serum amylase, pancreatic water content (as a measure of edema), pancreatic myeloperoxidase activity, and Reg/PAP expression were quantified.In both wild type and CF mice caerulein induced similar elevations in serum amylase (maximal at 12 h), pancreatic edema (maximal at 7 h), and pancreatic myeloperoxidase activity (MPO, a marker of neutrophil infiltration; maximal at 7 h). By immunohistochemistry, Reg3alpha was strongly expressed in the untreated CF pancreas but not in wild type. During pancreatitis, Reg3alpha was intensely expressed in foci of inflamed tissue in both wild type and CF.These data demonstrate that the severity of caerulein-induced pancreatitis is not ameliorated in the CF mouse even though the Reg/PAP stress genes are already highly upregulated. While Reg/PAP may be protective they may also have a negative effect during pancreatitis due to their anti-apoptotic activity, which has been shown to increase the severity of pancreatitis.
Project description:Transgenic KrasG12D mice can recapitulate pancreas intra-epithelial neoplasia (PanIN). Caerulein is a cholecystokinin analogue and induces acute pancreatitis when injected intra-abdominally. Caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis will accelerate PanIN progression in KrasG12D mice. We compared mRNA profile changes between KrasG12D mice with acute caerulein-induced pancreatitis and wild-type mice without acute pancreatitis. The experiment had two groups. Experiment group: KrasG12D mice with acute caerulein-induced pancreatitis (N=6). Three mice in experiment group received 1-week caerulein injection, and the other three mice received 2-week caerulein injection. All experiment group mice started to receive caerulein injection at 1-month of age, and were sacrificed at the last day of caerulein injection. Control group: wild-type mice without acute pancreatitis (N=6). The mice were sacrificed at 1.5-month of age. Whole pancreas tissue lysate samples were subjected to mRNA array assay.
Project description:Caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis accelerates the progression of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) lesions in a pancreas-specific KrasG12D mouse model. The purpose of this study was to explore whether serum microRNAs (miRNAs) can serve as sensitive biomarkers to detect occult PanIN in the setting of acute pancreatitis. Serum miRNA profiles were quantified by an array-based method and normalized by both Variance Stabilization Normalization (VSN) and invariant methods. Individual miRNAs were validated by TaqMan real-time PCR with synthetic spike-in C. elegans miRNAs as external controls. Serum miRNA profiles distinguished KrasG12D mice with pancreatitis from wild-type mice without pancreatitis, but failed to differentiate KrasG12D mice with pancreatitis from wild-type mice with pancreatitis. Most individual miRNAs that increased in KrasG12D mice with pancreatitis were not significantly different between KrasG12D mice without pancreatitis and wild-type mice without pancreatitis. Mechanistically, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) of the mRNA array data and immunohistochemical assays showed that caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis involved acinar cell loss and immune cell infiltration, which might contribute to serum miRNA profile changes. This study highlighted the challenges in using sensitive serum miRNA biomarker screening for the early detection of pancreatic malignancies during acute pancreatitis.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Interleukin 10 (IL-10) decreases the severity of experimental acute pancreatitis. The role of endogenous IL-10 in modulating the course of pancreatitis is currently unknown. AIMS: To examine the systemic release of IL-10 and its messenger RNA production in the pancrease, liver, and lungs and analyse the effects of IL-10 neutralisation in caerulein induced acute pancreatitis in mice. METHODS: Acute necrotising pancreatitis was induced by intraperitoneal caerulein. Serum levels of IL-10 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF), and tissue IL-10 and TNF-alpha gene expression were assessed. After injecting control antibody or after blocking the activity of endogenous IL-10 by a specific monoclonal antibody, the severity of acute pancreatitis was assessed in terms of serum enzyme release, histological changes, and systemic and tissue TNF production. RESULTS: In control conditions, serum IL-10 levels increased and correlated with the course of pancreatitis, with a maximal value eight hours after induction. Both IL-10 and TNF-alpha messengers showed a similar course, and were identified in the pancreas, liver, and lungs. Neutralisation of endogenous IL-10 significantly increased the severity of pancreatitis and associated lung injury as well as serum TNF protein levels (+75%) and pancreatic, pulmonary, and hepatic TNF messenger expression (+33%, +29%, +43%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In this non-lethal model, systemic release of IL-10 correlates with the course of acute pancreatitis. This anti-inflammatory response parallels the release of TNF and both cytokines are produced multisystemically. Endogenous IL-10 controls TNF-alpha production and plays a protective role in the local and systemic consequences of the disease.
Project description:Type I interferon constitutes an essential component of the combinational therapy against viral disease. Acute pancreatitis is one side effect of type I interferon-based therapy, implying that activation of type I interferon signaling affects the homeostasis and integrity of pancreatic acinar cells. Here, we investigated the role of type I interferon signaling in pancreatic acinar cells using a caerulein-induced murine model of acute pancreatitis. Pancreas-specific ablation of interferon (alpha and beta) receptor 1 (Ifnar1) partially protected animals from caerulein-induced pancreatitis, as demonstrated by reduced tissue damage. Profiling of infiltrating immune cells revealed that this dampened tissue damage response correlated with the number of macrophages in the pancreas. Pharmacologic depletion of macrophages reversed the protective effect of Ifnar1 deficiency. Furthermore, expression of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (Ccl2), a potent factor for macrophage recruitment, was significantly increased in the Ifnar1-deficient pancreas. Thus, type I interferon signaling in pancreatic acinar cells controls pancreatic homeostasis by affecting the macrophage-mediated inflammatory response in the pancreas.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: Clinical reports link use of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists exenatide and liraglutide to pancreatitis. However, whether these agents act on the exocrine pancreas is poorly understood. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We assessed whether the antidiabetic agents exendin (Ex)-4, liraglutide, the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor sitagliptin, or the biguanide metformin were associated with changes in expression of genes associated with the development of experimental pancreatitis. The effects of Ex-4 when administered before or after the initiation of caerulein-induced experimental pancreatitis were determined. The importance of endogenous GLP-1R signaling for gene expression in the exocrine pancreas and the severity of pancreatitis was assessed in Glp1r(-/-) mice. RESULTS: Acute administration of Ex-4 increased expression of egr-1 and c-fos in the exocrine pancreas. Administration of Ex-4 or liraglutide for 1 week increased pancreas weight and induced expression of mRNA transcripts encoding the anti-inflammatory proteins pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP) (RegIIIbeta) and RegIIIalpha. Chronic Ex-4 treatment of high-fat-fed mice increased expression of PAP and reduced pancreatic expression of mRNA transcripts encoding for the proinflammatory monocyte chemotactic protein-1, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and signal transducer and activator of transcription-3. Sitagliptin and metformin did not significantly change pancreatic gene expression profiles. Ex-4 administered before or after caerulein did not modify the severity of experimental pancreatitis, and levels of pancreatic edema and serum amylase were comparable in caerulein-treated Glp1r(-/-) versus Glp1r(+/+) mice. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that GLP-1 receptor activation increases pancreatic mass and selectively modulates the expression of genes associated with pancreatitis. However, activation or genetic elimination of GLP-1R signaling does not modify the severity of experimental pancreatitis in mice.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Exocrine hyperstimulation with caerulein is an established model for oedematous acute pancreatitis. Prevention of oedema formation by bradykinin B(2) receptor antagonists induces a progression to a haemorrhagic course in this model. We have investigated whether increased kallikrein activity in the pancreas is responsible for vascular damage and whether this could be prevented by selective kallikrein inhibitors. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Caerulein was infused i.v. and vascular damage was assessed by histological evaluation and determination of haemoglobin accumulation in the tissue. In addition, oedema formation, tissue and plasma kallikrein (PK) activities and the endogenous kallikrein inhibitors alpha(1)-antitrypsin (alpha(1)-AT) and alpha(2)-macroglobulin (alpha(2)-M) were measured. KEY RESULTS: Haemorrhagic lesions induced by icatibant in caerulein-induced pancreatitis were associated with a reduction in alpha(1)-AT and alpha(2)-M in the pancreas and a concomitant augmentation of tissue kallikrein (TK) activity. The TK inhibitor VA999024 (previously FE999024), or its combination with the PK inhibitor VA999026 (previously FE999026), inhibited oedema formation to the same extent but did not induce vascular damage. Furthermore, VA999024 inhibited TK activity. When icatibant was combined with VA999024 and VA999026, progression from oedematous to haemorrhagic pancreatitis was abolished. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Reduced oedema formation by B(2) antagonists prevented influx of endogenous kallikrein inhibitors and led to an excessive activity of kallikrein in the pancreas leading to vascular damage. This can be prevented by a combined inhibition of both tissue-type and plasma-type kallikrein. Kallikrein inhibitors thus should be further evaluated for their therapeutic potential in preventing haemorrhagic lesions in acute pancreatitis.
Project description:Differentiating pancreatitis from pancreatic cancer would improve diagnostic specificity, and prognosticating pancreatitis that progresses to pancreatic cancer would also improve diagnoses of pancreas pathology. The high glycolytic metabolism of pancreatic cancer can cause tumor acidosis, and different levels of pancreatitis may also have different levels of acidosis, so that extracellular acidosis may be a diagnostic biomarker for these pathologies. AcidoCEST MRI can noninvasively measure extracellular pH (pHe) in the pancreas and pancreatic tissue. We used acidoCEST MRI to measure pHe in a KC model treated with caerulein, which causes pancreatitis followed by development of pancreatic cancer. We also evaluated the KC model treated with PBS, and wild-type mice treated with caerulein or PBS as controls. The caerulein-treated KC cohort had lower pHe of 6.85-6.92 before and during the first 48?h after initiating treatment, relative to a pHe of 6.92 to 7.05 pHe units for the other cohorts. The pHe of the caerulein-treated KC cohort decreased to 6.79 units at 5?weeks when pancreatic tumors were detected with anatomical MRI, and sustained a pHe of 6.75 units at the 8-week time point. Histopathology was used to evaluate and validate the presence of tumors and inflammation in each cohort. These results showed that acidoCEST MRI can differentiate pancreatic cancer from pancreatitis in this mouse model, but does not appear to differentiate pancreatitis that progresses to pancreatic cancer vs. pancreatitis that does not progress to cancer.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common acute abdominal condition, frequently associated with intestinal barrier dysfunction, which aggravates AP retroactively. Butyrate exhibits anti-inflammatory effects in a variety of inflammatory diseases. However, its potential beneficial effect on AP and the underlying mechanisms have not been investigated. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:Experimental AP was induced by caerulein hyperstimulation in wild-type and GPR109A<sup>-/-</sup> mice. Sodium butyrate was administered intragastrically for 7 days prior to caerulein hyperstimulation. Anti-inflammatory mechanisms of butyrate were further investigated in peritoneal macrophages. KEY RESULTS:Butyrate prophylaxis attenuated AP as shown by reduced serum amylase and lipase levels, pancreatic oedema, myeloperoxidase activity, and improved pancreatic morphology. Amelioration of pancreatic damage by butyrate was associated with reduced levels of TNF-?, IL-6, and CCL2 and suppressed activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in both pancreas and colon. Further, butyrate ameliorated pancreatic inflammation by suppressing interactions between histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) and AP1 and STAT1 with increased histone acetylation at H3K9, H3K14, H3K18, and H3K27 loci, resulting in suppression of NLRP3 inflammasome activation and modulation of immune cell infiltration in pancreas. Additionally, butyrate mediated STAT1/AP1-NLRP3 inflammasome suppression via HDAC1 inhibition was demonstrated in peritoneal macrophage. In colon, butyrate inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation via GPR109A. Accordingly, the modulatory effects of butyrate on AP, AP-associated gut dysfunction, and NLRP3 inflammasome activation were diminished in GPR109A<sup>-/-</sup> mice. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS:Our study dissected tissue-specific anti-inflammatory mechanisms of butyrate during AP, suggesting that increased colonic levels of butyrate may be a strategy to protect against AP.
Project description:Acute pancreatitis is a severe systemic disease triggered by a sterile inflammation and initial local tissue damage of the pancreas. Immune cells infiltrating into the pancreas are main mediators of acute pancreatitis pathogenesis. In addition to their antimicrobial potency, macrolides possess anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties which are routinely used in patients with chronic airway infections and might also beneficial in the treatment of acute lung injury. We here tested the hypothesis that the macrolide antibiotic azithromycin can improve the course of acute experimental pancreatitis via ameliorating the damage imposed by sterile inflammation, and could be used as a disease specific therapy. However, our data show that azithromycin does not have influence on caerulein induced acute pancreatitis in terms of reduction of organ damage, and disease severity. Furthermore Infiltration of immune cells into the pancreas or the lungs was not attenuated by azithromycin as compared to controls or ampicillin treated animals with acute experimental pancreatitis. We conclude that in the chosen model, azithromycin does not have any beneficial effects and that its immunomodulatory properties cannot be used to decrease disease severity in the model of caerulein-induced pancreatitis in mice.