Microparticles-Mediated Vascular Inflammation and its Amelioration by Antioxidant Activity of Baicalin.
ABSTRACT: Microparticles (MPs) are extracellular vesicles (0.1-1.0 ?m in size), released in response to cell activation or apoptosis. Endothelial microparticles (EC-MP), vascular smooth muscle cell microparticles (VSMC-MP), and macrophage microparticles (MØ-MP) are key hallmarks of atherosclerosis progression. In our current study, we investigated the potent antioxidant activity of baicalin to ameliorate MP-induced vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) dysfunction and endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction, as well as the production of inflammatory mediators in macrophage (RAW264.7). In our study, baicalin suppressed the apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, NO production, foam cell formation, protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 in MØ-MP-induced RAW264.7. In addition, VSMC migration induced by VSMC-MP was dose-dependently inhibited by baicalin. Likewise, baicalin inhibits metalloproteinase-9 expression and suppresses VSMC-MP-induced VSMC proliferation by down-regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and proliferating cell nuclear antigen protein expressions. Baicalin also inhibited ROS production and apoptosis in VSMC. In EC, the marker of endothelial dysfunction (endothelial senescence, upregulation of ICAM, and ROS production) induced by EC-MP was halted by baicalin. Our results suggested that baicalin exerts potent biological activity to restore the function of EC and VSMC altered by their corresponding microparticles and inhibits the release of inflammation markers from activated macrophages.
Project description:Abnormal proliferation of endothelial cells (ECs) is important in vascular remodeling during hypertension, but the mechanisms are still unclear. In hypertensive rats caused by abdominal aortic coarctation, the expression of G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 6 (GRK6) in ECs at common carotid artery was repressed in vivo, and EC proliferation was increased. 15% cyclic stretch in vitro, which mimics the pathologically increased stretch in hypertension, repressed EC GRK6 expression via paracrine control by vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Furthermore, VSMC-derived microparticles (VSMC-MPs) were detected in the conditioned medium from VSMCs and in artery. VSMC-MPs from cells exposed to 15% cyclic stretch decreased GRK6 expression and increased EC proliferation. miR-27a was detected in VSMC-MPs and was upregulated by 15% cyclic stretch. miR-27a was transferred from VSMCs to ECs via VSMC-MPs and directly targeted on GRK6. Finally, a multi-point injection of antagomiR-27a around carotid artery decreased miR-27a expression in vivo, induced GRK6 expression, and reversed the abnormal EC proliferation. Pathologically elevated cyclic stretch increased the secretion of miR-27a, which was transferred from VSMCs to ECs via the VSMC-MPs, subsequently targeted GRK6, and induced EC proliferation. Locally decreasing miR-27a could be a novel therapeutic approach to attenuate the abnormal EC proliferation in hypertension.
Project description:Inflammation and its resolution are central to vascular injury and repair. Maresins comprise a new family of bioactive lipid mediators synthesized from docosahexaenoic acid, an ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid. They have been found to exert anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving responses in macrophages, neutrophils and bronchial epithelial cells and impart beneficial actions in murine models of peritonitis and colitis. We investigated the impact of maresin-1 (MaR1) on tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) induced inflammatory responses in human vascular endothelial (EC) and smooth muscle cells (VSMC).Primary cultures of human saphenous vein EC and VSMC were employed. We tested the naturally occurring MaR1 as modulator of TNF-? effects, with examination of monocyte adhesion, oxidant stress, and intracellular inflammatory signaling pathways.MaR1 attenuated TNF-? induced monocyte adhesion and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in both EC and VSMC, associated with down-regulated expression (cell surface) of the adhesion molecule E-selectin (in EC) and NADPH-oxidases (NOX4, NOX1, NOX2). MaR1 attenuated TNF-? induced release of pro-inflammatory mediators by EC and VSMC. MaR1 caused an attenuation of TNF-? induced NF-?B activation in both cell types associated with inhibition of I-? Kinase (IKK) phosphorylation, I?B-? degradation and nuclear translocation of the NF- ?B p65 subunit. MaR1 also caused a time-dependent increase in intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) in both naive and TNF-? stimulated VSMC and EC.MaR1 has broad anti-inflammatory actions on EC and VSMC, which may be partly mediated through up-regulation of cAMP and down-regulation of the transcription factor NF-?B. The results suggest that the pro-resolving lipid mediator MaR1 exerts homeostatic actions on vascular cells that counteract pro-inflammatory signals. These findings may have direct relevance for acute and chronic states of vascular inflammation.
Project description:Cyclophilin A (CyPA) is a pro-inflammatory mediator involved in oxidative stress-related cardiovascular diseases. It is secreted from vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) in response to reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a highly regulated manner. Extracellular CyPA activates VSMCs and endothelial cells (ECs) promoting inflammation, cell growth, and cell death. Recently, it was shown that acetylated CyPA (AcK-CyPA) affects its function. We investigated the role of acetylation of CyPA for its secretion and signalling in vascular cells.We used angiotensin II (Ang II) to create sustained ROS and found significantly increased AcK-CyPA in VSMC. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that lysines K82 and K125 were the predominant CyPA residues acetylated in response to Ang II. Importantly, acetylation of K82 and K125 were required for Ang II-mediated CyPA secretion. ROS inhibitors, Tiron, and N-acetylcysteine inhibited Ang II-induced intracellular CyPA acetylation and also AcK-CyPA secretion. Using secreted CyPA from wild type and K82/125R mutants expressed in transduced VSMC or in vitro acetylated recombinant CyPA, we showed that extracellular AcK-CyPA significantly increased pERK1/2, matrix metalloproteinase-2 activation, and ROS production in VSMC compared with non-acetylated CyPA. Moreover, extracellular AcK-CyPA increased adhesion molecule expression (VCAM-1 and ICAM-1) in EC, which promoted monocyte adhesion.ROS-dependent acetylation of CyPA is required for the generation of extracellular CyPA. Acetylated extracellular CyPA regulates VSMC and EC activation, suggesting that inhibition of acetylation of CyPA may prevent the pathogenesis of oxidative stress-related cardiovascular diseases.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cardiac stress leads to a dynamic increase of circulating microparticles (MPs) in healthy individuals that is diminished in individuals with vascular disease. The impact of coronary ischemia on circulating MP level is unknown. This study investigates the kinetics of circulating MPs during cardiac stress in patients with coronary artery stenosis. HYPOTHESIS:Patients with significant coronary stenosis show altered circulating MP levels after cardiac stress. METHODS:Eighty patients with stable coronary artery disease underwent dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) on the day before coronary angiography. Before, immediately after, at 4 hours, and at 24 hours after DSE, blood was drawn to determine CD144+ endothelial microparticles (EMPs), CD14+ CD16+ monocyte-derived microparticles (MMPs), and CD31+ CD42b+ platelet microparticles. A significant stenosis was defined as stenosis diameter ?70% in a major native epicardial coronary artery with a diameter of ?2.5?mm. RESULTS:Significant coronary artery stenoses were found in 41 patients. In these patients, CD144+ -EMP and CD14+ CD16+ -MMP concentrations decreased immediately after DSE. Stimulation of target endothelial cells with sera from patients with significant coronary artery stenoses significantly augmented endothelial capacity to take up EMPs, but not MMPs, in vitro. Serum-induced enhancement of endothelial phosphatidylserine receptor expression was found as a potential mechanism of increased endothelial EMP uptake and subsequently reduced circulating EMP levels after cardiac stress. CONCLUSIONS:Cardiac ischemia leads to reduced circulating MP levels under cardiac stress. Changes of endothelial MP uptake capacities could be one possible mechanism.
Project description:Objective: AIP1 expression is downregulated in human atherosclerotic plaques and global deletion of AIP1 in mice exacerbates atherosclerosis in ApoE-KO mouse models. However, the direct role of AIP1 in endothelium, vascular remodeling and associated vascular diseases has not been determined. Approach and Results: We used endothelial cell (EC)-specific AIP1-deficient (AIP1-ECKO) mice to define the role of AIP1 in vascular remodeling and intima-media thickening in a mouse carotid artery ligation model characterized by both neointimal hyperplasia and inward vessel remodeling. Compared to WT littermates, AIP1-ECKO mice had 2.2-fold larger intima area and 4.4-fold thicker intima as measured by intima/media ratio in arteries with more proliferating vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) at week 2-4 post-injury. Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) in endothelium at early time points induced inflammation and vessel dysfunction in AIP1-ECKO prior to VSMC accumulations. Moreover, knockdown of AIP1 in human EC enhanced ROS generation which was attenuated by co-silencing of NOX2. Mechanistically, AIP1 via its proline-rich region binds to the SH3 domain of cytosolic subunit p47phox to disrupt formation of an active NOX2 complex, attenuating ROS production. Conclusion: Our study supports that AIP1 regulates vascular remodeling with intima-media thickening by suppressing endothelial NOX2-dependent oxidative stress. Highlights: •In a carotid ligation model, endothelial cell (EC)-specific AIP1-deficient (AIP1-ECKO) mice had much larger media area, thicker vessel wall and augmented neointima formation.•Increased production of reactive oxygen species in vascular EC at early time points concomitant with vessel dysfunction in AIP1-ECKO.•AIP1 via its proline-rich region binds to the SH3 domain of cytosolic subunit p47phox to disrupt formation of an active NOX2 complex, attenuating ROS production.
Project description:Atherosclerosis is a complex disease that includes several events, including reactive oxygen species (ROS) stress, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, lipid deposition, and vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and migration, which result in atherosclerotic plaque formation. Corylin, a flavonoid compound, is known to exhibit antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative effects. However, it remains unknown whether corylin could modulate atherogenesis. Here, we identified the anti-inflammatory effect of corylin in tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?)-induced vascular cells. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), corylin suppressed TNF-?-induced monocyte adhesion to the HUVECs and transmigration by downregulating the ROS/JNK/nuclear factor-kappa beta (NF-?B) p65 pathway. In VSMCs, corylin inhibited TNF-?-induced monocyte adhesion by suppressing ROS production, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation and NF-?B p65 translocation. In platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB)-induced VSMCs, corylin inhibited PDGF-BB-induced VSMC proliferation and migration through regulating the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/dynamin-1-like protein 1 (Drp1) signaling cascade. In addition, corylin treatment not only attenuated atherosclerotic lesions, ROS production, vascular cell adhesion protein-1 (VCAM-1) expression, monocyte adhesion and VSMC proliferation in apolipoprotein E (ApoE)-deficient mice but also inhibited neointimal hyperplasia in endothelial-denuded mice. Thus, corylin may be a potential prevention and treatment for atherosclerosis.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:Endothelial microparticles (EMP) are submicron vesicles released from endothelial cells. We aimed to determine the utility of EMP as biomarkers of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients and the pathogenic role of microparticles (MP) in vascular inflammation. METHODS:Levels of EMP (CD144+, CD31+, CD62E+ and CD143+) were compared between three groups (10 SSc patients with PAH, 10 SSc patients without pulmonary hypertension (no-PH) and 10 healthy age- and sex-matched controls). Human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (HPAEC) were exposed in vitro to MP obtained from SSc patients or healthy controls, and levels of cytokines and inflammatory adhesion molecules were compared. RESULTS:CD144+ EMP were significantly higher in the SSc-PAH group compared to either the SSc-no PH or healthy controls (diagnostic accuracy 80%, P?=?0.02). Compared to controls, SSc patients had higher CD31+/CD62E+ ratios, indicating larger contributions of apoptosis to EMP release (P?=?0.04). Patients with limited SSc had significantly higher levels of CD143+ EMP compared to those with diffuse subtype (P?=?0.008). When HPAEC were exposed to MP from SSc patients, there was a significant increase in inflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules. Interestingly, exposure to healthy control MP caused a reduction in inflammatory markers. CONCLUSION:EMP (particularly CD144+) are promising biomarkers of PAH in SSc but require further study. MP isolated from SSc patients induced an increase in endothelial cell inflammation and may be an important pathogenic factor in SSc.
Project description:Netrins are secreted molecules involved in axon guidance and angiogenesis. We previously showed that Netrin-4 acts as an anti-angiogenic factor by inhibiting endothelial cell (EC) functions. In this study, we investigated the effects of Netrin-4 on vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) activity in vitro and in vivo. We show that exogenous Netrin-4 stimulated VSMC adhesion and migration, and increased their coverage on EC tubes (grown on a Matrigel substrate). siRNA knock-down of endogenous Netrin-4 expression in VSMC decreased their recruitment to EC tubes. VSMC expressed Netrin-4 and three of the six Netrin-1 cognate receptors: DCC, Neogenin, and Unc5B. Silencing of these receptors reduced Netrin-4 adhesion to VSMC, strongly suggesting that these receptors were involved in the recruitment process. We previously showed that Netrin-4 overexpression in PC3 cancer cells delayed tumor growth in a model of subcutaneous xenograft by reducing tumor vessel density. Here, we show that Netrin-4 overexpression improved tumor blood vessel structure and increased VSMC coverage. Thus, Netrin-4 induced mural cell recruitment may play a role in the inhibition of tumor growth. Our data suggest that Netrin-4 is important for blood vessel normalization through the regulation of both endothelial and perivascular cells.
Project description:Systemic inflammation and uremic toxins (UT) determine the increased cardiovascular mortality observed in chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients. Among UT, the adipokine Chemerin induces vascular dysfunction by targeting both endothelial and vascular smooth muscular cells (EC and VSMC). As Citrate anion modulates oxidative metabolism, systemic inflammation and vascular function, we evaluated whether citrate-buffered dialysis improves HD efficiency, inflammatory parameters and chemerin-mediated microvascular injury. 45 patients were treated in sequence with acetate, citrate and, again, acetate-buffered dialysis solution (3 months per interval). At study admission and after each treatment switch, we evaluated dialysis efficacy and circulating levels of chemerin and different inflammatory biomarkers. In vitro, we stimulated EC and VSMC with patients' plasma and we investigated the role of chemerin as UT. Citrate dialysis increased HD efficacy and reduced plasma levels of CRP, fibrinogen, IL6 and chemerin. In vitro, patients' plasma induced EC and VSMC dysfunction. These effects were reduced by citrate-buffered solutions and paralleled by the decrease of chemerin levels. Consistently, chemerin receptor knockdown reduced EC and VSMC dysfunction. In conclusion, Switching from acetate to citrate improved dialysis efficacy and inflammatory parameters; in vitro, chemerin-induced EC and VSMC injury were decreased by using citrate as dialysis buffer.
Project description:Peripheral arterial disease results from the chronic obstruction of arteries leading to critical hindlimb ischemia. The aim was to develop a new therapeutic strategy of revascularization by using biodegradable and biocompatible polysaccharides-based microparticles (MP) to treat the mouse hindlimb ischemia. For this purpose, we deliver the pro-angiogenic chemokine Regulated upon Activation, Normal T-cell Expressed and Secreted (RANTES)/CCL5 in the mouse ischemic hindlimb, in solution or incorporated into polysaccharide-based microparticles. We demonstrate that RANTES-loaded microparticles improve the clinical score, induce the revascularization and the muscle regeneration in injured mice limb. To decipher the mechanisms underlying RANTES effects in vivo, we demonstrate that RANTES increases the spreading, the migration of human endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) and the formation of vascular network. The main receptors of RANTES i.e. CCR5, syndecan-4 and CD44 expressed at endothelial progenitor cell surface are involved in RANTES-induced in vitro biological effects on EPC. By using two RANTES mutants, [E66A]-RANTES with impaired ability to oligomerize, and [44AANA47]-RANTES mutated in the main RANTES-glycosaminoglycan binding site, we demonstrate that both chemokine oligomerization and binding site to glycosaminoglycans are essential for RANTES-induced angiogenesis in vitro. Herein we improved the muscle regeneration and revascularization after RANTES-loaded MP local injection in mice hindlimb ischemia.