Recent Advances in Cell-Based Therapies for Ischemic Stroke.
ABSTRACT: Stroke is the most prevalent cardiovascular disease worldwide, and is still one of the leading causes of death and disability. Stem cell-based therapy is actively being investigated as a new potential treatment for certain neurological disorders, including stroke. Various types of cells, including bone marrow mononuclear cells, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, dental pulp stem cells, neural stem cells, inducible pluripotent stem cells, and genetically modified stem cells have been found to improve neurological outcomes in animal models of stroke, and there are some ongoing clinical trials assessing their efficacy in humans. In this review, we aim to summarize the recent advances in cell-based therapies to treat stroke.
Project description:Stroke is the second leading cause of mortality worldwide, causing millions of deaths annually, and is also a major cause of disability-adjusted life years. Hemorrhagic stroke accounts for approximately 10 to 27% of all cases and has a fatality rate of about 50% in the first 30 days, with limited treatment possibilities. In the past two decades, the therapeutic potential of bone marrow-derived cells (particularly mesenchymal stem cells and mononuclear cells) has been intensively investigated in preclinical models of different neurological diseases, including models of intracerebral hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage. More recently, clinical studies, most of them small, unblinded, and nonrandomized, have suggested that the therapy with bone marrow-derived cells is safe and feasible in patients with ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. This review discusses the available evidence on the use of bone marrow-derived cells to treat hemorrhagic strokes. Distinctive properties of animal studies are analyzed, including study design, cell dose, administration route, therapeutic time window, and possible mechanisms of action. Furthermore, clinical trials are also reviewed and discussed, with the objective of improving future studies in the field.
Project description:Stroke remains a major cause of serious disability because the brain has a limited capacity to regenerate. In the last two decades, therapies for stroke have dramatically changed. However, half of the patients cannot achieve functional independence after treatment. Presently, cell-based therapies are being investigated to improve functional outcomes. This review aims to describe conventional cell therapies under clinical trial and outline the novel concept of polarized cell therapies based on protective cell phenotypes, which are currently in pre-clinical studies, to facilitate functional recovery after post-reperfusion treatment in patients with ischemic stroke. In particular, non-neuronal stem cells, such as bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells and mononuclear cells, confer no risk of tumorigenesis and are safe because they do not induce rejection and allergy; they also pose no ethical issues. Therefore, recent studies have focused on them as a cell source for cell therapies. Some clinical trials have shown beneficial therapeutic effects of bone marrow-derived cells in this regard, whereas others have shown no such effects. Therefore, more clinical trials must be performed to reach a conclusion. Polarized microglia or peripheral blood mononuclear cells might provide promising therapeutic strategies after stroke because they have pleiotropic effects. In traumatic injuries and neurodegenerative diseases, astrocytes, neutrophils, and T cells were polarized to the protective phenotype in pre-clinical studies. As such, they might be useful therapeutic targets. Polarized cell therapies are gaining attention in the treatment of stroke and neurological diseases.
Project description:Despite recent developments in innovative treatment strategies, stroke remains one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Stem cell therapy is currently attracting much attention due to its potential for exerting significant therapeutic effects on stroke patients. Various types of cells, including bone marrow mononuclear cells, bone marrow/adipose-derived stem/stromal cells, umbilical cord blood cells, neural stem cells, and olfactory ensheathing cells have enhanced neurological outcomes in animal stroke models. These stem cells have also been tested via clinical trials involving stroke patients. In this article, the authors review potential molecular mechanisms underlying neural recovery associated with stem cell treatment, as well as recent advances in stem cell therapy, with particular reference to clinical trials and future prospects for such therapy in treating stroke.
Project description:Fanconi anemia is an inherited disease characterized by genomic instability, hypersensitivity to DNA cross-linking agents, bone marrow failure, short stature, skeletal abnormalities, and a high relative risk of myeloid leukemia and epithelial malignancies. The 21 Fanconi anemia genes encode proteins involved in multiple nuclear biochemical pathways that effect DNA interstrand crosslink repair. In the past, bone marrow failure was attributed solely to the failure of stem cells to repair DNA. Recently, non-canonical functions of many of the Fanconi anemia proteins have been described, including modulating responses to oxidative stress, viral infection, and inflammation as well as facilitating mitophagic responses and enhancing signals that promote stem cell function and survival. Some of these functions take place in non-nuclear sites and do not depend on the DNA damage response functions of the proteins. Dysfunctions of the canonical and non-canonical pathways that drive stem cell exhaustion and neoplastic clonal selection are reviewed, and the potential therapeutic importance of fully investigating the scope and interdependences of the canonical and non-canonical pathways is emphasized.
Project description:Biotherapy mainly refers to the intervention and the treatment of major diseases with biotechnologies or bio-drugs, which include gene therapy, immunotherapy (vaccines and antibodies), bone marrow transplantation and stem-cell therapy. In recent years, numerous biomaterials have emerged and were utilized in the field of biotherapy due to their biocompatibility and biodegradability. Generally, biomaterials can be classified into natural or synthetic polymers according to their source, both of which have attracted much attention. Notably, biomaterials-based non-viral gene delivery vectors in gene therapy are undergoing rapid development with the emergence of surface-modified or functionalized materials. In immunotherapy, biomaterials appear to be attractive means for enhancing the delivery efficacy and the potency of vaccines. Additionally, hydrogels and scaffolds are ideal candidates in stem-cell therapy and tissue engineering. In this review, we present an introduction of biomaterials used in above biotherapy, including gene therapy, immunotherapy, stem-cell therapy and tissue engineering. We also highlighted the biomaterials which have already entered the clinical evaluation.
Project description:Prostate cancer is one of the most common malignancies affecting men worldwide, with bone being the most common site of metastasis in patients that progress beyond organ confinement. Bone metastases are virtually incurable and result in significant disease morbidity and mortality. Bone provides a unique microenvironment whose local interactions with tumor cells offer novel targets for therapeutic interventions. Several attractive molecules or pathways have been identified as new potential therapeutic targets for bone metastases caused by metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. In this review, we present the recent advances in molecular targeted therapies for prostate cancer bone metastasis focusing on therapies that target the bone cells and the bone microenvironment. The therapies covered in this review include agents that inhibit bone resorption, agents that stimulate bone formation, and agents that target the bone matrix. Suggestions to devise more effective molecular targeted therapies are proposed. Hopefully, with better understanding of the biology of the disease and the development of more robust targeted therapies, the survival and quality of life of the affected individuals could be significantly improved.
Project description:The most common cause of untreatable vision loss is dysfunction of the retina. Conditions, such as age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma remain leading causes of untreatable blindness worldwide. Various stem cell approaches are being explored for treatment of retinal regeneration. The rationale for using bone marrow stem cells to treat retinal dysfunction is based on preclinical evidence showing that bone marrow stem cells can rescue degenerating and ischemic retina. These stem cells have primarily paracrine trophic effects although some cells can directly incorporate into damaged tissue. Since the paracrine trophic effects can have regenerative effects on multiple cells in the retina, the use of this cell therapy is not limited to a particular retinal condition. Autologous bone marrow-derived stem cells are being explored in early clinical trials as therapy for various retinal conditions. These bone marrow stem cells include mesenchymal stem cells, mononuclear cells and CD34+ cells. Autologous therapy requires no systemic immunosuppression or donor matching. Intravitreal delivery of CD34+ cells and mononuclear cells appears to be tolerated and is being explored since some of these cells can home into the damaged retina after intravitreal administration. The safety of intravitreal delivery of mesenchymal stem cells has not been well established. This review provides an update of the current evidence in support of the use of bone marrow stem cells as treatment for retinal dysfunction. The potential limitations and complications of using certain forms of bone marrow stem cells as therapy are discussed. Future directions of research include methods to optimize the therapeutic potential of these stem cells, non-cellular alternatives using extracellular vesicles, and in vivo high-resolution retinal imaging to detect cellular changes in the retina following cell therapy.
Project description:The release of trophic factors from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is critical for tissue regeneration. A systematic investigation of the regenerative potential of trophic factors from different MSCs, however, has not been performed. Thus, in the present study, the regenerative potential of conditioned medium (CM) from dental pulp, bone marrow, and adipose tissue-derived CD31(-) side population (SP) cells from an individual source was compared in an ectopic tooth transplantation model.The tooth root transplantation in an ectopic site model was used for investigation of the regenerative potential and trophic effects in vivo. Either pulp CD31(-) SP cell populations (1×10(6) cells) at the third to fourth passage or 5 ?g/ml of CM from dental pulp, bone marrow, and adipose stem cells from four different individuals were injected into the root with collagen TE. Each root was transplanted subcutaneously in 5-week-old severe combined immunodeficiency mice. Each root with surrounding tissue was harvested for histology on days 7, 21, and 28 and for Western blot analysis and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis on day 28. Furthermore, the trophic factors responsible for the regenerative potential were identified as the upregulated genes present in pulp CD31(-) SP cells when compared with the genes in both bone marrow and adipose CD31(-) SP cells by using microarray analysis, real-time RT-PCR, and Western blot analysis.Transplantation of pulp CM yielded increased volume of pulp regeneration, more bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive migrated cells, and fewer caspase 3-positive cells in the regenerated pulp compared with the others. Pulp CM also demonstrated significantly increased cell migration, anti-apoptosis, and angiogenesis in C2C12 cells. Higher expression of CXCL14 and MCP1 in pulp SP cells suggested candidate trophic factors. The stimulatory effects on both migration and angiogenesis of CXCL14 and MCP1 were demonstrated in vitro. In the regenerated tissue, BrdU-positive migrated cells expressed CXCR4 and CCR2, receptors for CXCL14 and MCP1, respectively.The higher regenerative potential of pulp SP cells may be due to potent trophic factors, including CXCL14 and MCP1, which promote migration and angiogenesis.
Project description:Multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (muse) cells are endogenous nontumorigenic stem cells with pluripotency harvestable as pluripotent marker SSEA-3+ cells from the bone marrow from cultured bone marrow-mesenchymal stem cells. After transplantation into neurological disease models, muse cells exert repair effects, but the exact mechanism remains inconclusive.We conducted mechanism-based experiments by transplanting serum/xeno-free cultured-human bone marrow-muse cells into the perilesion brain at 2 weeks after lacunar infarction in immunodeficient mice.Approximately 28% of initially transplanted muse cells remained in the host brain at 8 weeks, spontaneously differentiated into cells expressing NeuN (?62%), MAP2 (?30%), and GST-pi (?12%). Dextran tracing revealed connections between host neurons and muse cells at the lesioned motor cortex and the anterior horn. Muse cells extended neurites through the ipsilateral pyramidal tract, crossed to contralateral side, and reached to the pyramidal tract in the dorsal funiculus of spinal cord. Muse-transplanted stroke mice displayed significant recovery in cylinder tests, which was reverted by the human-selective diphtheria toxin. At 10 months post-transplantation, human-specific Alu sequence was detected only in the brain but not in other organs, with no evidence of tumor formation.Transplantation at the delayed subacute phase showed muse cells differentiated into neural cells, facilitated neural reconstruction, improved functions, and displayed solid safety outcomes over prolonged graft maturation period, indicating their therapeutic potential for lacunar stroke.
Project description:Lineage commitment and tumorigenesis, traits distinguishing stem cells, have not been well characterized and compared in mesenchymal stem cells derived from human dental pulp (DP-MSCs) and bone marrow (BM-MSCs). Here, we report DP-MSCs exhibit increased osteogenic potential, possess decreased adipogenic potential, form dentin pulp-like complexes, and are resistant to oncogenic transformation when compared to BM-MSCs. Genome-wide RNA-seq and differential expression analysis reveal differences in adipocyte and osteoblast differentiation pathways, bone marrow neoplasm pathway, and PTEN/PI3K/AKT pathway. Higher PTEN expression in DP-MSCs than in BM-MSCs is responsible for the lineage commitment and tumorigenesis differences in both cells. Additionally, the PTEN promoter in BM-MSCs exhibits higher DNA methylation levels and repressive mark H3K9Me2 enrichment when compared to DP-MSCs, which is mediated by increased DNMT3B and G9a expression, respectively. The study demonstrates how several epigenetic factors broadly affect lineage commitment and tumorigenesis, which should be considered when developing therapeutic uses of stem cells.