The Crosstalk between Microbiome and Immune Response in Gastric Cancer.
ABSTRACT: Gastric cancer is the end result of a complex interplay between host genetics, environmental factors, and microbial factors. The link between gut microbiome and gastric cancer has been attributed to persistent activation of the host's immune system by gut microbiota. The end result of this dysregulated interaction between host epithelium and microbes is a state of chronic inflammation. Gut bacteria can promote anti-tumor immune responses through several mechanisms. These include triggering T-cell responses to bacterial antigens that can cross-react with tumor antigens or cause tumor-specific antigen recognition; engagement of pattern recognition receptors that mediate pro-immune or anti-inflammatory effects or via small metabolites that mediate systemic effects on the host. Here we review the role of the gut microbiome including H. pylori and non-H. pylori gastric bacteria, the immune response, and immunotherapy using checkpoint inhibitors. We also review the evidence for cross talk between the gut microbiome and immune response in gastric cancer.
Project description:Helicobacter pylori, is an invariably commensal resident of the gut microbiome associated with gastric ulcer in adults. In addition, these patients also suffered from a low grade inflammation that activates the immune system and thus increased shunting of energy to host defense mechanisms. To assess whether a H. pylori infection could affect growth in early life, we determined the expression levels of selected metabolic gut hormones in germ free (GF) and specific pathogen-free (SPF) mice with and without the presence of H. pylori. Despite H. pylori-infected (SPFH) mice display alteration in host metabolism (elevated levels of leptin, insulin and peptide YY) compared to non-infected SPF mice, their growth curves remained the same. SPFH mice also displayed increased level of eotaxin-1. Interestingly, GF mice infected with H. pylori (GFH) also displayed increased levels of ghrelin and PYY. However, in contrast to SPFH mice, GFH showed reduced weight gain and malnutrition. These preliminary findings show that exposure to H. pylori alters host metabolism early in life; but the commensal microbiota in SPF mice can attenuate the growth retarding effect from H. pylori observed in GF mice. Further investigations of possible additional side effects of H. pylori are highly warranted.
Project description:Helicobacter pylori is a causative pathogen of many gastric and extra-gastric diseases. It has infected about half of the global population. There were no genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for H. pylori infection conducted in Chinese population, who carried different and relatively homogenous strain of H. pylori. In this work, we performed SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism)-based, gene-based and pathway-based genome-wide association analyses to investigate the genetic basis of host susceptibility to H. pylori infection in 480 Chinese individuals. We also profiled the composition and function of the gut microbiota between H. pylori infection cases and controls. We found several genes and pathways associated with H. pylori infection (P < 0.05), replicated one previously reported SNP rs10004195 in TLR1 gene region (P = 0.02). We also found that glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis related pathway was associated with both onset and progression of H. pylori infection. In the gut microbiome association study, we identified 2 species, 3 genera and several pathways had differential abundance between H. pylori infected cases and controls. This paper is the first GWAS for H. pylori infection in Chinese population, and we combined the genetic and microbial data to comprehensively discuss the basis of host susceptibility to H. pylori infection.
Project description:We have shown that Helicobacter pylori induces tolerogenic programming of dendritic cells and inhibits the host immune response. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) represent a class of transmembrane pattern recognition receptors essential for microbial recognition and control of the innate immune response. In this study, we examined the role of TLRs in mediating H. pylori tolerogenic programming of dendritic cells and their impact on anti-H. pylori immunity using C57BL/6 wild-type and TLR2-knockout (TLR2KO) mice. We analyzed the response of TLR2KO bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) to H. pylori SS1 stimulation and the outcome of chronic H. pylori infection in TLR2KO mice. We showed that H. pylori-stimulated BMDCs upregulated the expression of TLR2, but not TLR4, TLR5, or TLR9. H. pylori-stimulated BMDCs from TLRKO mice induced lower Treg and Th17 responses, but a higher IFN-? response compared to H. pylori-stimulated BMDCs from wild-type mice. In vivo analyses following an H. pylori infection of 2 months duration showed a lower degree of gastric H. pylori colonization in TLR2KO mice and more severe gastric immunopathology compared to WT mice. The gastric mucosa of the infected TLR2KO mice showed a lower mRNA expression of Foxp3, IL-10, and IL-17A, but higher expression of IFN-? compared to the gastric mRNA expression in infected wild-type mice. Moreover, the H. pylori-specific Th1 response was higher and the Treg and Th17 responses were lower in the spleens of infected TLR2KO mice compared to infected WT mice. Our data indicate that H. pylori mediates immune tolerance through TLR2-derived signals and inhibits Th1 immunity, thus evading host defense. TLR2 may be an important target in the modulation of the host response to H. pylori.
Project description:The fucosylated ABH antigens, which constitute the molecular basis for the ABO blood group system, are also expressed in salivary secretions and gastrointestinal epithelia in individuals of positive secretor status; however, the biological function of the ABO blood group system is unknown. Gastric mucosa biopsies of 41 Rhesus monkeys originating from Southern Asia were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. A majority of these animals were found to be of blood group B and weak-secretor phenotype (i.e., expressing both Lewis a and Lewis b antigens), which are also common in South Asian human populations. A selected group of ten monkeys was inoculated with Helicobacter pylori and studied for changes in gastric mucosal glycosylation during a 10-month period. We observed a loss in mucosal fucosylation and concurrent induction and time-dependent dynamics in gastric mucosal sialylation (carbohydrate marker of inflammation), which affect H. pylori adhesion targets and thus modulate host-bacterial interactions. Of particular relevance, gastric mucosal density of H. pylori, gastritis, and sialylation were all higher in secretor individuals compared to weak-secretors, the latter being apparently "protected." These results demonstrate that the secretor status plays an intrinsic role in resistance to H. pylori infection and suggest that the fucosylated secretor ABH antigens constitute interactive members of the human and primate mucosal innate immune system.
Project description:Immunotherapy is a highly promising approach for the treatment of gastric cancer, the third-leading cause of overall cancer death worldwide. In particular, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells are believed to mediate host immune responses, although this activity may vary depending on the activation status and/ or their microenvironments. Here, we examined the expression of a specific zinc finger transcription factor, Helios (IKZF2), in gastric tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes by immunohistochemistry and the correlation with survival. Segregation of gastric cancer patients into high- vs. low-Helios-expressing tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes showed those with high expression to exhibit longer survival in gastric cancer patients, Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric cancer patients and advanced stage (III-IV) gastric cancer patients. In particular, Helios expression was an independent factor for survival in advanced gastric cancer patients. We performed immunofluorescence staining to detect Helios expression in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. We found that Helios is expressed more in CD4+ T cells and little in CD8+ T cells in infiltrated lymphocytes in gastric cancer. In summary, we believe that the study of specific characteristics of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes can delineate the interactions of immune and tumor cells to improve upon immunotherapy strategies.
Project description:Innate immunity plays important roles in the primary defense against pathogens, and epidemiological studies have suggested a role for Toll-like receptor 1 (TLR1) in Helicobacter pylori susceptibility. Microarray analysis of gastric biopsy specimens from H. pylori-positive and uninfected subjects showed that TLR10 messenger RNA (mRNA) levels were upregulated approximately 15-fold in infected subjects; these findings were confirmed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. Immunohistochemical investigation showed increased TLR10 expression in the gastric epithelial cells of infected individuals. When H. pylori was cocultured with NCI-N87 gastric cells, both TLR10 and TLR2 mRNA levels were upregulated. We compared the ability of TLR combinations to mediate nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) activation. Compared with other TLR2 subfamily heterodimers, the TLR2/TLR10 heterodimer mediated the greatest NF-?B activation following exposure to heat-killed H. pylori or H. pylori lipopolysaccharide. We conclude that TLR10 is a functional receptor involved in the innate immune response to H. pylori infection and that the TLR2/TLR10 heterodimer functions in H. pylori lipopolysaccharide recognition.
Project description:Ovarian cancer is the most lethal malignancy among gynecological cancers worldwide. Most ovarian cancer patients are diagnosed at an advanced stage because of non-specific clinical symptoms. The human microbiome plays a crucial role in maintaining the normal physiological and pathological state of the body. With the development of technologies such as DNA and 16S rRNA sequencing, an increasing number of findings on the role of microbiome in cancers are being reported. Microbiome abnormalities are increasingly associated with diseases, including cancer development, and response to therapies. Some studies have shown the relationship between microbiome changes and ovarian cancer. However, the mechanisms underlying this relationship are not yet fully understood. Here, we summarize the key findings in this regard by focusing on estrogen metabolism and host recognition receptors in microorganisms and changes in the gut or pelvic microbiome in patients with ovarian cancer. We further discuss the potential of using the microbiome as a novel biomarker for cancers. We also highlight the possibility to use microorganisms as a treatment modality to enhance the immune system, activate anti-tumor response, mediate chemotherapy resistance, and ameliorate the adverse effects of the treatment.
Project description:Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative spiral bacterium that causes gastritis and peptic ulcer and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of gastric adenocarcinoma and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Although Th1 immunity is involved in gastritis and the accumulation of H. pylori-specific CD4(+) T cells in the H. pylori-infected gastric mucosa in human patients, how T cells are primed with H. pylori antigens is unknown because no apparent lymphoid tissues are present in the stomach. We demonstrate here that Peyer's patches (PPs) in the small intestine play critical roles in H. pylori-induced gastritis; no gastritis is induced in H. pylori-infected mice lacking PPs. We also observed that the coccoid form of H. pylori is phagocytosed by dendritic cells in PPs. We propose that H. pylori converts to the coccoid form in the anaerobic small intestine and stimulates the host immune system through PPs.
Project description:Helicobacter pylori colonization is highly prevalent among humans and causes significant gastric disease in a subset of those infected. When present, this bacterium dominates the gastric microbiota of humans and induces antimicrobial responses in the host. Since the microbial context of H. pylori colonization influences the disease outcome in a mouse model, we sought to assess the impact of H. pylori challenge upon the pre-existing gastric microbial community members in the rhesus macaque model. Deep sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene identified a community profile of 221 phylotypes that was distinct from that of the rhesus macaque distal gut and mouth, although there were taxa in common. High proportions of both H. pylori and H. suis were observed in the post-challenge libraries, but at a given time, only one Helicobacter species was dominant. However, the relative abundance of non-Helicobacter taxa was not significantly different before and after challenge with H. pylori. These results suggest that while different gastric species may show competitive exclusion in the gastric niche, the rhesus gastric microbial community is largely stable despite immune and physiological changes due to H. pylori infection.
Project description:Helicobacter pylori is a bacterial pathogen that colonizes the human stomach, causing inflammation which, in some cases, leads to gastric ulcers and cancer. The clinical outcome of infection depends on a complex interplay of bacterial, host genetic, and environmental factors. Although H. pylori is recognized by both the innate and adaptive immune systems, this rarely results in bacterial clearance. Gastric epithelial cells are the first line of defense against H. pylori and alert the immune system to bacterial presence. Cytosolic delivery of proinflammatory bacterial factors through the cag type 4 secretion system (cag-T4SS) has long been appreciated as the major mechanism by which gastric epithelial cells detect H. pylori Classically attributed to the peptidoglycan sensor NOD1, recent work has highlighted the role of NOD1-independent pathways in detecting H. pylori; however, the bacterial and host factors involved have remained unknown. Here, we show that bacterially derived heptose-1,7-bisphosphate (HBP), a metabolic precursor in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthesis, is delivered to the host cytosol through the cag-T4SS, where it activates the host tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor (TRAF)-interacting protein with forkhead-associated domain (TIFA)-dependent cytosolic surveillance pathway. This response, which is independent of NOD1, drives robust NF-κB-dependent inflammation within hours of infection and precedes NOD1 activation. We also found that the CagA toxin contributes to the NF-κB-driven response subsequent to TIFA and NOD1 activation. Taken together, our results indicate that the sequential activation of TIFA, NOD1, and CagA delivery drives the initial inflammatory response in gastric epithelial cells, orchestrating the subsequent recruitment of immune cells and leading to chronic gastritis.IMPORTANCEH. pylori is a globally prevalent cause of gastric and duodenal ulcers and cancer. H. pylori antibiotic resistance is rapidly increasing, and a vaccine remains elusive. The earliest immune response to H. pylori is initiated by gastric epithelial cells and sets the stage for the subsequent immunopathogenesis. This study revealed that host TIFA and H. pylori-derived HBP are critical effectors of innate immune signaling that account for much of the inflammatory response to H. pylori in gastric epithelial cells. HBP is delivered to the host cell via the cag-T4SS at a time point that precedes activation of the previously described NOD1 and CagA inflammatory pathways. Manipulation of the TIFA-driven immune response in the host and/or targeting of ADP-heptose biosynthesis enzymes in H. pylori may therefore provide novel strategies that may be therapeutically harnessed to achieve bacterial clearance.