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In Vitro-Transcribed mRNA Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cell (IVT mRNA CAR T) Therapy in Hematologic and Solid Tumor Management: A Preclinical Update.

ABSTRACT: Adoptive T cell immunotherapy has received considerable interest in the treatment of cancer. In recent years, chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR T) therapy has emerged as a promising therapy in cancer treatment. In CAR T therapy, T cells from the patients are collected, reprogrammed genetically against tumor antigens, and reintroduced into the patients to trigger an immense immune response against cancer cells. CAR T therapy is successful in hematologic malignancies; however, in solid tumors, CAR T therapy faces multiple challenges, including the on-target off-tumor phenomenon, as most of the tumor-associated antigens are expressed in normal cells as well. Consequently, a transient in vitro-transcribed anti-mRNA-based CAR T cell (IVT mRNA CAR T) approach has been investigated to produce controlled cytotoxicity for a limited duration to avoid any undesirable effects in patients. In vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated the therapeutic ability of mRNA-engineered T cells in solid tumors, including melanoma, neuroblastoma and ovarian cancer; however, very few clinical trials are registered. In the present review, we discuss the effect of IVT mRNA CAR T therapy in preclinical studies related to hematologic malignancies and solid tumor management. In addition, we discuss the clinical trial studies based on IVT mRNA CAR T therapy in cancer.

SUBMITTER: Soundara Rajan T 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC7556036 | BioStudies | 2020-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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