Immunology of EBV-Related Lymphoproliferative Disease in HIV-Positive Individuals
ABSTRACT: Epstein-Bar virus (EBV) can directly cause lymphoproliferative disease (LPD), including AIDS-defining lymphomas such as Burkitt’s lymphoma and other non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL), as well as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). The prevalence of EBV in HL and NHL is elevated in HIV-positive individuals compared with the general population. Rates of incidence of AIDS-defining cancers have been declining in HIV-infected individuals since initiation of combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART) use in 1996. However, HIV-infected persons remain at an increased risk of cancers related to infections with oncogenic viruses. Proposed pathogenic mechanisms of HIV-related cancers include decreased immune surveillance, decreased ability to suppress infection-related oncogenic processes and a state of chronic inflammation marked by alteration of the cytokine profile and expanded numbers of cytotoxic T lymphocytes with down-regulated co-stimulatory molecules and increased expression of markers of senescence in the setting of treated HIV infection. Here we discuss the cooperation of EBV-infected B cell- and environment-associated factors that may contribute to EBV-related lymphomagenesis in HIV-infected individuals. Environment-derived lymphomagenic factors include impaired host adaptive and innate immune surveillance, cytokine dysregulation and a pro-inflammatory state observed in the setting of chronic, cART-treated HIV infection. B cell factors include distinctive EBV latency patterns and host protein expression in HIV-associated LPD, as well as B cell-stimulating factors derived from HIV infection. We review the future directions for expanding therapeutic approaches in targeting the viral and immune components of EBV LPD pathogenesis.
Project description:The clinicopathological features and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection status of lymphoma in children and adolescents in South China is under-researched. South China is a well-known high-incidence area of EBV-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma.A cohort of 662 consecutive children and adolescents' lymphomas was retrospectively analyzed and Epstein-Barr virus encoded RNAs (EBERs) in situ hybridization was performed to detect the EBV infection.The majority (501/662, 75.7%) of lymphomas in children and adolescents was Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). One hundred sixty one cases (24.3%) were Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). Of the NHL, precursor cell lymphoma, mature B-cell lymphoma and peripheral T/NK-cell lymphoma accounted for 32.0%, 41.1% and 26.9% respectively. The five common subtypes were lymphoblastic lymphoma (32.0%), Burkitt lymphoma (BL) (21.0%), anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) (14.2%), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) (13.8%) and extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKTCL) (6.2%). EBV infection was detected in 58.9% classical Hodgkin lymphomas (CHLs), 21.4% mature B-cell lymphomas and 52.4% peripheral T/NK-cell lymphomas. Moreover, EBV was associated with high grade NHL including ENKTCL (100.0%), BL (30.5%) and DLBCL (17.6%).The high proportion of peripheral T/NK-cell lymphomas in children and adolescents in South China are presented in this study and compared to western countries due to the high percentage of ENKTCL. ENKTCL is firmly associated with EBV infection, while more than half of HL, a portion of BL and DLBCL are related to EBV infection. This study conclusively demonstrates that EBV infection is more prevalent in children and adolescents with lymphomas in South China compared to western countries.
Project description:Patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are at increased risk for developing both non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL). Even if this risk has decreased for NHL after the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), they remain the most common acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related cancer in the developed world. They are almost always of B-cell origin, and some specific lymphoma types are more common than others. Some of these lymphoma types can occur in both HIV-uninfected and infected patients, while others preferentially develop in the context of AIDS. HIV-associated lymphoma differs from lymphoma in the HIV negative population in that they more often present with advanced disease, systemic symptoms, and extranodal involvement and are frequently associated with oncogenic viruses (Epstein-Barr virus and/or human herpesvirus-8). Before the introduction of cART, most of these patients could not tolerate the treatment strategies routinely employed in the HIV-negative population. The widespread use of cART has allowed for the delivery of full-dose and dose-intensive chemotherapy regimens with improved outcomes that nowadays can be compared to those seen in non-HIV infected patients. However, a great deal of attention should be paid to opportunistic infections and other infectious complications, cART-chemotherapy interactions, and potential cumulative toxicity. In the context of relatively sparse prospective and randomized trials, the optimal treatment of AIDS-related lymphomas remains a challenge, particularly in patients with severe immunosuppression. This paper will address epidemiology, pathogenesis, and therapeutic strategies in HIV-associated NHL and HL.
Project description:Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) represent a frequent complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. To elucidate HIV-NHL pathogenesis, we performed a genome-wide DNA profiling based on a single nucleotide polymorphism-based microarray comparative genomic hybridization in 57 HIV-lymphomas and, for comparison, in 105 immunocompetent diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (IC-DLBCL). Genomic complexity varied across HIV-NHL subtypes. HIV-Burkitt lymphoma showed a significantly lower number of lesions than HIV-DLBCL (P = 0.032), whereas the median number of copy number changes was significantly higher in Epstein-Barr virus negative (EBV-) HIV-DLBCL (42.5, range 8-153) compared to EBV+ cases (22; range 3-41; P = 0.029). Compared to IC-DLBCL, HIV-DLBCL displayed a distinct genomic profile with no gains of 18q and specific genetic lesions. Fragile sites-associated genes, including FHIT (FRA3B), WWOX (FRA16D), DCC (FRA18B) and PARK2 (FRA6E) were frequently inactivated in HIV-NHL by interstitial deletions, and a significantly higher prevalence of FHIT alterations was observed in HIV-DLBCL compared to IC-DLBCL. The same genes involved by fragile site deletions were also frequently affected by aberrant methylation of regulative regions.
Project description:Nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma is an aggressive subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) that is closely associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). The clonal expansion of EBV-infected NK or T cells is also seen in patients with chronic active EBV (CAEBV) infection, suggesting that two diseases might share a partially similar mechanism by which EBV affects host cellular gene expression. To understand the pathogenesis of EBV-associated NK/T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD) and design new therapies, we employed a novel EBV DNA microarray to compare patterns of EBV expression in six cell lines established from EBV-associated NK/T-cell LPD. We found that expression of BZLF1, which encodes the immediate-early gene product Zta, was expressed in SNK/T cells and the expression levels were preferentially high in cell lines from CAEBV infection. We also analyzed the gene expression patterns of host cellular genes using a human oligonucleotide DNA microarray. We identified a subset of pathogenically and clinically relevant host cellular genes, including TNFRSF10D, CDK2, HSPCA, IL12A as a common molecular biological properties of EBV-associated NK/T-cell LPD and a subset of genes, such as PDCD4 as a putative contributor for disease progression. This study describes a novel approach from the aspects of viral and host gene expression, which could identify novel therapeutic targets in EBV-associated NK/T-cell LPD.
Project description:The epidemiology of lymphomas has changed since the use of antiretroviral therapy. The incidence of Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas (NHL) has significantly decreased in high income countries but not in low and middle-income countries where AIDS-related events remain high. This observational study describes the characteristics, infectious complications and main outcomes of patients diagnosed with HIV and lymphoma at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología.All adults >18 years diagnosed with HIV and lymphoma from January 2010 to December 2017 were included. Information on HIV and lymphoma was collected, as well as the occurrence of co-infections at diagnosis and during therapy. Multiple regression was done with NHL patients to evaluate independent variables associated to death.One hundred fifty three patients were included: 127 patients with NHL (83%) and 26 (17%) with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). Of the NHL, 49 (38%) were diffuse large B cell Lymphomas (DLBCL), 35 (27%) plasmablastic, 28 (23%) Burkitt, 10 (8%) primary DLBCL of Central Nervous system, 3 (2%) T-cell lymphomas, and 2 (2%) pleural effusion lymphoma. Most patients were diagnosed in an advanced stage: 70% of NHL had a high International Prognostic Index (IPI); 68% of patients had <200?cells/mm. Almost 25% of NHL patients had an opportunistic infection at lymphoma diagnosis. During chemotherapy, 60% of all patients presented with at least 1 serious non-opportunistic infectious complication, and 50% presented 2 or more infectious complications, mostly bacterial infections. Thirty six percent of NHL and 23% of HL died. After adjusting for confounders, the variables associated with death were IPI and lymphoma type.HIV positive patients with lymphoma in our institution are diagnosed with an advanced stage and a high burden of infections complications. Death remains high and the variables strongly associated with death are those related to lymphoma prognosis such as lymphoma type and IPI.
Project description:HIV infection is associated with a greatly elevated risk for the development of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), which while diminished, remains elevated in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era. Chronic B cell activation, driven by contact with HIV virions, B cell-stimulatory cytokines, viruses (EBV, HPV, HCV), and by high levels of antigenic stimulation occurs in HIV infected persons, and it is seen at even higher levels in those who go on to develop AIDS-NHL. Evidence from multiple studies indicates that elevated serum levels of several B cell-stimulatory cytokines and biomarkers are seen preceding AIDS-NHL, as well as in immunocompetent persons that develop NHL. Phenotypic changes in circulating B cells also are seen preceding AIDS-NHL, including the expression of AICDA, and of cell-surface molecules and miRNA that are associated with activated B cells. HAART only partially normalizes the immune system of treated HIV+ persons as they still show clear evidence for ongoing inflammation and immune activation in, even those who show complete suppression of HIV viremia. Together, this provides ample evidence to support the notion that chronic activation of B cells contributes to the genesis of B cell lymphomas.
Project description:The incidence of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) has increased since introduction of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). While HIV-related HL is highly associated with EBV, the causes underlying the rising incidence remain unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of immune reconstitution on HL incidence among a cohort of HIV-infected male veterans ever receiving cART.We performed a retrospective cohort study utilizing data from the Veterans Affairs HIV Clinical Case Registry from 1985-2010. HL cases were identified using ICD-9 codes (201.4-9). Poisson regression was conducted to evaluate relationships between cART-related immunologic measures (e.g., nadir CD4 before cART, time-updated CD4, % time undetectable HIV RNA) and HL incidence. Additionally, we examined CD4 change after cART initiation.31,056 cART users contributed 287,256 person-years and 196 HL cases (IR=6.8/10,000 person-years). Rate of CD4 increase after cART was worse among HL cases than non-cases (p<0.05). In multivariate regression, HL risk was elevated among veterans with recent CD4 200-350 cells/µL (IRR=1.67, 95%CI=1.16-2.40) and <200 cells/µL (IRR=1.61, 95%CI=1.09-2.39), compared to >350 cells/µL. HL risk was lower among veterans with >80% time undetectable HIV RNA (IRR=0.57, 95%CI=0.35-0.92) and 40-80% undetectable (IRR=0.68, 95%CI=0.47-0.99), compared to <40% undetectable. HL risk was higher in the first 12 months (IRR=2.02, 95%CI=1.32-3.10) and 12-24 months (IRR=1.75, 95%CI=1.16-2.64) after cART initiation, compared to >36 months.These data highlight immunosuppression and poor viral control may increase HL risk, specifically during immune reconstitution in the interval post cART initiation. Findings suggest an immune reconstitution type mechanism in HIV-related HL development.
Project description:Nasal T/NK lymphoma is a unique subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) that is aggressive and incurable closely associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)3. The clonal expansion of EB infected T- or NK cell is also seen in patients with chronic active EBV (CAEBV) infection, suggesting that two diseases might partly share a similar mechanism by which EBV affect host cellular genes. In order to understand the pathogenesis of EBV-associated T/NK lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD) and design new therapies, we employed a novel EBV DNA microarray to compare patterns of EBV expression in SNK/T cells established from EBV-associated T/NK LPD. Keywords: parallel sample Overall design: Comparison of EBV lgene expression among EBV infectyed cells.For a dual color analysis of EBV gene expression, the cDNA obtained from EBV-negative cells was labeled with Cy3 as a reference, and cDNA obtained from EBV-positive cells was labeled with Cy5. The EBV gene expression was then compared among various types of EBV infected cells.
Project description:The contribution of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) to the development of specific types of benign lymphoproliferations and malignant lymphomas has been extensively studied since the discovery of the virus over the last 50 years. The importance and better understanding of the EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD) of B, T or natural killer (NK) cell type has resulted in the recognition of new entities like EBV+ mucocutaneous ulcer or the addition of chronic active EBV (CAEBV) infection in the revised 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) lymphoma classification. In this article, we review the definitions, morphology, pathogenesis, and evolving concepts of the various EBV-associated disorders including EBV+ diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (DLBCL, NOS), EBV+ mucocutaneous ulcer, DLBCL associated with chronic inflammation, fibrin-associated DLBCL, lymphomatoid granulomatosis, the EBV+ T and NK-cell LPD of childhood, aggressive NK leukaemia, extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, and the new provisional entity of primary EBV+ nodal T- or NK-cell lymphoma. The current knowledge regarding the pathogenesis of B-cell lymphomas that can be EBV-associated including Burkitt lymphoma, plasmablastic lymphoma and classic Hodgkin lymphoma will be also explored.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cytokine stimulation of B-cell proliferation may be an important causative mechanism for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) may be a co-factor, particularly for primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors, which are uniformly EBV-positive in the setting of AIDS. Thus, we examined associations of genetic variation in IL10 and related cytokine-signaling molecules (IL10RA, CXCL12, IL13, IL4, IL4R, CCL5 and BCL6) with AIDS-related NHL risk and evaluated differences between primary CNS and systemic tumors. PATIENTS AND MATERIALS:We compared 160 Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) participants with incident lymphomas, of which 90 followed another AIDS diagnosis, to HIV-1-seropositive controls matched on duration of lymphoma-free survival post-HIV-1 infection (N = 160) or post-AIDS diagnosis (N = 90). We fit conditional logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS:Carriage of at least one copy of the T allele for the IL10 rs1800871 (as compared to no copies) was associated with decreased AIDS-NHL risk specific to lymphomas arising from the CNS (CC vs. CT/TT: OR = 0.3; 95% CI 0.1, 0.7) but not systemically (CC vs. CT/TT: OR = 1.0; 95% CI 0.5, 1.9) (Pheterogeneity = 0.03). Carriage of two copies of the 'low IL10' haplotype rs1800896_A/rs1800871_T/rs1800872_A was associated with decreased lymphoma risk that varied by number of copies (Ptrend = 0.02). None of the ORs for the other studied polymorphisms was significantly different from 1.0. CONCLUSION:Excessive IL10 response to HIV-1 infection may be associated with increased risk of NHL, particularly in the CNS. IL10 dysregulation may be an important causative pathway for EBV-related lymphomagenesis.