Protein anabolism is key to long-term survival in high-grade serous ovarian cancer.
ABSTRACT: This study aimed to identify the biological processes associated with long-term survival in high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC). HGSOC cases obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas Ovarian Cancer (TCGA-OV) database were divided into long-term survivors (LTS) and normal-term survivors (NTS) based on survival cutoffs defined by the HGSOC cohort in the SEER database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened using the generalized linear modeling (GLM) method. Gene Ontology (GO) functional and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses were performed using DAVID Bioinformatics Resources. DEG-related protein-protein interactions (PPI) were extracted from the STRING database and hub genes were identified using CytoHubba in the Cytoscape program. In total, 157 DEGs, including 155 upregulated and 2 downregulated genes, were identified. Upregulated genes were statistically enriched in 80 GO terms and 11 KEGG pathways related to energy and substrate metabolism, such as protein absorption, digestion, and metabolism as well as signaling pathways, including chromatin silencing, regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade, and regulation of MAPKKK. ALB and POMC were the common hub genes. These findings reveal that protein anabolism is crucial to long-term survival, regulated by activation of the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway and chromatin silencing. Comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms via further exploration may contribute toward an effective treatment for ovarian cancer.
Project description:PurposeHigh-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) is the leading cause of death among gynecological malignancies. This is mainly attributed to its high rates of chemoresistance. To date, few studies have investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying this resistance to treatment in ovarian cancer patients. In this study, we aimed to explore these molecular mechanisms using bioinformatics analysis.MethodsWe analyzed microarray data set GSE51373, which included 16 platinum-sensitive HGSOC samples and 12 platinum-resistant control samples. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using RStudio. Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses were performed using DAVID, and a DEG-associated protein–protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed using STRING. Hub genes in the PPI network were identified, and the prognostic value of the top ten hub genes was evaluated. MGP, one of the hub genes, was verified by immunohistochemistry.ResultsAll samples were confirmed to be of high quality. A total of 109 DEGs were identified, and the top ten enriched GO terms and four KEGG pathways were obtained. Specifically, the PI3K-AKT signaling pathway and the Rap1 signaling pathway were identified as having significant roles in chemoresistance in HGSOC. Furthermore, based on the PPI network, KIT, FOXM1, FGF2, HIST1H4D, ZFPM2, IFIT2, CCNO, MGP, RHOBTB3, and CDC7 were identified as hub genes. Five of these hub genes could predict the prognosis of HGSOC patients. Positive immunostaining signals for MGP were observed in the chemoresistant samples.ConclusionTaken together, the findings of this study may provide novel insights into HGSOC chemoresistance and identify important therapeutic targets.
Project description:BACKGROUND High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) is the most malignant gynecologic tumor. This study reveals biomarkers related to HGSOC incidence and progression using the bioinformatics method. MATERIAL AND METHODS Five gene expression profiles were downloaded from GEO. Differentially-expressed genes (DEGs) in HGSOC and normal ovarian tissue samples were screened using limma and the function of DEGs was annotated by KEGG and GO analysis using clusterProfiler. A co-expression network utilizing the WGCNA package was established to define several hub genes from the key module. Furthermore, survival analysis was performed, followed by expression validation with datasets from TCGA and GTEx. Finally, we used single-gene GSEA to detect the function of prognostic hub genes. RESULTS Out of the 1874 DEGs detected from 114 HGSOC versus 49 normal tissue samples, 956 were upregulated and 919 were downregulated. The functional annotation indicated that upregulated DEGs were mostly enriched in cell cycle, whereas the downregulated DEGs were enriched in the MAPK or Ras signaling pathway. Two modules significantly associated with HGSOC were excavated through WGCNA. After survival analysis and expression validation of hub genes, we found that 2 upregulated genes (MAD2L1 and PKD2) and 3 downregulated genes (DOCK5, FANCD2 and TBRG1) were positively correlated with HGSOC prognosis. GSEA for single-hub genes revealed that MAD2L1 and PKD2 were associated with proliferation, while DOCK5, FANCD2, and TBRG1 were associated with immune response. CONCLUSIONS We found that FANCD2, PKD2, TBRG1, and DOCK5 had prognostic value and could be used as potential biomarkers for HGSOC treatment.
Project description:Purpose:Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of gynecologic cancer-related death worldwide. Early diagnosis of ovarian cancer can significantly improve patient prognosis. Hence, there is an urgent need to identify key diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers specific for ovarian cancer. Because high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) is the most common type of ovarian cancer and accounts for the majority of deaths, we identified potential biomarkers for the early diagnosis and prognosis of HGSOC. Methods:Six datasets (GSE14001, GSE18520, GSE26712, GSE27651, GSE40595, and GSE54388) were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database for analysis. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between HGSOC and normal ovarian surface epithelium samples were screened via integrated analysis. Hub genes were identified by analyzing protein-protein interaction (PPI) network data. The online Kaplan-Meier plotter was utilized to evaluate the prognostic roles of these hub genes. The expression of these hub genes was confirmed with Oncomine datasets and validated by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting. Results:A total of 103 DEGs in patients with HGSOC-28 upregulated genes and 75 downregulated genes-were successfully screened. Enrichment analyses revealed that the upregulated genes were enriched in cell division and cell proliferation and that the downregulated genes mainly participated in the Wnt signaling pathway and various metabolic processes. Ten hub genes were associated with HGSOC pathogenesis. Seven overexpressed hub genes were partitioned into module 1 of the PPI network, which was enriched in the cell cycle and DNA replication pathways. Survival analysis revealed that MELK, CEP55 and KDR expression levels were significantly correlated with the overall survival of HGSOC patients (P < 0.05). The RNA and protein expression levels of these hub genes were validated experimentally. Conclusion:Based on an integrated analysis, we propose the further investigation of MELK, CEP55 and KDR as promising diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of HGSOC.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>This study aimed to identify the hub genes associated with prognosis of patients with ovarian cancer by using integrated bioinformatics analysis and experimental validation.<h4>Methods</h4>Four microarray datasets (GSE12470, GSE14407, GSE18521 and GSE46169) were analyzed by the GEO2R tool to screen common differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Gene Ontology, the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes, the (KEGG) pathway and Reactome pathway enrichment analysis, protein-protein interaction (PPI) construction, and the identification of hub genes were performed. Furthermore, we performed the survival and expression analysis of the hub genes. In vitro functional assays were performed to assess the effects of hub genes on ovarian cancer cell proliferation, caspase-3/7 activity and invasion.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 89 common DEGs were identified among these four datasets. The KEGG and Reactome pathway results showed that the DEGs were mainly associated with cell cycle, mitotic and p53 signaling pathway. A total of 20 hub genes were identified from the PPI network by using sub-module analysis. The survival analysis revealed that high expression of six hub genes (<i>AURKA, BUB1B, CENPF, KIF11, KIF23</i> and <i>TOP2A</i>) were significantly correlated with shorter overall survival and progression-free survival of patients with ovarian cancer. Furthermore, the expression of the six hub genes were validated by the GEPIA database and Human Protein Atlas, and functional studies revealed that knockdown of <i>KIF11</i> and <i>KIF23</i> suppressed the SKOV3 cell proliferation, increased caspase-3/7 activity and attenuated invasive potentials of SKOV3 cells. In addition, knockdown of <i>KIF11</i> and <i>KIF23</i> up-regulated E-cadherin mRNA expression but down-regulated N-cadherin and vimentin mRNA expression in SKOV3 cells.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our results showed that six hub genes were up-regulated in ovarian cancer tissues and may predict poor prognosis of patients with ovarian cancer. <i>KIF11</i> and <i>KIF23</i> may play oncogenic roles in ovarian cancer cell progression via promoting ovarian cancer cell proliferation and invasion.
Project description:BACKGROUND:High-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC) is generally associated with a very dismal prognosis. Nevertheless, patients with similar clinicopathological characteristics can have markedly different clinical outcomes. Our aim was the identification of novel molecular determinants influencing survival. METHODS:Gene expression profiles of extreme HGSOC survivors (training set) were obtained by microarray. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and enriched signalling pathways were determined. A prognostic signature was generated and validated on curatedOvarianData database through a meta-analysis approach. The best prognostic biomarker from the signature was confirmed by RT-qPCR and by immunohistochemistry on an independent validation set. Cox regression model was chosen for survival analysis. RESULTS:Eighty DEGs and the extracellular matrix-receptor (ECM-receptor) interaction pathway were associated to extreme survival. A 10-gene prognostic signature able to correctly classify patients with 98% of accuracy was identified. By an 'in-silico' meta-analysis, overexpression of FXYD domain-containing ion transport regulator 5 (FXYD5), also known as dysadherin, was confirmed in HGSOC short-term survivors compared to long-term ones. Its prognostic and predictive power was then successfully validated, both at mRNA and protein level, first on training than on validation sample set. CONCLUSION:We demonstrated the possible involvement of FXYD5 and ECM-receptor interaction signal pathway in HCSOC survival and prognosis.
Project description:Background:Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common liver cancer and the mechanisms of hepatocarcinogenesis remain elusive. Objective:This study aims to mine hub genes associated with HCC using multiple databases. Methods:Data sets GSE45267, GSE60502, GSE74656 were downloaded from GEO database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between HCC and control in each set were identified by limma software. The GO term and KEGG pathway enrichment of the DEGs aggregated in the datasets (aggregated DEGs) were analyzed using DAVID and KOBAS 3.0 databases. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of the aggregated DEGs was constructed using STRING database. GSEA software was used to verify the biological process. Association between hub genes and HCC prognosis was analyzed using patients' information from TCGA database by survminer R package. Results:From GSE45267, GSE60502 and GSE74656, 7583, 2349, and 553 DEGs were identified respectively. A total of 221 aggregated DEGs, which were mainly enriched in 109 GO terms and 29 KEGG pathways, were identified. Cell cycle phase, mitotic cell cycle, cell division, nuclear division and mitosis were the most significant GO terms. Metabolic pathways, cell cycle, chemical carcinogenesis, retinol metabolism and fatty acid degradation were the main KEGG pathways. Nine hub genes (TOP2A, NDC80, CDK1, CCNB1, KIF11, BUB1, CCNB2, CCNA2 and TTK) were selected by PPI network and all of them were associated with prognosis of HCC patients. Conclusion:TOP2A, NDC80, CDK1, CCNB1, KIF11, BUB1, CCNB2, CCNA2 and TTK were hub genes in HCC, which may be potential biomarkers of HCC and targets of HCC therapy.
Project description:The present study aimed to identify differentially regulated genes between the peritumoral brain zone (PBZ) and tumor core (TC) of glioblastoma (GBM), to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms and provide a target for the treatment of tumors. The GSE13276 and GSE116520 datasets were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) for the PBZ and TC were obtained using the GEO2R tool. The bioinformatics and evolutionary genomics online tool Venn was used to identify common DEGs between the two datasets. The Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery online tool was used to analyze enriched pathways of the Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases. The Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins online tool was used to construct a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of DEGs. Hub genes were identified using Cytohubba, a plug-in for Cytoscape. The Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA) database was utilized to perform survival analysis. In total, 75 DEGs, including 12 upregulated and 63 downregulated genes, were identified. In the GO term analysis, these DEGs were mainly enriched in 'regulation of angiogenesis' and 'central nervous system development'. Furthermore, in the KEGG pathway analysis, the DEGs were mainly enriched in 'bladder cancer' and 'endocytosis'. When filtering the results of the PPI network analysis using Cytohubba, a total of 10 hub genes, including proteolipid protein 1, myelin associated oligodendrocyte basic protein, contactin 2, myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein, myelin basic protein, myelin associated glycoprotein, SRY-box transcription factor 10, C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 8 (CXCL8), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) and plasmolipin, were identified. These hub genes were further subjected to GO term and KEGG pathway analysis, and were revealed to be enriched in 'central nervous system development', 'bladder cancer' and 'rheumatoid arthritis'. These hub genes were used to perform survival analysis using the GEPIA database, and it was determined that VEGFA and CXCL8 were significantly associated with a reduction in the overall survival of patients with GBM. In conclusion, the results suggest that the recurrence of GBM is associated with high gene expression levels VEGFA and CXCL8, and the development of the central nervous system.
Project description:Background and aims: Ovarian cancer (OC) is the seventh most commonly detected cancer among women. This study aimed to map the hub and core genes and potential pathways that might be involved in the molecular pathogenesis of OC. Methods: In the present work, we analyzed a microarray dataset (GSE126519) from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database and used the GEO2R tool to screen OC cells and ovarian SINE-resistant cancer cells for differentially expressed genes (DEGs). For the functional annotation of the DEGs, we conducted Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analyses (KEGG) using the DAVID v6.8 online server and GenoGo Metacore™, Cortellis Solution software. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks were constructed using the STRING database, and Cytoscape software was used for visualization. The survival analysis was performed using the online platform GEPIA2 to determine the prognostic value of the expression of hub genes in cell lines from OC patients. Results: We identified a total of 809 upregulated and 700 downregulated DEGs. GO analysis revealed that the genes with statistically significant differences in expression were mainly associated with biological processes involved in the cell cycle, the mitotic cell cycle, mitotic nuclear division, organ morphogenesis, cell development, and cell morphogenesis. By using the Analyze Networks (AN) algorithm in GeneGo, we identified the most relevant biological networks involving DEGs that were mainly enriched in the cell cycle (in metaphase checkpoints) and revealed the role of APC in cell cycle regulation pathways. We found 10 hub genes and four core genes (FZD6, FZD8, CDK2, and RBBP8) that are strongly linked to OC. Conclusion: This study sheds light on the molecular pathogenesis of OC and is expected to provide potential molecular biomarkers that are beneficial for the treatment and clinical molecular diagnosis of OC.
Project description:BACKGROUND:High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) is a fatal form of ovarian cancer. Previous studies indicated some potential biomarkers for clinical evaluation of HGSOC prognosis. However, there is a lack of systematic analysis of different expression genes (DEGs) to screen and detect significant biomarkers of HGSOC. METHODS:TCGA database was conducted to analyze relevant genes expression in HGSOC. Outcomes of candidate genes expression, including overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS), were calculated by Cox regression analysis for hazard rates (HR). Histopathological investigation of the identified genes was carried out in 151 Chinese HGSOC patients to validate gene expression in different stages of HGSOC. RESULTS:Of all 57,331 genes that were analyzed, FAP was identified as the only novel gene that significantly contributed to both OS and PFS of HGSOC. In addition, FAP had a consistent expression profile between carcinoma-paracarcinoma and early-advanced stages of HGSOC. Immunological tests in paraffin section also confirmed that up-regulation of FAP was present in advanced stage HGSOC patients. Prediction of FAP network association suggested that FN1 could be a potential downstream gene which further influenced HGSOC survival. CONCLUSIONS:High-level expression of FAP was associated with poor prognosis of HGSOC via FN1 pathway.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Ovarian cancer (OC) ranks fifth as a cause of gynecological cancer-associated death globally. Until now, the molecular mechanisms underlying the tumorigenesis and prognosis of OC have not been fully understood. This study aims to identify hub genes and therapeutic drugs involved in OC. METHODS:Four gene expression profiles (GSE54388, GSE69428, GSE36668, and GSE40595) were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), and the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in OC tissues and normal tissues with an adjusted P-value <?0.05 and a |log fold change (FC)|?>?1.0 were first identified by GEO2R and FunRich software. Next, Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses were performed for functional enrichment analysis of these DEGs. Then, the hub genes were identified by the cytoHubba plugin and the other bioinformatics approaches including protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis, module analysis, survival analysis, and miRNA-hub gene network construction was also performed. Finally, the GEPIA2 and DGIdb databases were utilized to verify the expression levels of hub genes and to select the candidate drugs for OC, respectively. RESULTS:A total of 171 DEGs were identified, including 114 upregulated and 57 downregulated DEGs. The results of the GO analysis indicated that the upregulated DEGs were mainly involved in cell division, nucleus, and protein binding, whereas the biological functions showing enrichment in the downregulated DEGs were mainly negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter, protein complex and apicolateral plasma membrane, and glycosaminoglycan binding. As for the KEGG-pathway, the upregulated DEGs were mainly associated with metabolic pathways, biosynthesis of antibiotics, biosynthesis of amino acids, cell cycle, and HTLV-I infection. Additionally, 10 hub genes (KIF4A, CDC20, CCNB2, TOP2A, RRM2, TYMS, KIF11, BIRC5, BUB1B, and FOXM1) were identified and survival analysis of these hub genes showed that OC patients with the high-expression of CCNB2, TYMS, KIF11, KIF4A, BIRC5, BUB1B, FOXM1, and CDC20 were statistically more likely to have poorer progression free survival. Meanwhile, the expression levels of the hub genes based on GEPIA2 were in accordance with those based on GEO. Finally, DGIdb database was used to identify 62 small molecules as the potentially targeted drugs for OC treatment. CONCLUSIONS:In summary, the data may produce new insights regarding OC pathogenesis and treatment. Hub genes and candidate drugs may improve individualized diagnosis and therapy for OC in future.