Preparation of Boron Nitride Nanoplatelets via Amino Acid Assisted Ball Milling: Towards Thermal Conductivity Application.
ABSTRACT: Hexagonal boron nitride nanoplatelets (BNNPs) have attracted widespread attention due to their unique physical properties and their peeling from the base material. Mechanical exfoliation is a simple, scalable approach to produce single-layer or few-layer BNNPs. In this work, two amino acid grafted boron nitride nanoplatelets, Lys@BNNP and Glu@BNNP, were successfully prepared via ball milling of h-BN with L-Lysine and L-Glutamic acid, respectively. It was found that the dispersion state of Lys@BNNP and Glu@BNNP in water had been effectively stabilized due to the introduction of amino acid moieties which contained a hydrophilic carboxyl group. PVA hydrogel composites with Lys@BNNP and Glu@BNNP as functional fillers were constructed and extensively studied. With 11.3 wt% Lys@BNNP incorporated, the thermal conductivity of Lys@BNNP/PVA hydrogel composite was up to 0.91 W m-1K-1, increased by 78%, comparing to the neat PVA hydrogel. Meanwhile, the mechanical and self-healing properties of the composites were simultaneously largely enhanced.
Project description:All-solid-state supercapacitors have gained increasing attention as wearable energy storage devices, partially due to their flexible, safe, and lightweight natures. However, their electrochemical performances are largely hampered by the low flexibility and durability of current polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) based electrolytes. Herein, a novel polyvinyl alcohol-polyethyleneimine (PVA-PEI) based, conductive and elastic hydrogel was devised as an all-in-one electrolyte platform for wearable supercapacitor (WSC). For proof-of-concept, we assembled all-solid-state supercapacitors based on boron nitride nanosheets (BNNS) intercalated graphene electrodes and PVA-PEI based gel electrolyte. Furthermore, by varying the electrolyte ions, we observed synergistic effects between the hydrogel and the electrode materials when KOH was used as electrolyte ions, as the Graphene/BNNS@PVA-PEI-KOH WSCs exhibited a significantly improved areal capacitance of 0.35 F/cm<sup>2</sup> and a smaller ESR of 6.02 ohm/cm<sup>2</sup>. Moreover, due to the high flexibility and durability of the PVA-PEI hydrogel electrolyte, the developed WSCs behave excellent flexibility and cycling stability under different bending states and after 5000 cycles. Therefore, the conductive, yet elastic, PVA-PEI hydrogel represents an attractive electrolyte platform for WSC, and the Graphene/BNNS@PVA-PEI-KOH WSCs shows broad potentials in powering wearable electronic devices.
Project description:Thermo-responsive hydrogel is an important smart material. However, its slow thermal response rate limits the scope of its applications. Boron nitride nanosheet-reinforced thermos-responsive hydrogels, which can be controlled by heating, were fabricated by in situ polymerization of <i>N-</i>isopropylacrylamide in the presence of boron nitride nanosheets. The hydrogels exhibit excellent thermo-responsiveness and much enhanced thermal response rate than that of pure poly(<i>N-</i>isopropylacrylamide) hydrogels. Interestingly, the hydrogels can be driven to move in aqueous solution by heating. Importantly, the composite hydrogel is hydrophilic at a temperature below lower critical solution temperature (LCST), while it is hydrophobic at a temperature above LCST. Therefore, it can be used for quick absorption and release of dyes and oils from water. All these properties demonstrate the potential of hydrogel composites for water purification and treatment.
Project description:Polymer composites with high thermal conductivity have recently attracted much attention, along with the rapid development of the electronic devices toward higher speed and performance. However, a common method to enhance polymer thermal conductivity through an addition of high thermally conductive fillers usually cannot provide an expected value, especially for composites requiring electrical insulation. Here, we show that polymeric composites with silver nanoparticle-deposited boron nitride nanosheets as fillers could effectively enhance the thermal conductivity of polymer, thanks to the bridging connections of silver nanoparticles among boron nitride nanosheets. The thermal conductivity of the composite is significantly increased from 1.63?W/m-K for the composite filled with the silver nanoparticle-deposited boron nitride nanosheets to 3.06?W/m-K at the boron nitride nanosheets loading of 25.1 vol %. In addition, the electrically insulating properties of the composite are well preserved. Fitting the measured thermal conductivity of epoxy composite with one physical model indicates that the composite with silver nanoparticle-deposited boron nitride nanosheets outperforms the one with boron nitride nanosheets, owning to the lower thermal contact resistance among boron nitride nanosheets' interfaces. The finding sheds new light on enhancement of thermal conductivity of the polymeric composites which concurrently require the electrical insulation.
Project description:In this study, we develop binary polypropylene (PP) composites with hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) nanoplatelets and ternary hybrids reinforced with hBN and nanohydroxyapatite (nHA). Filler hybridization is a sound approach to make novel nanocomposites with useful biological and mechanical properties. Tensile test, osteoblastic cell culture and dimethyl thiazolyl diphenyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay were employed to investigate the mechanical performance, bioactivity and biocompatibility of binary PP/hBN and ternary PP/hBN-nHA composites. The purpose is to prepare biocomposite nanomaterials with good mechanical properties and biocompatibility for replacing conventional polymer composites reinforced with large hydroxyapatite microparticles at a high loading of 40 vol%. Tensile test reveals that the elastic modulus of PP composites increases, while tensile elongation decreases with increasing hBN content. Hybridization of hBN with nHA further enhances elastic modulus of PP. The cell culture and MTT assay show that osteoblastic cells attach and proliferate on binary PP/hBN and ternary PP/hBN-20%nHA nanocomposites.
Project description:Thermal conductive polymer composites (filled type) consisting of thermal conductive fillers and a polymer matrix have been widely used in a range of areas. More than 10 strategies have been developed to improve the thermal conductivity of polymer composites. Here we report a new "hypergravity accumulation" strategy. Raw material mixtures of boron nitride/silicone rubber composites were treated in hypergravity fields (800-20,000 g, relative gravity acceleration) before heat-curing. A series of comparison studies were made. It was found that hypergravity treatments could efficiently improve the microstructures and thermal conductivity of the composites. When the hypergravity was about 20,000 g (relative gravity acceleration), the obtained spherical boron nitride/silicone rubber composites had highly compacted microstructures and high and isotropic thermal conductivity. The highest thermal conductivity reached 4.0 W/mK. Thermal interface application study showed that the composites could help to decrease the temperature on a light-emitting diode (LED) chip by 5 °C. The mechanism of the improved microstructure increased thermal conductivity, and the high viscosity problem in the preparation of boron nitride/silicone rubber composites, and the advantages and disadvantages of the hypergravity accumulation strategy, were discussed. Overall, this work has provided a new, efficient, and simple strategy to improve the thermal conductivity of boron nitride/silicone rubber and other polymer composites (filled type).
Project description:For the utilization of graphene in various energy storage and conversion applications, it must be synthesized in bulk with reliable and controllable electrical properties. Although nitrogen-doped graphene shows a high doping efficiency, its electrical properties can be easily affected by oxygen and water impurities from the environment. We here report that boron-doped graphene nanoplatelets with desirable electrical properties can be prepared by the simultaneous reduction and boron-doping of graphene oxide (GO) at a high annealing temperature. B-doped graphene nanoplatelets prepared at 1000?°C show a maximum boron concentration of 6.04?±?1.44 at %, which is the highest value among B-doped graphenes prepared using various methods. With well-mixed GO and g-B2O3 as the dopant, highly uniform doping is achieved for potentially gram-scale production. In addition, as a proof-of-concept, highly B-doped graphene nanoplatelets were used as an electrode of an electrochemical double-layer capacitor (EDLC) and showed an excellent specific capacitance value of 448?F/g in an aqueous electrolyte without additional conductive additives. We believe that B-doped graphene nanoplatelets can also be used in other applications such as electrocatalyst and nano-electronics because of their reliable and controllable electrical properties regardless of the outer environment.
Project description:This paper investigates the utilization of commercial masterbatches of graphene nanoplatelets to improve the properties of neat polymer and wood fiber composites manufactured by conventional processing methods. The effect of aspect ratio of the graphene platelets (represented by the different number of layers in the nanoplatelet) on the properties of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) is discussed. The composites were characterized for their mechanical properties (tensile, flexural, impact) and physical characteristics (morphology, crystallization, and thermal stability). The effect of the addition of nanoplatelets on the thermal conductivity and diffusivity of the reinforced polymer with different contents of reinforcement was also investigated. In general, the mechanical performance of the polymer was enhanced at the presence of either of the reinforcements (graphene or wood fiber). The improvement in mechanical properties of the nanocomposite was notable considering that no compatibilizer was used in the manufacturing. The use of a masterbatch can promote utilization of nano-modified polymer composites on an industrial scale without modification of the currently employed processing methods and facilities.
Project description:The ongoing tendency to create environmentally friendly building materials is nowadays connected with the use of reactive magnesia-based composites. The aim of the presented research was to develop an ecologically sustainable composite material based on MOC (magnesium oxychloride cement) with excellent mechanical, chemical, and physical properties. The effect of the preparation procedure of MOC pastes doped with graphene nanoplatelets on their fresh and hardened properties was researched. One-step and two-step homogenization techniques were proposed as prospective tools for the production of MOC-based composites of advanced parameters. The conducted experiments and analyses covered X-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, sorption analysis, X-ray diffraction, and optical microscopy. The viscosity of the fresh mixtures was monitored using a rotational viscometer. For the hardened composites, macro- and micro-structural parameters were measured together with the mechanical parameters. These tests were performed after 7 days and 14 days. The use of a carbon-based nanoadditive led to a significant drop in porosity, thus densifying the MOC matrix. Accordingly, the mechanical resistance was greatly improved by graphene nanoplatelets. The two-step homogenization procedure positively affected all researched functional parameters of the developed composites (e.g., the compressive strength increase of approximately 54% after 7 days, and 37% after 14 days, respectively) and can be recommended for the preparation of advanced functional materials reinforced with graphene.
Project description:In this work, graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) reinforced magnesium (Mg) matrix composites were synthesised using the multi-step dispersion route. Well-dispersed but inhomogeneously distributed GNPs were obtained in the matrix. Compared with the monolithic alloy, the nanocomposites exhibited dramatically enhanced Young's modulus, yield strength and ultimate tensile strength and relatively high plasticity, which mainly attributed to the significant heterogeneous laminated microstructure induced by the addition of GNPs. With increasing of the concentration of GNPs, mechanical properties of the composites were gradually improved. Especially, the strengthening efficiency of all the composites exceeded 100%, which was significantly higher than that of carbon nanotubes reinforced Mg matrix composites. The grain refinement and load transfer provided by the two-dimensional and wrinkled surface structure of GNPs were the dominated strengthening mechanisms of the composites. This investigation develops a new method for incorporating GNPs in metals for fabricating high-performance composites.