LncRNA RP11-624L4.1 Is Associated with Unfavorable Prognosis and Promotes Proliferation via the CDK4/6-Cyclin D1-Rb-E2F1 Pathway in NPC.
ABSTRACT: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is one of the most common malignant tumors in southern China and southeast Asia. Emerging evidence revealed that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) might play important roles in the development and progression of many cancers, including NPC. The functions and mechanisms of the vast majority of lncRNAs involved in NPC remain unknown. In this study, a novel lncRNA RP11-624L4.1 was identified in NPC tissues using next-generation sequencing. In situ hybridization (ISH) was used to analyze the correlation between RP11-624L4.1 expression and the clinicopathological features or prognosis in NPC patients. RNA-Protein Interaction Prediction (RPISeq) predictions and RNA-binding protein immunoprecipitation (RIP) assays were used to identify RP11-624L4.1's interactions with cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4). As a result, we found that RP11-624L4.1 is hyper-expressed in NPC tissues, which was associated with unfavorable prognosis and clinicopathological features in NPC. By knocking down and overexpressing RP11-624L4.1, we also found that it promotes the proliferation ability of NPC in vitro and in vivo through the CDK4/6-Cyclin D1-Rb-E2F1 pathway. Overexpression of CDK4 in knocking down RP11-624L4.1 cells can partially rescue NPC promotion, indicating its role in the RP11-624L4.1-CDK4/6-Cyclin D1-Rb-E2F1 pathway. Taken together, RP11-624L4.1 is required for NPC unfavorable prognosis and proliferation through the CDK4/6-Cyclin D1-Rb-E2F1 pathway, which may be a novel therapeutic target and prognostic in patients with NPC.
Project description:Fibroblast growth factor 9 (FGF9) promotes cancer progression; however, its role in cell proliferation related to tumorigenesis remains elusive. We investigated how FGF9 affected MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cell proliferation and found that FGF9 significantly induced cell proliferation by activating ERK1/2 and retinoblastoma (Rb) phosphorylations within 15 minutes. Subsequently, the expressions of E2F1 and the cell cycle regulators: cyclin D1, cyclin E1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) in G1 phase and cyclin A1, CDK2 and CDK1 in S-G2 /M phases were increased at 12 hours after FGF9 treatment; and cyclin B1 in G2 /M phases were induced at 24 hours after FGF9 stimulation, whereas the phosphorylations of p53, p21 and p27 were not affected by FGF9. Moreover, FGF9-induced effects were inhibited by MEK inhibitor PD98059, indicating FGF9 activated the Rb/E2F pathway to accelerate MA-10 cell proliferation by activating ERK1/2. Immunoprecipitation assay and ChIP-quantitative PCR results showed that FGF9-induced Rb phosphorylation led to the dissociation of Rb-E2F1 complexes and thereby enhanced the transactivations of E2F1 target genes, Cyclin D1, Cyclin E1 and Cyclin A1. Silencing of FGF receptor 2 (FGFR2) using lentiviral shRNA inhibited FGF9-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation and cell proliferation, indicating that FGFR2 is the obligate receptor for FGF9 to bind and activate the signaling pathway in MA-10 cells. Furthermore, in a severe combined immunodeficiency mouse xenograft model, FGF9 significantly promoted MA-10 tumor growth, a consequence of increased cell proliferation and decreased apoptosis. Conclusively, FGF9 interacts with FGFR2 to activate ERK1/2, Rb/E2F1 and cell cycle pathways to induce MA-10 cell proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo.
Project description:In synovial sarcomas alterations in the cyclin D1-CDK4/6-Rb axis have been described. Also, ?-catenin, a cyclin D1 regulator, is often overexpressed. Additionally, studies have shown that the t(X;18) translocation influences tumor behavior partly through cyclin D1 activation. We investigated how alterations in the cyclin D1-CDK4/6-Rb axis impact prognosis and studied effects of targeting this axis with the CDK4/6 inhibitor palbociclib.Synovial sarcoma samples (n = 43) were immunohistochemically stained for ?-catenin, cyclin D1, p16, p21, p27, Rb, and phospho-Rb. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed to detect CCND1 amplification or translocation. In 4 synovial sarcoma cell lines sensitivity to palbociclib was investigated using cell viability assays, and effects on the sensitive cell lines were evaluated on protein level and by cell cycle arrest.Expression of nuclear phospho-Rb and nuclear ?-catenin in the patient samples was associated with poor survival. FISH showed a sporadic translocation of CCND1 in a subset of tumors. An 8-fold CCND1 amplification was found in 1 cell line, but not in the patient samples investigated. Palbociclib effectively inhibited Rb-phosphorylation in 3 cell lines, resulting in an induction of a G1 arrest and proliferation block.In this series nuclear phospho-Rb and nuclear ?-catenin expression were negative prognostic factors. In vitro data suggest that palbociclib may be a potential treatment for a subset of synovial sarcoma patients. Whether this effect can be enhanced by combination treatment deserves further preclinical investigations.
Project description:Phosphorylation of target proteins by cyclin D1-Cdk4 requires both substrate docking and kinase activity. In addition to the ability of cyclin D1-Cdk4 to catalyze the phosphorylation of consensus sites within the primary amino acid sequence of a substrate, maximum catalytic activity requires the enzyme complex to anchor at a site remote from the phospho-acceptor site. A novel Cdk4 docking motif has been defined within a stretch of 19 amino acids from the C-terminal domain of the Rb protein that are essential for Cdk4 binding. Mutation or deletion of the docking motif prevents Cdk4-dependent phosphorylation of full-length Rb protein or C-terminal Rb fragments in vitro and in cells, while a peptide encompassing the Cdk4 docking motif specifically inhibits Cdk4-dependent phosphorylation of Rb. Cyclin D1-Cdk4 can overcome the growth-suppressive activity of Rb in both cell cycle progression and colony formation assays; however, while mutants of Rb in which the Cdk4 docking site has been either deleted or mutated retain growth suppressor activity, they are resistant to inactivation by cyclin D1-Cdk4. Finally, binding of Cdk4 to its docking site can inhibit cleavage of exogenous and endogenous Rb in response to distinct apoptotic signals. The Cdk4 docking motif in Rb gives insight into the mechanism by which enzyme specificity is ensured and highlights a role for Cdk4 docking in maintaining the Rb protein in a form that favors cell survival rather than apoptosis.
Project description:Ribociclib is a specific cyclin dependent kinase (Cdk) 4/6 inhibitor that induces G1 arrest by blocking the formation of cyclin D1-Cdk4/6 complex and inhibiting retinoblastoma (RB) phosphorylation. Cyclin D1 is overexpressed in over 90% of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and CCND1 gene activation plays a critical role in NPC pathogenesis. This study evaluated the preclinical activities of ribociclib in NPC cell lines and patient derived xenograft (PDX) models. Over 95% cell growth inhibition was observed at 96?hours after ribociclib treatment. (IC50 concentrations: HK1?=?1.42?±?0.23?µM; HK1-LMP1?=?2.18?±?0.70?µM and C666-1?=?8.26?±?0.92?µM). HK1 and C666-1 cells were chosen for analysis of ribociclib on kinase signaling, apoptosis and cell cycle. Treatment with ribociclib for 48?hours consistently showed a dose-dependent reduction in phosphorylated and total RB expression and G1 cycle arrest was only observed. Combining ribociclib with the alpha-specific PI3K inhibitor alpelisib showed a synergistic effect in two NPC PDX models in nude mice. The co-treatment induced a significant reduction in tumor volume in both xeno-666 and xeno-2117 compared with ribociclib treatment alone and control (p?<?0.01). In summary, ribociclib is active in NPC models and the effect on growth inhibition was augmented when combined with alpelisib. This study supports the clinical evaluation of ribociclib in NPC.
Project description:Premature senescence induced by oncogenic stimuli or tumor suppressor activation plays opposing roles in tumorigenesis. Here, we propose that galectin-3, a ?-galactoside-binding lectin, regulates premature senescence without oncogenic stress. We detected premature senescence, decreased Skp2, and increased p27(KIP1) expression in galectin-3 knockout MEFs and galectin-3-depleted gastric cancer cells. Interestingly, galectin-3 depletion did not affect other senescence inducers such as p14(ARF), p16(INK4A), and p21(WAF1/CIP1), suggesting that galectin-3-regulated senescence is p27(KIP1) dependent. We demonstrate that galectin-3 depletion decreases retinoblastoma protein (Rb) phosphorylation (Ser780, Ser807/811), cyclin D1 and CDK4 expression, and E2F1 transcriptional activation. Galectin-3 directly interacts with the cyclin D1/CDK4 complex and promotes hyperphosphorylation of Rb. It also blocks the inhibition of E2F1 transcription, thereby increasing the expression of Skp2 and reducing the stability of p27(KIP1) to promote the proliferation of gastric cancer cells. Xenograft mice with galectin-3-depleted gastric cancer cells display tumor growth retardation that is reversed by Skp2 overexpression. Increased expression of galectin-3 is also associated with the advanced TNM (tumor, lymph node, metastasis) system, clinicopathological stage, and lymph node metastases. The probability of survival was significantly decreased in gastric cancer patients with galectin-3(high) p27(KIP1-low)cells. Taken together, our results show that galectin-3 may accelerate gastric tumorigenesis by inhibiting premature senescence.
Project description:Exome and whole-genome sequencing studies have drawn attention to the role of somatic mutations in SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes in the carcinogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we explored the molecular mechanisms underlying the biological roles of AT-rich interactive domain 2 (ARID2) in the pathogenesis of HCC. We found that ARID2 expression was significantly downregulated in HCC tissues compared with non-tumorous tissues. Restoration of ARID2 expression in hepatoma cells was sufficient to suppress cell proliferation and tumor growth in mice, whereas ARID2 knockdown contributed to the enhancement of cellular proliferation and tumorigenicity. Suppression of ARID2 expression accelerated G1/S transition associated with upregulation of cyclin D1, cyclin E1, CDK4, and phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein (Rb). Furthermore, we demonstrated that ARID2 physically interacts with E2F1 and decreases binding of E2F1/RNA Pol II to the promoters of CCND1 and CCNE1. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ARID2 suppresses tumor cell growth through repression of cyclin D1 and cyclin E1 expression, thereby retarding cell cycle progression and cell proliferation in hepatoma cells. These findings highlight the potential role of ARID2 as a tumor growth suppressor in HCC.
Project description:Undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPCs) are commonly present with latent EBV infection. However, events regulating EBV infection at early stages of the disease and the role of EBV in disease pathogenesis are largely undefined. Genetic alterations leading to activation of cyclin D1 signaling in premalignant nasopharyngeal epithelial (NPE) cells have been postulated to predispose cells to EBV infection. We previously reported that loss of p16, a negative regulator of cyclin D1 signaling, is a frequent feature of NPC tumors. Here, we report that early premalignant lesions of nasopharyngeal epithelium overexpress cyclin D1. Furthermore, overexpression of cyclin D1 is closely associated with EBV infection. Therefore we investigated the potential role of cyclin D1 overexpression in dysplastic NPE cells in vitro. In human telomerase reverse transcriptase-immortalized NPE cells, overexpression of cyclin D1 or a p16-resistant form of CDK4 (CDK4(R24C)) suppressed differentiation. This suppression may have implications for the close association of EBV infection with undifferentiated NPC. In these in vitro models, we found that cellular growth arrest and senescence occurred in EBV-infected cell populations immediately after infection. Nevertheless, overexpression of cyclin D1 or a p16-resistant form of CDK4 or knockdown of p16 in the human telomerase reverse transcriptase-immortalized NPE cell lines could counteract the EBV-induced growth arrest and senescence. We conclude that dysregulated expression of cyclin D1 in NPE cells may contribute to NPC pathogenesis by enabling persistent infection of EBV.
Project description:The retinoblastoma (RB) tumor suppressor pathway is likely important in primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) of the brain. In fact, 10% to 15% of children born with RB mutations develop brain PNETs, commonly in the pineal gland. Cyclin D1, which in association with cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) 4 and Cdk6 phosphorylates and inactivates the RB protein, is expressed in 40% of sporadic medulloblastoma, a PNET of the cerebellum. To understand tumorigenic events cooperating with RB pathway disruption in brain PNET, we generated a transgenic mouse where cyclin D1 was expressed in pineal cells. Cyclin D1 enhanced pinealocyte proliferation, causing pineal gland enlargement. However, proliferation ceased beyond 2 weeks of age with reversal of Cdk4-mediated Rb phosphorylation despite continued expression of the transgene, and the pineal cells showed heterochromatin foci suggestive of a senescent-like state. In the absence of the p53 tumor suppressor, cell proliferation continued, resulting in pineal PNET that limited mouse survival to approximately 4 months. Interestingly, the Cdk inhibitor p18(Ink4c) was induced in the transgenic pineal glands independently of p53, and transgenic mice that lacked Ink4c developed invasive PNET, although at an older age than those lacking p53. Analogous to our mouse model, we found that children with heritable RB often had asymptomatic pineal gland enlargement that only rarely progressed to PNET. Our finding that the Cdk4 inhibitor p18(Ink4c) is a tumor suppressor in cyclin D1-driven PNET suggests that pharmacologic interventions to inhibit Cdk4 activity may be a useful chemoprevention or therapeutic strategy in cancer driven by primary RB pathway disruption.
Project description:The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (Rb) regulates early G1 phase checkpoints, including the DNA damage response, as well as cell cycle exit and differentiation. The widely accepted model of G1 cell cycle progression proposes that cyclin D:Cdk4/6 partially inactivates the Rb tumor suppressor during early G1 phase by progressive multi-phosphorylation, termed hypo-phosphorylation, resulting in release of E2F transcription factors. However, this model remains largely unproven biochemically and the biologically active form(s) of Rb remains unknown. Here we find that Rb is un-phosphorylated in G0 cells and becomes exclusively mono-phosphorylated throughout all of early G1 phase by cyclin D:Cdk4/6. Early G1 phase mono-phosphorylated Rb is composed of 14 independent isoforms that are all targeted by the E1a oncoprotein, but each shows a preferential binding pattern to specific E2F1-4 transcription factors. At the late G1 Restriction Point, cyclin E:Cdk2 inactivates Rb by a quantum hyper-phosphorylation (>12 phosphates/Rb). Cells undergoing a DNA damage response activate cyclin D:Cdk4/6 to generate mono-phosphorylated Rb that regulates global transcription. In contrast, a non-phosphorylatable ?Cdk-Rb allele was non-functional for regulating a DNA damage response, but functional for driving cell cycle exit and differentiation during myogenesis. These observations fundamentally change our understanding of G1 cell cycle progression and show that there is no progressive multi-phosphorylation or hypo-phosphorylation inactivation of Rb during early G1 phase by cyclin D:Cdk4/6. Instead, cyclin D:Cdk4/6 generates functionally active, mono-phosphorylated Rb that is the only Rb isoform present in cells during early G1 phase. Global transcriptional analysis of murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) with conditional deletion of the endogenous RB gene by treatment with cell permeable TAT-Cre. Comparison to unaltered MEFs and MEFs with physiological level of exogenous wildtype or phospho-mutant RB expressed at time of RB gene deletion.
Project description:Despite of multitude investigations no reliable prognostic immunohistochemical biomarkers in GIST have been established so far with added value to predict the recurrence risk of high risk GIST besides mitotic count, primary location and size. In this study, we analyzed the prognostic relevance of eight cell cycle and apoptosis modulators and of TP53 mutations for prognosis in GIST with high risk of recurrence prior to adjuvant treatment with imatinib. In total, 400 patients with high risk for GIST recurrence were randomly assigned for adjuvant imatinib either for one or for three years following laparotomy. 320 primary tumor samples with available tumor tissue were immunohistochemically analyzed prior to treatment for the expression of cell cycle regulators and apoptosis modulators cyclin D1, p21, p16, CDK4, E2F1, MDM2, p53 and p-RB1. TP53 mutational analysis was possible in 245 cases. A high expression of CDK4 was observed in 32.8% of all cases and was associated with a favorable recurrence free survival (RFS), whereas high expression of MDM2 (12.2%) or p53 (35.3%) was associated with a shorter RFS. These results were independent from the primary KIT or PDGFRA mutation. In GISTs with higher mitotic counts was a significantly increased expression of cyclin D1, p53 and E2F1. The expression of p16 and E2F1 significantly correlated to a non-gastric localization. Furthermore, we observed a significant higher expression of p21 and E2F1 in KIT mutant GISTs compared to PDGFRA mutant and wt GISTs. The overall frequency of TP53 mutations was low (n = 8; 3.5%) and could not be predicted by the immunohistochemical expression of p53. In summary, mutation analysis in TP53 plays a minor role in the subgroup of high-risk GIST before adjuvant treatment with imatinib. Strong expression of MDM2 and p53 correlated with a shorter recurrence free survival, whereas a strong expression of CDK4 correlated to a better recurrence free survival.