Type II Restriction-Modification System from Gardnerella vaginalis ATCC 14018.
ABSTRACT: Intensive horizontal gene transfer may generate diversity and heterogeneity within the genus Gardnerella. Restriction-modification (R-M) systems and CRISPR-Cas are the principal defense tools against foreign DNA in bacteria. Nearly half of the tested Gardnerella spp. isolates harbored the CRISPR-Cas system. Several putative R-M systems of Gardnerella spp. strains were identified in the REBASE database. However, there was no experimental evidence for restriction endonuclease (REase) activity in the isolates. We showed that G. vaginalis strain ATCC 14018 contains the REase R.Gva14018I, which recognizes GGCC and most probably generates blunt ends on cleavage. Bioinformatics evidence and the activity of recombinant methyltransferase M.Gva14018I in vivo indicate that ATCC 14018 possesses a HaeIII-like R-M system. The truncated R.Gva14018I-4 lacking the C-terminal region was expressed in Escherichia coli and displayed wild-type REase specificity. Polyclonal antibodies against R.Gva14018I-4 detected the wild-type REase in the cell lysate of ATCC 14018. The cofactor requirements for activity and bioinformatics analysis indicated that R.Gva14018I belongs to the PD-(D/E)XK family of REases. The REase-like activity was observed in 5 of 31 tested Gardnerella spp. strains, although none of these matched the DNA digestion pattern of R.Gva14018I.
Project description:For a very long time, Type II restriction enzymes (REases) have been a paradigm of ORFans: proteins with no detectable similarity to each other and to any other protein in the database, despite common cellular and biochemical function. Crystallographic analyses published until January 2008 provided high-resolution structures for only 28 of 1637 Type II REase sequences available in the Restriction Enzyme database (REBASE). Among these structures, all but two possess catalytic domains with the common PD-(D/E)XK nuclease fold. Two structures are unrelated to the others: R.BfiI exhibits the phospholipase D (PLD) fold, while R.PabI has a new fold termed 'half-pipe'. Thus far, bioinformatic studies supported by site-directed mutagenesis have extended the number of tentatively assigned REase folds to five (now including also GIY-YIG and HNH folds identified earlier in homing endonucleases) and provided structural predictions for dozens of REase sequences without experimentally solved structures. Here, we present a comprehensive study of all Type II REase sequences available in REBASE together with their homologs detectable in the nonredundant and environmental samples databases at the NCBI. We present the summary and critical evaluation of structural assignments and predictions reported earlier, new classification of all REase sequences into families, domain architecture analysis and new predictions of three-dimensional folds. Among 289 experimentally characterized (not putative) Type II REases, whose apparently full-length sequences are available in REBASE, we assign 199 (69%) to contain the PD-(D/E)XK domain. The HNH domain is the second most common, with 24 (8%) members. When putative REases are taken into account, the fraction of PD-(D/E)XK and HNH folds changes to 48% and 30%, respectively. Fifty-six characterized (and 521 predicted) REases remain unassigned to any of the five REase folds identified so far, and may exhibit new architectures. These enzymes are proposed as the most interesting targets for structure determination by high-resolution experimental methods. Our analysis provides the first comprehensive map of sequence-structure relationships among Type II REases and will help to focus the efforts of structural and functional genomics of this large and biotechnologically important class of enzymes.
Project description:The genomes of two Bacillus cereus strains (ATCC 10987 and ATCC 14579) have been sequenced. Here, we report the specificities of type II/III restriction (R) and modification (M) enzymes. Found in the ATCC 10987 strain, BceSI is a restriction endonuclease (REase) with the recognition and cut site CGAAG 24-25/27-28. BceSII is an isoschizomer of AvaII (G/GWCC). BceSIII cleaves at ACGGC 12/14. The BceSIII C terminus resembles the catalytic domains of AlwI, MlyI, and Nt.BstNBI. BceSIV is composed of two subunits and cleaves on both sides of GCWGC. BceSIV activity is strongly stimulated by the addition of cofactor ATP or GTP. The large subunit (R1) of BceSIV contains conserved motifs of NTPases and DNA helicases. The R1 subunit has no endonuclease activity by itself; it strongly stimulates REase activity when in complex with the R2 subunit. BceSIV was demonstrated to hydrolyze GTP and ATP in vitro. BceSIV is similar to CglI (GCSGC), and homologs of R1 are found in 11 sequenced bacterial genomes, where they are paired with specificity subunits. In addition, homologs of the BceSIV R1-R2 fusion are found in many sequenced microbial genomes. An orphan methylase, M.BceSV, was found to modify GCNGC, GGCC, CCGG, GGNNCC, and GCGC sites. A ParB-methylase fusion protein appears to nick DNA nonspecifically. The ATCC 14579 genome encodes an active enzyme Bce14579I (GCWGC). BceSIV and Bce14579I belong to the phospholipase D (PLD) family of endonucleases that are widely distributed among Bacteria and Archaea. A survey of type II and III restriction-modification (R-M) system genes is presented from sequenced B. cereus, Bacillus anthracis, and Bacillus thuringiensis strains.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Restriction-modification (RM) systems appear to play key roles in modulating gene flow among bacteria and archaea. Because the restriction endonuclease (REase) is potentially lethal to unmethylated new host cells, regulation to ensure pre-expression of the protective DNA methyltransferase (MTase) is essential to the spread of RM genes. This is particularly true for Type IIP RM systems, in which the REase and MTase are separate, independently-active proteins. A substantial subset of Type IIP RM systems are controlled by an activator-repressor called C protein. In these systems, C controls the promoter for its own gene, and for the downstream REase gene that lacks its own promoter. Thus MTase is expressed immediately after the RM genes enter a new cell, while expression of REase is delayed until sufficient C protein accumulates. To study the variation in and evolution of this regulatory mechanism, we searched for RM systems closely related to the well-studied C protein-dependent PvuII RM system. Unexpectedly, among those found were several in which the C protein and REase genes were fused. RESULTS: The gene for CR.NsoJS138I fusion protein (nsoJS138ICR, from the bacterium Niabella soli) was cloned, and the fusion protein produced and partially purified. Western blots provided no evidence that, under the conditions tested, anything other than full-length fusion protein is produced. This protein had REase activity in vitro and, as expected from the sequence similarity, its specificity was indistinguishable from that for PvuII REase, though the optimal reaction conditions were different. Furthermore, the fusion was active as a C protein, as revealed by in vivo activation of a lacZ reporter fusion to the promoter region for the nsoJS138ICR gene. CONCLUSIONS: Fusions between C proteins and REases have not previously been characterized, though other fusions have (such as between REases and MTases). These results reinforce the evidence for impressive modularity among RM system proteins, and raise important questions about the implications of the C-REase fusions on expression kinetics of these RM systems.
Project description:Restriction endonucleases (REases) recognize and cleave short palindromic DNA sequences, protecting bacterial cells against bacteriophage infection by attacking foreign DNA. We are interested in the potential of folded RNA to mimic DNA, a concept that might be applied to inhibition of DNA-binding proteins. As a model system, we sought RNA aptamers against the REases BamHI, PacI and KpnI using systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX). After 20 rounds of selection under different stringent conditions, we identified the 10 most enriched RNA aptamers for each REase. Aptamers were screened for binding and specificity, and assayed for REase inhibition. We obtained eight high-affinity (Kd ?12-30 nM) selective competitive inhibitors (IC50 ?20-150 nM) for KpnI. Predicted RNA secondary structures were confirmed by in-line attack assay and a 38-nt derivative of the best anti-KpnI aptamer was sufficient for inhibition. These competitive inhibitors presumably act as KpnI binding site analogs, but lack the primary consensus KpnI cleavage sequence and are not cleaved by KpnI, making their potential mode of DNA mimicry fascinating. Anti-REase RNA aptamers could have value in studies of REase mechanism and may give clues to a code for designing RNAs that competitively inhibit DNA binding proteins including transcription factors.
Project description:Programmed cell death (PCD) under certain conditions is one of the features of bacterial altruism. Given the bacterial diversity and varied life style, different PCD mechanisms must be operational that remain largely unexplored. We describe restriction endonuclease (REase) mediated cell death by an apoptotic pathway, beneficial for isogenic bacterial communities. Cell death is pronounced in stationary phase and when the enzyme exhibits promiscuous DNA cleavage activity. We have elucidated the molecular mechanism of REase mediated cell killing and demonstrate that released nutrients from dying cells support the growth of the remaining cells in the population. These findings illustrate a new intracellular moonlighting role for REases which are otherwise established host defence arsenals. REase induced PCD appears to be a cellular design to replenish nutrients for cells undergoing starvation stress and the phenomenon could be wide spread in bacteria, given the abundance of restriction-modification (R-M) systems in the microbial population.
Project description:Most bacterial genomes harbor restriction-modification systems, encoding a REase and its cognate MTase. On attack by a foreign DNA, the REase recognizes it as nonself and subjects it to restriction. Should REases be highly specific for targeting the invading foreign DNA? It is often considered to be the case. However, when bacteria harboring a promiscuous or high-fidelity variant of the REase were challenged with bacteriophages, fitness was maximal under conditions of catalytic promiscuity. We also delineate possible mechanisms by which the REase recognizes the chromosome as self at the noncanonical sites, thereby preventing lethal dsDNA breaks. This study provides a fundamental understanding of how bacteria exploit an existing defense system to gain fitness advantage during a host-parasite coevolutionary "arms race."
Project description:Restriction endonucleases (REases) protect bacteria from invading foreign DNAs and are endowed with exquisite sequence specificity. REases have originated from the ancestral proteins and evolved new sequence specificities by genetic recombination, gene duplication, replication slippage, and transpositional events. They are also speculated to have evolved from nonspecific endonucleases, attaining a high degree of sequence specificity through point mutations. We describe here an example of generation of exquisitely site-specific REase from a highly-promiscuous one by a single point mutation.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Herpes Simplex virus types 1 and 2 are enveloped viruses with a linear dsDNA genome of approximately 120-200 kb. Genital infection with HSV-2 has been denoted as a major risk factor for acquisition and transmission of HIV-1. Developing biomedical strategies for HSV-2 prevention is thus a central strategy in reducing global HIV-1 prevalence. This paper details the protocol for the isolation of restriction endunucleases (REases) with potent activity against the HSV-2 genome and models two biomedical interventions for preventing HSV-2. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using the whole genome of HSV-2, 289 REases and the bioinformatics software Webcutter2; we searched for potential recognition sites by way of genome wide palindromics. REase application in HSV-2 biomedical therapy was modeled concomitantly. Of the 289 enzymes analyzed; 77(26.6%) had potential to cleave the HSV-2 genome in > 100 but < 400 sites; 69(23.9%) in > 400 but < 700 sites; and the 9(3.1%) enzymes: BmyI, Bsp1286I, Bst2UI, BstNI, BstOI, EcoRII, HgaI, MvaI, and SduI cleaved in more than 700 sites. But for the 4: PacI, PmeI, SmiI, SwaI that had no sign of activity on HSV-2 genomic DNA, all 130(45%) other enzymes cleaved < 100 times. In silico palindromics has a PPV of 99.5% for in situ REase activity (2) Two models detailing how the REase EcoRII may be applied in developing interventions against HSV-2 are presented: a nanoparticle for microbicide development and a "recombinant lactobacillus" expressing cell wall anchored receptor (truncated nectin-1) for HSV-2 plus EcoRII. CONCLUSION: Viral genome slicing by way of these bacterially- derived R-M enzymatic peptides may have therapeutic potential in HSV-2 infection; a cofactor for HIV-1 acquisition and transmission.
Project description:BACKGROUND: We previously defined a family of restriction endonucleases (REases) from Thermus sp., which share common biochemical and biophysical features, such as the fusion of both the nuclease and methyltransferase (MTase) activities in a single polypeptide, cleavage at a distance from the recognition site, large molecular size, modulation of activity by S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), and incomplete cleavage of the substrate DNA. Members include related thermophilic REases with five distinct specificities: TspGWI, TaqII, Tth111II/TthHB27I, TspDTI and TsoI. RESULTS: TspDTI, TsoI and isoschizomers Tth111II/TthHB27I recognize different, but related sequences: 5'-ATGAA-3', 5'-TARCCA-3' and 5'-CAARCA-3' respectively. Their amino acid sequences are similar, which is unusual among REases of different specificity. To gain insight into this group of REases, TspDTI, the prototype member of the Thermus sp. enzyme family, was cloned and characterized using a recently developed method for partially cleaving REases. CONCLUSIONS: TspDTI, TsoI and isoschizomers Tth111II/TthHB27I are closely related bifunctional enzymes. They comprise a tandem arrangement of Type I-like domains, like other Type IIC enzymes (those with a fusion of a REase and MTase domains), e.g. TspGWI, TaqII and MmeI, but their sequences are only remotely similar to these previously characterized enzymes. The characterization of TspDTI, a prototype member of this group, extends our understanding of sequence-function relationships among multifunctional restriction-modification enzymes.
Project description:Thus far, identification of functionally important residues in Type II restriction endonucleases (REases) has been difficult using conventional methods. Even though known REase structures share a fold and marginally recognizable active site, the overall sequence similarities are statistically insignificant, unless compared among proteins that recognize identical or very similar sequences. Bsp6I is a Type II REase, which recognizes the palindromic DNA sequence 5'GCNGC and cleaves between the cytosine and the unspecified nucleotide in both strands, generating a double-strand break with 5'-protruding single nucleotides. There are no solved structures of REases that recognize similar DNA targets or generate cleavage products with similar characteristics. In straightforward comparisons, the Bsp6I sequence shows no significant similarity to REases with known structures. However, using a fold-recognition approach, we have identified a remote relationship between Bsp6I and the structure of PvuII. Starting from the sequence-structure alignment between Bsp6I and PvuII, we constructed a homology model of Bsp6I and used it to predict functionally significant regions in Bsp6I. The homology model was supported by site-directed mutagenesis of residues predicted to be important for dimerization, DNA binding and catalysis. Completing the picture of sequence-structure-function relationships in protein superfamilies becomes an essential task in the age of structural genomics and our study may serve as a paradigm for future analyses of superfamilies comprising strongly diverged members with little or no sequence similarity.