ABSTRACT: Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used to assess the optimal conditions for a Water/Oil/Water (W/O/W) emulsion for encapsulated nisin (EN). Nano-encapsulated nisin had high encapsulation efficiencies (EE) (86.66 ± 1.59%), small particle size (320 ± 20 nm), and low polydispersity index (0.27). Biodegradable polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and polyacrylate sodium (PAAS) were blended with EN and prepared by electrospinning. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed PVA/PAAS/EN nanofibers with good morphology, and that their EN activity and mechanical properties were enhanced. When the ultrasonication time was 15 min and 15% EN was added, the nanofibers had optimal mechanical, light transmittance, and barrier properties. Besides, the release behavior of nisin from the nanofibers fit the Korsemeyer-Peppas (KP) model, a maximum nisin release rate of 85.28 ± 2.38% was achieved over 16 days. At 4 °C, the growth of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was inhibited for 16 days in nanofibers under different ultrasonic times. The application of the fiber in food packaging can effectively inhibit the activity of food microorganisms and prolong the shelf life of strawberries, displaying a great potential application for food preservation.
Project description:Most of antimicrobial peptides interact with food components decreasing their activity, which limit their successful incorporation into packaging material, functional foods and edible films. The aim of this work was to develop a nisin carrier. Nanofibers of amaranth protein and pullulan (50:50) loaded with nisin were obtained by electrospinning. The nanofibers morphology was determined by scanning electron microscopy and fluorescent microscopy. The molecular interactions were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and thermogravimetric analysis. The nisin loading efficiency as well as the antimicrobial activity against Leuconostoc mesenteroides were evaluated. The micrographs of the obtained materials exhibited smooth and continuous fibers with no defects characterized by diameters between 124 and 173 nm. The FTIR analysis showed intermolecular interactions mainly by hydrogen bonding. The electrospinning process improved the thermal properties of the polymeric mixture displacing the Tm peak to higher temperatures and increasing crystallinity. The antimicrobial activity of nisin in broth and agar against L. mesenteroides was maintained after incorporation into fibers. The results presented an outlook for the potential use of protein amaranth nanofibers when incorporating antimicrobials as a food preservation strategy.
Project description:We report the successful preparation of reinforced electrospun nanofibers and fibrous mats of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) via a simple and inexpensive method using stable tannic acid (TA) and ferric ion (Fe+++) assemblies formed by solution mixing and pH adjustment. Changes in solution pH change the number of TA galloyl groups attached to the Fe+++ from one (pH < 2) to two (3 < pH < 6) to three (pH < 7.4) and affect the interactions between PVA and TA. At pH ~ 5.5, the morphology and fiber diameter size (FDS) examined by SEM are determinant for the mechanical properties of the fibrous mats and depend on the PVA content. At an optimal 8 wt % concentration, PVA becomes fully entangled and forms uniform nanofibers with smaller FDS (p < 0.05) and improved mechanical properties when compared to mats of PVA alone and of PVA with TA (p < 0.05). Changes in solution pH lead to beads formation, more irregular FDS and poorer mechanical properties (p < 0.05). The Fe+++ inclusion does not alter the oxidation activity of TA (p > 0.05) suggesting the potential of TA-Fe+++ assemblies to reinforce polymer nanofibers with high functionality for use in diverse applications including food, biomedical and pharmaceutical.
Project description:Functional and stimuli-responsive nanofibers with an enhanced surface area/volume ratio provide controlled and triggered drug release with higher efficacy. In this study, chemotherapeutic agent Rose Bengal (RB) (4,5,6,7-tetrachloro-2', 4',5',7'-tetraiodofluoresceindisodium)-loaded water-soluble polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibers were synthesized by using the electrospinning method. A thin layer of poly(4-vinylpyridine-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) p(4VP-co-EGDMA) was deposited on the RB-loaded nanofibers (PVA-RB) via initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD), coating the fiber surfaces to provide controllable solubility and pH response to the nanofibers. The uncoated and [p(4VP-co-EGDMA)-PVA] coated PVA-RB nanofiber mats were studied at different pH values to analyze their degradation and drug release profiles. The coated nanofibers demonstrated high stability at neutral and basic pH values for long incubation durations of 72 h, whereas the uncoated nanofibers dissolved in <2 h. The drug release studies showed that the RB release from coated PVA-RB nanofibers was higher at neutral and basic pH values, and proportional to the pH of the solution, whereas the degradation and RB release rates from the uncoated PVA-RB nanofibers were significantly higher and did not depend on the pH of environment. Further analysis of the release kinetics using the Peppas model showed that while polymer swelling and dissolution were the dominant mechanisms for the uncoated nanofibers, for the coated nanofibers, Fickian diffusion was the dominant release mechanism. The biocompatibility and therapeutic efficiency of the coated PVA-RB nanofibers against brain cancer was investigated on glioblastoma multiforme cancer cells (U87MG). The coated PVA nanofibers were observed to be highly biocompatible, and they significantly stimulated the ROS production in cells, increasing apoptosis. These promising results confirmed the therapeutic activity of the coated PVA-RB nanofibers on brain cancer cells, and encouraged their further evaluation as drug carrier structures in brain cancer treatment.
Project description:Electrospinning technique is able to create nanofibers with specific orientation. Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) have good mechanical stability but poor cell adhesion property due to the low affinity of protein. In this paper, extracellular matrix, gelatin is incorporated into PVA solution to form electrospun PVA-gelatin nanofibers membrane. Both randomly oriented and aligned nanofibers are used to investigate the topography-induced behavior of fibroblasts. Surface morphology of the fibers is studied by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with image analysis. Functional group composition in PVA or PVA-gelatin is investigated by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR). The morphological changes, surface coverage, viability and proliferation of fibroblasts influenced by PVA and PVA-gelatin nanofibers with randomly orientated or aligned configuration are systematically compared. Fibroblasts growing on PVA-gelatin fibers show significantly larger projected areas as compared with those cultivated on PVA fibers which p-value is smaller than 0.005. Cells on PVA-gelatin aligned fibers stretch out extensively and their intracellular stress fiber pull nucleus to deform. Results suggest that instead of the anisotropic topology within the scaffold trigger the preferential orientation of cells, the adhesion of cell membrane to gelatin have substantial influence on cellular behavior.
Project description:Novel 2D Ti3C2Tx (MXene)-reinforced polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibers have been successfully fabricated by an electrospinning technique. The high aspect ratio, hydrophilic surfaces, and metallic conductivity of delaminated MXene nanosheet render it promising nanofiller for high performance nanocomposites. Cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) were used to improve the mechanical properties of the nanofibers. The obtained electrospun nanofibers had diameter from 174 to 194 nm depending on ratio between PVA, CNC and MXene. Dynamic mechanical analysis demonstrated an increase in the elastic modulus from 392 MPa for neat PVA fibers to 855 MPa for fibers containing CNC and MXene at 25°C. Moreover, PVA nanofibers containing 0.14 wt. % Ti3C2Tx exhibited dc conductivity of 0.8 mS/cm conductivity which is superior compared to similar composites prepared using methods other than electrospinning. Improved mechanical and electrical characteristics of the Ti3C2Tx /CNC/PVA composites make them viable materials for high performance energy applications.
Project description:Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibrous membrane, consisting of separately encapsulated glucose oxidase (GOx) and glucose (Glu) nanofibers, was prepared via simultaneously electrospinning PVA/GOx and PVA/Glu dopes. The as-prepared pristine membrane could self-sustainably generate hydrogen peroxide (H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>) only in contact with an aqueous solution. The H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> production level was well maintained even after storing the dry membrane at room temperature for 7 days. Cross-linking the membrane via reaction with glutaraldehyde (GA) vapor could not only prevent the nanofibrous membrane from dissolving in water but also prolonged the release of H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>. The sustained release of H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> from the membrane achieved antimicrobial capability equivalent to that of 1% H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> against both <i>Escherichia coli</i> and <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i>. Gram(+) <i>S. aureus</i> cells were more susceptible to H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> than Gram(-) <i>E. coli</i> and >99% of <i>S. aureus</i> were killed after 1 h incubation with the membrane. Pristine and GA-crosslinked nanofibrous membrane with in situ production of H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> were self-sterilized in which no microorganism contamination on the membrane could be detected after 2 weeks incubation on an agar plate. The GOx/Glu membrane may find potential application as versatile antimicrobial materials in the field of biomedicine, in the food and health industries, and especially challenges related to wound healing in diabetic patients.
Project description:With the ever-growing concern about environmental conservation, green production and water-based nanofibers have attracted more and more interest from both academic and industrial fields; nevertheless, the stabilization process of water-based nanofibers is primarily relying on the application of organic solvent-based crosslinking agents. In this work, we develop a green approach to fabricate water-resistant polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibers by using a water-based epoxy compound, N<sup>1</sup>, N<sup>6</sup>-bis(oxiran-2-ylmethyl) hexane-1,6-diamine (EH), as the crosslinker. This EH/sodium carbonate/sodium bicarbonate (CBS) solution system can break down large aggregates of PVA molecules into small ones and promote the uniform distribution of EH in the solution, resulting in the improved stability of crosslinked PVA nanofibers. We firstly report that the uniform dispersion of crosslinking agents in the electrospinning solution plays a vital role in improving the stability of spinning solutions and the water resistance of crosslinked PVA nanofibers by comparing crosslinking performances between water-based epoxy and conventional water-based blocked isocyanate (BI). This work could open up a novel strategy and green approach for the stabilization of water-based nanofibers.
Project description:Unsafe drinking water leads to millions of human deaths each year, while contaminated wastewater discharges are a significant threat to aquatic life. To relieve the burden of unsafe water, we are in search of an inexpensive material that can adsorb pathogenic viruses from drinking water and adsorb toxic residual chlorine from wastewater. To impart virus and chlorine removal abilities to cellulosic materials, we modified the primary hydroxyl group with a positively charged guanidine group, to yield guanidine modified cellulose derivatives. Microcrystalline cellulose (MC) bearing covalently bonded guanidine hydrochloride (MC-G<sub>C</sub>) and hydrogen-bonded guanidine hydrochloride (MC-G<sub>H</sub>) were synthesized, and electrospun into nanofibers after blending with the non-ionogenic polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), to produce large pore sized, high surface area membranes. The MC-G<sub>C</sub>/PVA and MC-G<sub>H</sub>/PVA nanofibers were stabilized against water dissolution by crosslinking with glutaraldehyde vapor. The water-stable MC-G<sub>C</sub>/PVA mats were able to remove more than 4 logs of non-enveloped porcine parvovirus (PPV) and enveloped Sindbis virus and reached 58% of chlorine removal. The MC-G<sub>C</sub>/PVA nanofibers demonstrated better performance for pathogen removal and dechlorination than MC-G<sub>H</sub>/PVA nanofibers. This first study of MC-G<sub>C</sub>/PVA electrospun mats for virus removal shows they are highly effective and merit additional research for virus removal.
Project description:Ag nanoparticles were synthesized by using Ficus altissimaBlume leaf extract as a reducing agent at room temperature. The resulting Ag nanoparticles/PVA mixture was employed to create Ag nanoparticles/PVA (polyvinyl alcohol) hybrid nanofibers via an electrospinning technique. The obtained nanofibers were confirmed by means of UV-Vis spectroscopy, The X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and then tested to catalyze KBH? reduction of methylene blue (MB). The catalytic results demonstrate that the MB can be reduced completely within 15 min. In addition, the Ag nanoparticles/PVA hybrid nanofibers show reusability for three cycles with no obvious losses in degradation ratio of the MB.
Project description:Novel birch bark dry extract (TE)-loaded polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fiber mats intended for wound therapy were developed through an electrospinning process. Colloidal dispersions containing TE as the active substance were prepared by the high-pressure homogenization (HPH) technique using hydrogenated phospholipids as stabilizer. Subsequently, the colloidal dispersions were blended with aqueous PVA solutions in the ratio of 60:40 (wt.%) and electrospun to form the nanofiber mats. Fiber morphology examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated that fibers were uniform and achieved diameters in the size range of 300-1586 nm. Confocal Raman spectral imaging gave good evidence that triterpenes were encapsulated within the electrospun mats. In vitro drug release and ex vivo permeation studies indicated that the electrospun nanofibers showed a sustained release of betulin, the main component of birch bark dry extract, making the examined dressings highly applicable for several wound care applications. Ex vivo wound healing studies proved that electrospun fiber mats containing TE accelerated wound healing significantly more than TE oleogel, which was comparable to an authorized product that consists of TE and sunflower oil and has proved to enhance wound healing. Therefore, our results conclude that the developed TE-PVA-based dressings show promising potential for wound therapy, an area where effective remedy is needed.