When it rains, it pours: detecting seasonal patterns in utilization of maternal healthcare in Mozambique using routine data.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Climatic conditions and seasonal trends can affect population health, but typically, we consider the effect of climate on the epidemiology of communicable diseases. However, climate can also have an effect on access to care, particularly in remote rural areas of low- and middle-income countries. In this study, we investigate associations between the rainy season and the utilization of maternal health services in Mozambique. METHODS:We examined patterns in the number of women receiving antenatal care (ANC) and delivering at a health facility for 2012-2019, using data from Mozambique's Health Management Information Systems. We investigated the association between seasonality (rainfall) and maternal health service utilization (ANC and institutional delivery) at national and provincial level. We fit a negative binomial regression model for institutional delivery and used it to estimate the yearly reduction in institutional deliveries due to the rainy season, with other factors held constant. We used the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) to model increases in mortality due to this estimated decrease in institutional delivery associated with the rainy season. RESULTS:In our national analysis, the rate of ANC visits was 1% lower during the rainy season, adjusting for year and province (IRR?=?0.99, 95% CI: 0.96-1.03). The rate of institutional deliveries was 6% lower during the rainy season than the dry season, after adjusting for time and province (IRR?=?0.94, 95% CI: 0.92-0.96). In provincial analyses, all provinces except for Maputo-Cidade, Maputo-Province, Nampula, and Niassa showed a statistically significantly lower rate of institutional deliveries in the rainy season. None were statistically significantly lower for ANC. We estimate that, due to reductions in institutional delivery attributable only to the rainy season, there were 74 additional maternal deaths and 726 additional deaths of children under the age of 1 month in 2021, that would not have died if the mothers had instead delivered at a facility. CONCLUSION:Fewer women deliver at a health facility during the rainy season in Mozambique than during the dry season. Barriers to receiving care during pregnancy and childbirth must be addressed using a multisectoral approach, considering the impact of geographical inequities.
Project description:Skilled birth attendance, institutional deliveries, and provision of quality, respectful care are key practices to improve maternal and neonatal health outcomes. In Mozambique, the government has prioritized improved service delivery and demand for these practices, alongside "humanization of the birth process." An intervention implemented in Nampula province beginning in 2009 saw marked improvement in institutional delivery rates. This study uses a sequential explanatory mixed methods case study design to explore the contextual factors that may have contributed to the observed increase in institutional deliveries.A descriptive time series analysis was conducted using clinic register data from 2009 to 2014 to assess institutional delivery coverage rates in two primary health care facilities, in two districts of Nampula province. Site selection was based on facilities exhibiting an initial increase in institutional deliveries from 2009 to 2011, similarity of health system attributes, and accessibility for study participation. Using a modified Delphi technique, two expert panels-each composed of ten stakeholders familiar with maternal health implementation at facility, district, provincial, and national levels-were convened to formulate the "story" of the implementation and to identify contextual factors to use in developing semi-structured interview guides. Thirty-four key informant interviews with facility MCH nurses, facility managers, traditional birth attendants, community leaders, and beneficiaries were then conducted and analyzed using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research through inductive and deductive coding.The two sites' skilled birth attendance coverage of estimated live births reached 80 and 100%, respectively. Eight contextual and human factors were found as dominant themes. Though both sites achieved increases, implementation context differed significantly with compelling examples of both respectful and disrespectful care. In one site, facility and community actors worked together as complementary systems to sustain improved care and institutional deliveries. In the other, community actors sustained implementation and institutional deliveries largely in absence of health system counterparts.Findings support global health recommendations for combined health system and community interventions for improved MNH outcomes including delivery of respectful care, and further suggest the capacity of communities to act as systems both in partnership to and independent of the formal health system.
Project description:Reduction of maternal mortality is a global priority particularly in developing countries like Ethiopia where maternal mortality ratio is one of the highest in the world. Most deliveries in developing countries occur at home without skilled birth attendants. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess institutional delivery service utilization and associated factors among women in pastoral community of Awash Fentale district, Ethiopia.Overall, 35.2% of women delivered at health facilities. Women who had good knowledge AOR = 2.1, 95% CI 1.32, 4.87), Ante Natal Care (ANC) follow up (AOR = 3.2, 95% CI 1.55, 6.63), resided in a place where distance to reach at the nearby health facilities takes < 30 min (AOR = 3.1; 95% CI 2.57, 66.33) and women whose husband involved in decision regarding delivery place (AOR = 1.9; 95% CI 1.49, 5.07) were more likely to deliver at health facility. Therefore, strengthening ANC services, improving maternal knowledge, involving husbands in decision of delivery place and expanding health facilities in the community would enhance institutional delivery.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Seasonality of food availability, physical activity, and infections commonly occurs within rural communities in low and middle-income countries with distinct rainy seasons. To better understand the implications of these regularly occurring environmental stressors for maternal and child health, this study examined seasonal variation in nutrition and health care access of pregnant women and infants in rural South Africa. METHODS:We analyzed data from the Venda Health Examination of Mothers, Babies and their Environment (VHEMBE) birth cohort study of 752 mother-infant pairs recruited at delivery from August 2012 to December 2013 in the Vhembe District of Limpopo Province, the northernmost region of South Africa. We used truncated Fourier series regression to assess seasonality of antenatal care (ANC) attendance, dietary intake, and birth size. We additionally regressed ANC attendance on daily rainfall values. Models included adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics. RESULTS:Maternal ANC attendance, dietary composition, and infant birth size exhibited significant seasonal variation in both unadjusted and adjusted analyses. Adequate frequency of ANC attendance during pregnancy (? 4 visits) was highest among women delivering during the gardening season and lowest during the lean (rainy) season. High rainfall during the third trimester was also negatively associated with adequate ANC attendance (adjusted OR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.40, 0.86). Carbohydrate intake declined during the harvest season and increased during the vegetable gardening and lean seasons, while fat intake followed the opposite trend. Infant birth weight, length, and head circumference z-scores peaked following the gardening season and were lowest after the harvest season. Maternal protein intake and ANC ? 12 weeks did not significantly vary by season or rainfall. CONCLUSIONS:Seasonal patterns were apparent in ANC utilization, dietary intake, and fetal growth in rural South Africa. Interventions to promote maternal and child health in similar settings should consider seasonal factors.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Community health workers (CHWs) provide preventive care and integrated community case management (iCCM) to people with low healthcare access worldwide. CHW programmes have helped reduce mortality in myriad countries, but little data on malaria supply chain management has been shared. This project evaluated the current composition, use, and delivery of malaria iCCM kit commodities in Mozambique-rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and artemether-lumefantrine (AL) treatments-to better tailor existing resources to the needs of CHWs in diverse practice settings. METHODS:Health facilities in Maputo (low malaria burden), Inhambane (moderate), and Nampula (high) Provinces were selected using probability proportionate to the number of CHWs at each facility. All CHWs and their supervisors at selected facilities were interviewed using a structured questionnaire to document experiences with kit commodities. Data were analysed to assess CHW commodity stock levels by province and season. RESULTS:In total, 216 CHWs and 56 supervisors were interviewed at 56 health facilities. CHWs reported receiving an average of 6.7 kits in the last year, although they are intended to receive kits monthly. One-tenth of CHWs reported receiving kits with missing RDTs, and 28% reported lacking some AL treatments. Commodity use was highest in the rainy season. Stockouts were reported by CHWs in all provinces, more commonly in the rainy season. Facility-level stockouts of RDTs or some AL formulation in the past year were reported by 66% of supervisors. Use of CHW kit materials by health facilities was reported by 43% of supervisors; this was most common at facilities experiencing stockouts. CONCLUSIONS:Variations in geographic and seasonal malaria commodity needs should be considered in CHW kit distribution planning in Mozambique. Improvements in provision of complete, monthly CHW kits are needed in parallel with improvements in the broader commodity system strengthening. The findings of this evaluation can help other CHW programmes determine best practices for management of iCCM supply chains.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Delivery in health facilities is a proxy for skilled birth attendance, which is an important intervention to reduce maternal and neonatal mortality. We investigated the determinants of facility based deliveries among women in urban slums of Kampala city, Uganda. METHODS:A cross sectional study using quantitative methods was used. A total of 420 mothers who had delivered in the past one year preceding the survey, were randomly selected and interviewed using a pre-tested interviewer administered questionnaire. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis was done to determine independent predictors of facility based deliveries. RESULTS:Ninety-five percent of respondents attended at least one antenatal care visit and 66.1%delivered in a health facility. Independent predictors of health facility births included exposure to media concerning facility delivery (OR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.6-3.9), ANC attendance less than 4 times (OR = 0.6, 95% CI = 0.3-0.9) and timing of first ANC visit in the 2 and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy (OR = 0.5 95% CI = 0.3-0.8). CONCLUSION:Despite good physical access, a third of mothers did not deliver in health facilities. Increasing health facility births among the slum dwellers can be improved through interventions geared at increased awareness, starting ANC in early stages of pregnancy and attending at least 4 ANC visits.
Project description:In Ethiopia, more than 62% of pregnant women attend antenatal care at least once, yet only about one in four women give birth at health facility. This gap has fueled the need to investigate on the quality of ANC services at public health facilities and its link with the use of institutional delivery.To assess the linkage between ANC quality and the use of institutional delivery among pregnant women attending ANC at public health facilities of BDR City Administration.A facility based prospective follow up study was conducted. and nine hundred seventy pregnant women with gestational age ? 16 weeks who came for their first ANC visit were enrolled.Women were followed from their first ANC visit until delivery. Longitudinal data was collected during consultation with ANC providers using structured observation checklist. ANC service was considered as acceptable quality if women received ?75th percentile of the essential ANC services. Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) was carried out to control cluster effect among women who received ANC in the same facility.Among 823 pregnant women who completed follow up, only about one third (27.6%) received acceptable quality of ANC services. In one health facility syphilis test was not done at all for the last two years. The odds of giving birth at health institution among pregnant women who received acceptable ANC quality service was about 3.38 times higher than among pregnant women who received unacceptable ANC quality service (AOR = 3.38, 95% CI: 1.67, 6.83).In this study the quality of ANC service provision in public health facilities was compromised/low. Provision of quality ANC service had a great role in promoting institutional delivery. Therefore the local authorities at each level of health sector or the nongovernmental organizations working to improve maternal health need to provide training on focused antenatal care protocol for ANC providers.
Project description:BACKGROUND:South Sudan has one of the highest maternal mortality ratios in the world, at 789 deaths per 100,000 live births. The majority of these deaths are due to complications during labor and delivery. Institutional delivery under the care of skilled attendants is a proven, effective intervention to avert some deaths. The aim was to determine the prevalence and explore the factors that affect utilization of health facilities for routine delivery and postnatal care in Torit County, South Sudan. METHODS:A convergent parallel mixed method design combined a community survey among women who had delivered in the previous 12?months selected through a multistage sampling technique (n =?418) with an exploratory descriptive qualitative study. Interviews (n?=?19) were conducted with policymakers, staff from non-governmental organizations and health workers. Focus group discussions (n =?12) were conducted among men and women within the communities. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression were conducted to determine independent factors associated with institutional delivery. Thematic analysis was undertaken for the qualitative data. RESULTS:Of 418 participants who had delivered in the previous 12?months, 27.7% had institutional deliveries and 22.5% attended postnatal care at least once within 42?days following delivery. Four or more antenatal care visits increased institutional delivery 5 times (p?<?0.001). The participants who had an institutional delivery were younger (mean age 23.3?years old) than those who had home deliveries (mean age 25.6?years). Any previous payments made for delivery in the health facility doubled the risk of home delivery (p?=?0.021). Women were more likely to plan and prepare for home delivery than for institutional delivery and sought institutional delivery when complications arose. Perceived poor quality of care due to absence of health staff and lack of supplies was reported as a major barrier to institutional delivery. Women emphasized fear of discrimination based on social and economic status. Unofficial payments such as soap and sweets were reported as routine expectations and another major barrier to institutional delivery. CONCLUSION:Interventions to stop unofficial payments and discrimination based on socio-economic status and to increase access to ANC, delivery services and PNC are needed.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Malaria in pregnancy leads to serious adverse effects on the mother and the child and accounts for 75,000-200,000 infant deaths every year. Currently, the World Health Organization recommends intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) at each scheduled antenatal care (ANC) visit. This study aimed to assess IPTp-SP coverage in mothers delivering in health facilities and at the community. In addition, factors associated with low IPTp-SP uptake and malaria adverse outcomes in pregnancy were investigated. METHODS:A community and a health facility-based surveys were conducted in mothers delivering in Chókwè district, southern Mozambique. Social-demographic data, malaria prevention practices and obstetric history were recorded through self-report and antenatal records. For women delivering at health facilities, a clinical examination of mother and child was performed, and malaria infection at delivery was determined by rapid diagnostic test, microscopy, quantitative PCR and placental histology. RESULTS:Of 1141 participants, 46.6, 30.2, 13.5 and 9.6% reported taking???3, two, one and none SP doses, respectively. Low IPTp uptake (<?3 doses) was associated with non-institutional deliveries (AOR?=?2.9, P?<?0.001), first ANC visit after week 28 (AOR?=?5.4, P?<?0.001), low awareness of IPTp-SP (AOR?=?1.6, P?<?0.002) and having no or only primary education (AOR?=?1.3, P?=?0.041). The overall prevalence of maternal malaria (peripheral and/or placental) was 16.8% and was higher among women from rural areas compared to those from urban areas (AOR?=?1.9, P?<?0.001). Younger age (<?20 years; AOR?=?1.6, P?=?0.042) and living in rural areas (AOR?=?1.9, P?<?0.001) were predictors of maternal malaria at delivery. Being primigravidae (AOR?=?2.2, P?=?0.023) and preterm delivery (AOR?=?2.6, P?<?0.001) predicted low birth weight while younger age was also associated with premature delivery (AOR?=?1.4, P?=?0.031). CONCLUSION:The coverage for two and???3 doses of IPTp-SP is moderately higher than estimates from routine health facility records in Gaza province in 2015. However, this is still far below the national target of 80% for???3 doses. Ongoing campaigns aiming to increase the use of malaria prevention strategies during pregnancy should particularly target rural populations, increasing IPTp-SP knowledge, stimulate early visits to ANC, improve access to health services and the quality of the service provided.
Project description:Although institutional coverage of childbirth is increasing in the developing world, a substantial minority of births in rural Mozambique still occur outside of health facilities. Identifying the remaining barriers to safe professional delivery services can aid in achieving universal coverage.Survey data collected in 2009 from 1,373 women in Gaza, Mozambique, were used in combination with spatial, meteorological and health facility data to examine patterns in place of delivery. Geographic information system-based visualization and mapping and exploratory spatial data analysis were used to outline the spatial distribution of home deliveries. Multilevel logistic regression models were constructed to identify associations between individual, spatial and other characteristics and whether women's most recent delivery took place at home.Spatial analysis revealed high- and low-prevalence clusters of home births. In multivariate analyses, women with a higher number of clinics within 10 kilometers of their home had a reduced likelihood of home delivery, but those living closer to urban centers had an increased likelihood. Giving birth during the rainy, high agricultural season was positively associated with home delivery, while household wealth was negatively associated with home birth. No associations were evident for measures of exposure to and experience with health institutions.The results suggest the need for a comprehensive approach to expansion of professional delivery services. Such an approach should complement measures facilitating physical access to health institutions for residents of harder-to-reach areas with community-based interventions aimed at improving rural women's living conditions and opportunities, while also taking into account seasonal and other variables.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: Despite the international emphasis in the last few years on the need to address the unmet health needs of pregnant women and children, progress in reducing maternal mortality has been slow. This is particularly worrying in sub-Saharan Africa where over 162,000 women still die each year during pregnancy and childbirth, most of them because of the lack of access to skilled delivery attendance and emergency care. With a maternal mortality ratio of 673 per 100,000 live births and 19,000 maternal deaths annually, Ethiopia is a major contributor to the worldwide death toll of mothers. While some studies have looked at different risk factors for antenatal care (ANC) and delivery service utilisation in the country, information coming from community-based studies related to the Health Extension Programme (HEP) in rural areas is limited. This study aims to determine the prevalence of maternal health care utilisation and explore its determinants among rural women aged 15-49 years in Tigray, Ethiopia. METHODS: The study was a community-based cross-sectional survey using a structured questionnaire. A cluster sampling technique was used to select women who had given birth at least once in the five years prior to the survey period. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were carried out to elicit the impact of each factor on ANC and institutional delivery service utilisation. RESULTS: The response rate was 99% (n=1113). The mean age of the participants was 30.4 years. The proportion of women who received ANC for their recent births was 54%; only 46 (4.1%) of women gave birth at a health facility. Factors associated with ANC utilisation were marital status, education, proximity of health facility to the village, and husband's occupation, while use of institutional delivery was mainly associated with parity, education, having received ANC advice, a history of difficult/prolonged labour, and husbands' occupation. CONCLUSIONS: A relatively acceptable utilisation of ANC services but extremely low institutional delivery was observed. Classical socio-demographic factors were associated with both ANC and institutional delivery attendance. ANC advice can contribute to increase institutional delivery use. Different aspects of HEP need to be strengthened to improve maternal health in Tigray.