Disseminated histoplasmosis in a cat rescued in Fortaleza, Brazil, and successfully treated with itraconazole - First case report identified molecularly.
ABSTRACT: An unneutered female cat of unknown age presented bloody lesions on the edematous face, and respiratory signs. Cytology and culture from the skin sample collected with fine-needle aspiration showed yeasts inside activated macrophages, and fungal growth characteristic of Histoplasma spp., which was molecularly confirmed that was Histoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum. The cat was successfully treated with oral itraconazole (10 mg/kg/daily) for 120 days. This is the first case report of feline histoplasmosis confirmed molecularly in Brazil.
Project description:We present a case of disseminated histoplasmosis in a domestic cat imported from the USA to Austria. Histopathological examination revealed a systemic mycosis with most severe involvement of the lungs suggestive of Histoplasma (H.) capsulatum-infection. Molecular confirmation was based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequence analysis of a fungal culture from liver samples. This is the first case of feline histoplasmosis proven by molecular diagnostic technique in Europe and reported in Austria, etc.
Project description:A 2-year-old, neutered female domestic shorthaired cat presented with a history of multiple papules and nodules on pinnae, nodules on the nose, and chronic wound at the lateral surface of left radial area for four months. Skin biopsy demonstrated moderate numbers of small, oval-to-round, single-walled yeasts inside the macrophages. In addition, PCR confirmed the sequence of Histoplasma capsulatum. This is the first case report of feline cutaneous histoplasmosis in Thailand.
Project description:Histoplasmosis is an endemic mycoses caused by Histoplasma capsulatum with endemicity around midwestern United States and central America. The endemicity of histoplasmosis in India is not clearly known. Histoplasmosis, especially oral histoplasmosis, is now increasingly being reported from India. We report here a culture-confirmed and sequence confirmed, oral histoplasmosis in a HIV seropositive individual who was referred to our regional cancer centre with a suspicion of oral cancer.
Project description:Histoplasmosis in Africa has markedly increased since the advent of the HIV/AIDS epidemic but is under-recognised. Pulmonary histoplasmosis may be misdiagnosed as tuberculosis (TB). In the last six decades (1952-2017), 470 cases of histoplasmosis have been reported. HIV-infected patients accounted for 38% (178) of the cases. West Africa had the highest number of recorded cases with 179; the majority (162 cases) were caused by Histoplasma capsulatum var. dubuosii (Hcd). From the Southern African region, 150 cases have been reported, and the majority (119) were caused by H. capsulatum var. capsulatum (Hcc). There have been 12 histoplasmin skin test surveys with rates of 0% to 35% positivity. Most cases of Hcd presented as localised lesions in immunocompetent persons; however, it was disseminated in AIDS patients. Rapid diagnosis of histoplasmosis in Africa is only currently possible using microscopy; antigen testing and PCR are not available in most of Africa. Treatment requires amphotericin B and itraconazole, both of which are not licensed or available in several parts of Africa.
Project description:The present report describes the first case of postpartum disseminated histoplasmosis in a 24-year-old HIV-negative woman. On the tenth day after vaginal delivery, the patient presented with dyspnea, fever, hypotension, tachycardia, and painful hepatomegaly. Yeast-like Histoplasma capsulatum features were isolated in the buffy coat. The phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the fungal isolate was similar to other H. capsulatum isolates identified in HIV patients from Ceará and Latin America. Thus, histoplasmosis development in individuals with transitory immunosuppression or during the period of immunological recovery should be carefully examined.
Project description:Histoplasmosis is a systemic mycosis caused by Histoplasma capsulatum. Rare in Europe but endemic in some regions of Brazil, United States, Africa and Asia. Most of the cases are asymptomatic. Disseminated form is defined by the presence of an extra-pulmonary focus, particularly associated with immunosuppression. We report a case of an unilateral persisted tonsillar ulceration, in an immunocompetent Portuguese host, as manifestation of disseminated African histoplasmosis 45 years later after living 3 years in Africa.
Project description:African histoplasmosis, caused by Histoplasma capsulatum var. duboisii, is endemic in Africa. The disease usually involves the skin, subcutaneous tissue, and bones. A case of African histoplasmosis presenting as a cutaneous tumor and non-healing wound in a 66-year-old immunocompetent male residing in Africa, the first ever reported following mudbaths and acupuncture, is hereby reported. Diagnosis was confirmed by means of polymerase chain reaction performed on tissue material. The patient was started on long-term itraconazole therapy and he responded well. African histoplasmosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of non-healing wounds or tumor-like lesions, especially in the context of mudbaths in an endemic area.
Project description:Immunological cross-reactivity among fungi has hampered the development of specific serodiagnostic assays for histoplasmosis. We report the molecular cloning and characterization of a Histoplasma capsulatum cDNA (GH17) that encodes an antigen with immunodiagnostic potential. GH17 is an 810-bp cDNA which encodes a protein of 211 amino acid residues. The GH17 sequence has almost no significant homology with other sequences in GenBank. Southern blot analysis suggests that GH17 is confined to a single location in the genomic DNA of H. capsulatum. Immunoblots indicated that the protein product of GH17 (expressed as a 140-kDa beta-galactosidase fusion protein) was recognized by antibodies in 18 of 18 sera from histoplasmosis patients, but not by antibodies in sera from patients or animals infected with other fungi. GH17 was expressed in a prokaryotic expression vector, pPROEX-1, and recombinant protein was purified by preparative electrophoresis. Antibodies raised to this protein bound to a 60-kDa native antigen in immunoblots of H. capsulatum yeast antigen extract. These results suggest that GH17 encodes an H. capsulatum antigen that may be useful for the diagnosis of histoplasmosis in humans.
Project description:We present a case of fatal histoplasmosis in a patient with Addison's disease and long-term use of corticosteroid. The patient acquired Histoplasma capsulatum in China and initially presented with a laryngeal mass. He developed fulminant pneumonia and respiratory failure 9 years later. Nucleotide sequences of internal transcribed spacer regions of rRNA genes of the H. capsulatum isolate recovered from biopsied lung tissue and of the extracted fungal DNA from the laryngeal lesion were identical, indicating the recurrent nature of infection.
Project description:Histoplasmosis is caused by Histoplasma capsulatum, and commonly it causes an asymptomatic illness. Although Histoplasma is the commonest organism to infect adrenal glands, disseminated histoplasmosis in an immune-competent host leading to adrenal insufficiency is rare in current literature. Here, we report a case of possible disseminated histoplasmosis leading to adrenal crisis in a young Asian immunocompetent male. A 42-year-old Sri Lankan male with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus presented with constitutional symptoms and feverishness for three weeks' duration. He was found to have hepatosplenomegaly with bilateral adrenal masses and pancytopenia. One week later, he developed severe vomiting and hemodynamic collapse and was found to have suppressed adrenal functions. Ultrasound-guided biopsy of adrenals showed fungal spores morphologically similar to Histoplasma. He was started on oral itraconazole and adrenal replacement therapy. He improved symptomatically with treatment and currently is on regular clinic follow-up with a plan to continue antifungal therapy for at least one year to prevent a relapse. Fungal infections, especially histoplasmosis, need to be considered in all immunocompetent patients with compatible history and bilateral adrenal masses. Adrenal insufficiency needs to be promptly diagnosed and treated to prevent Addisonian crisis in these patients.