Design, Optimization, Manufacture and Characterization of Efavirenz-Loaded Flaxseed Oil Nanoemulsions.
ABSTRACT: The formation, manufacture and characterization of low energy water-in-oil (w/o) nanoemulsions prepared using cold pressed flaxseed oil containing efavirenz was investigated. Pseudo-ternary phase diagrams were constructed to identify the nanoemulsion region(s). Other potential lipid-based drug delivery phases containing flaxseed oil with 1:1 m/m surfactant mixture of Tween® 80, Span® 20 and different amounts of ethanol were tested to characterize the impact of surfactant mixture on emulsion formation. Flaxseed oil was used as the oil phase as efavirenz exhibited high solubility in the vehicle when compared to other vegetable oils tested. Optimization of surfactant mixtures was undertaken using design of experiments, specifically a D-optimal design with the flaxseed oil content set at 10% m/m. Two solutions from the desired optimization function were produced based on desirability and five nanoemulsion formulations were produced and characterized in terms of in vitro release of efavirenz, physical and chemical stability. Metastable nanoemulsions containing 10% m/m flaxseed oil were successfully manufactured and significant isotropic gel (semisolid) and o/w emulsions were observed during phase behavior studies. Droplet sizes ranged between 156 and 225 nm, zeta potential between -24 and -41 mV and all formulations were found to be monodisperse with polydispersity indices ? 0.487.
Project description:The purpose of the present study was to investigate the potential of nanoemulsions as nanodrug carrier systems for the percutaneous delivery of ropinirole. Nanoemulsions comprised Capryol 90 as the oil phase, Tween 20 as the surfactant, Carbitol as the cosurfactant, and water as an external phase. The effects of composition of nanoemulsion, including the ratio of surfactant and cosurfactant (Smix) and their concentration on skin permeation, were evaluated. All the prepared nanoemulsions showed a significant increase in permeation parameters such as steady state flux (Jss) and permeability coefficient (Kp) when compared to the control (p<0.01). Nanoemulsion composition (NEL3) comprising ropinirole (0.5% w/w), Capryol 90 (5% w/w), Smix 2:1 (35% w/w), and water (59.5% w/w) showed the highest flux (51.81+/-5.03 microg/cm2/h) and was selected for formulation into nanoemulsion gel. The gel was further optimized with respect to oil concentration (Capryol 90), polymer concentration (Carbopol), and drug content by employing the Box-Behnken design, which statistically evaluated the effects of these components on ropinirole permeation. Oil and polymer concentrations were found to have a negative influence on permeation, while the drug content had a positive effect. Nanoemulsion gel showed a 7.5-fold increase in skin permeation rate when compared to the conventional hydrogel. In conclusion, the results of the present investigation suggested a promising role of nanoemulsions in enhancing the transdermal permeation of ropinirole.
Project description:The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of nanoemulsion formulation for topical delivery of Clobetasol propionate (CP) using algal oil (containing omega-3 fatty acids) as the oil phase. CP has anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and antiproliferative activities. However, its clinical use is restricted to some extent due to its poor permeability across the skin. Algal oil was used as the oil phase and was also exploited for its anti-inﬂammatory effect along with CP in the treatment of inﬂammation associated with dermatitis. Nanoemulsion formulations were prepared by aqueous phase titration method, using algal oil, tween 20, PEG 200 and water as the oil phase, surfactant, co-surfactant and aqueous phase respectively. Furthermore, different formulations were subjected to evaluate for ex-vivo permeation and in-vivo anti-inflammatory, irritation and contact dermatitis studies. The optimized nanoemulsion was converted into hydrogel-thickened nanoemulsion system (HTN) using carbopol 971 and had a viscosity of 97.57 ± 0.04 PaS. The optimized formulation had small average diameter (120 nm) with zeta potential of -37.01 mV which indicated good long-term stability. In-vivo anti-inﬂammatory activity indicated 84.55% and 41.04% inhibition of inflammation for drug loaded and placebo formulations respectively. The assessment of skin permeation was done by DSC and histopathology studies which indicated changes in the structure of epidermal membrane of skin. Contact dermatitis reveals that the higher NTPDase activity in the treatment with the CP-loaded nanoemulsion could be related to the higher anti-inflammatory effect in comparison with placebo nanoemulsion gel.
Project description:Surfactant stabilized oil-in-water nanoemulsions pose a severe threat to both the environment and human health. Recent development of membrane filtration technology has enabled efficient oil removal from oil/water nanoemulsion, however, the concurrent removal of surfactant and oil remains unsolved because the existing filtration membranes still suffer from low surfactant removal rate and serious surfactant-induced fouling issue. In this study, to realize the concurrent removal of surfactant and oil from nanoemulsion, a novel hierarchically-structured membrane is designed with a nanostructured selective layer on top of a microstructured support layer. The physical and chemical properties of the overall membrane, including wettability, surface roughness, electric charge, thickness and structures, are delicately tailored through a nano-engineered fabrication process, that is, graphene oxide (GO) nanosheet assisted phase inversion coupled with surface functionalization. Compared with the membrane fabricated by conventional phase inversion, this novel membrane has four times higher water flux, significantly higher rejections of both oil (~99.9%) and surfactant (as high as 93.5%), and two thirds lower fouling ratio when treating surfactant stabilized oil-in-water nanoemulsion. Due to its excellent performances and facile fabrication process, this nano-engineered membrane is expected to have wide practical applications in the oil/water separation fields of environmental protection and water purification.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Norcantharidin (NCTD), a demethylated derivative of cantharidin (defensive toxin of blister beetles), has been reported to exhibit insecticidal activity against various types of agricultural pests. However, NCTD applications are limited by its poor water solubility and high dosage requirement. Nanoemulsions have attracted much attentions due to the transparent or translucence appearance, physical stability, high bioavailability and non-irritant in nature. In general, nanoemulsions with small droplet size can enhance the bioavailability of drugs, whereas this phenomenon is likely system dependent. In present study, NCTD nanoemulsions were developed and optimized to evaluate and improve the insecticidal activity of NCTD against Plutella xylostella (Lepidotera: Plutellidae) by a spontaneous emulsification method.<h4>Results</h4>Triacetin, Cremophor EL and butanol were selected as the constituents of NCTD nanoemulsions via solubility determination, emulsification efficiency and ternary phase diagram construction. Insecticidal activity of NCTD nanoemulsion was associated with the content of surfactant and cosurfactant: (1) Higher effective toxicity exhibited at Smix (surfactant to cosurfactant mass ratio)?=?3:1 that may be associated with the changes in interfacial tension; (2) NCTD nanoemulsion at 3:7?<?SOR (surfactant to oil mass ratio)?<?6:4 was more effective at lower surfactant level, which was attributed to the relatively slow diffusion rate of NCTD hindering by excess surfactant. Interestingly, nanoemulsions with smaller droplets were not found to be more effective in our study.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The optimized NCTD nanoemulsion (triacetin/Cremophor EL/butanol (60/20/20, w/w)) exhibited effective insecticidal activity (LC<sub>50</sub> 60.414?mg/l, LC<sub>90</sub> 185.530?mg/l, 48?h) than the NCTD acetone solution (LC<sub>50</sub> 175.602?mg/L, LC<sub>90</sub> 303.050?mg/L, 48?h). Spontaneous emulsifying nanoemulsion employed to formulate this poor water-soluble pesticide is a potential system for agriculture application.
Project description:The subject of rock-fluid interaction is important in cases where flow through porous media is occurring. One special case is when the fluid reacts with the porous matrix. In this case, the mass transfer and reaction rate control the dissolution pattern. This article aimed to study the interaction between an acid nanoemulsion system and a carbonate porous media. Nanoemulsions were developed to retard the rock's dissolution and to promote the formation of conductivity channels. Nanoemulsions were prepared using ALK100 (alkyl alcohol ethoxylate) and RNX110 (alkylphenol ethoxylate) (nonionic surfactants), sec-butanol (co-surfactant), xylene isomers (oil phase), and a solution of HCl (aqueous phase). The obtained systems were characterized in terms of surface tension, droplet diameter, and reactivity. X-ray fluorescence/diffraction (XRF/XRD) and X-ray microtomography (microCT) were performed on carbonate porous media samples treated with the acid systems in order to observe the effects of the fluid-rock interaction. The results showed that the acid nanoemulsion, presenting a low oil content formulation, showed the low surface tension and droplet size characteristic of nanoemulsions. It was experimentally verified that the reactivity in the nanoemulsion media was mass-transfer-retarded, and that the wormhole pattern was verified under the studied conditions.
Project description:Aqueous solubility of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) is a determining factor that has a direct impact on formulation strategies and overall bioavailability. Fabrication of nanoemulsions of poorly soluble drugs is one of the widely utilized approaches to overcome this problem. However, thermodynamic instability and tedious manufacturing processes of nanoemulsions limit their clinical translation. Therefore, this study was focused on circumventing the abovementioned hurdles by utilizing the polymer as an oil phase, instead of conventional oils. The nanoemulsion was prepared via a facile low-energy nanoprecipitation method using renewable poly(?-decalactone) (PDL), as an oil phase and Pluronic F-68 as surfactant. The prepared nanoemulsions were characterized in terms of size, drug encapsulation efficiency, stability, and toxicity. Five different hydrophobic drugs were utilized to evaluate the drug delivery capability of the PDL nanoemulsion. The prepared nanoemulsions with sizes less than 200 nm were capable to enhance the aqueous solubility of the drugs by 3 to 10 times compared with the well-established Pluronic F-68 micelles. No phase separation or significant changes in size and drug content was observed with PDL nanoemulsions after high-speed centrifugation and 3 months of storage at two different temperatures (20 °C and 50 °C). PDL nanoemulsions were found to be non-heamolytic up to concentrations of 1 mg/mL, and the cell cytotoxicity studies on MDA-MB-231 and MEF cells suggest a concentration and time-dependent toxicity, where the PDL polymer itself induced no cytotoxicity. The results from this study clearly indicate that the PDL polymer has a tremendous potential to be utilized as an oil phase to prepare stable nanoemulsions via a facile methodology, ultimately favouring clinical translations. Graphical abstract TOC graphic.
Project description:Plant essential oils are widely used in perfumes and insect repellent products. However, due to the high volatility of the constituents in essential oils, their efficacy as a repellent product is less effective than that of synthetic compounds. Using a nanoemulsion as a carrier is one way to overcome this disadvantage of essential oils. Nutmeg oil-loaded nanoemulsion (NT) was prepared using a high speed homogenizer and sonicator with varying amounts of surfactant, glycerol, and distilled water. Using a phase diagram, different formulations were tested for their droplet size and insect repellent activity. The nanoemulsion containing 6.25% surfactant and 91.25% glycerol (NT 6) had the highest percentage of protection (87.81%) in terms of repellent activity among the formulations tested for the 8 h duration of the experiment. The droplet size of NT 6 was 217.4 nm, and its polydispersity index (PDI) was 0.248. The zeta potential value was -44.2 mV, and the viscosity was 2.49 Pa.s at pH 5.6. The in vitro release profile was 71.5%. When the cytotoxicity of NT 6 at 400 ?g/mL was tested using the MTS assay, cell viability was 97.38%. Physical appearance and stability of the nanoemulsion improved with the addition of glycerol as a co-solvent. In summary, a nutmeg oil-loaded nanoemulsion was successfully formulated and its controlled release of the essential oil showed mosquito repellent activity, thus eliminating the disadvantages of essential oils.
Project description:The application of various nanocarrier systems was widely explored in the field of pharmaceuticals to achieve better drug encapsulation and delivery. The aim of this study was to encapsulate lidocaine in alginate-based o/w nanocarriers based on the type of oil (i.e., solid or liquid), using a nanoemulsion template prepared by ultrasound-assisted phase inversion temperature (PIT) approach. The nanoemulsion template was initially prepared by dissolving lidocaine in the oil phase and surfactant and alginate in the aqueous phase, and keeping the PIT at around 85 °C, accompanied by gradual water dilution at 25 °C, to initiate the formation of nanoparticles (o/w) with the aid of low frequency ultrasound. The composition and concentration of the oil phase had a major impact on the particle size and led to an increase in the size of the droplet. The lipids that showed a higher drug solubility also showed higher particle size. On the other hand, increasing the concentration of surfactant decreases the size of the droplet before the concentration of the surfactant exceeds the limit, after which the size of the particle increases due to the aggregates that could be produced from the excess surfactant. The method used produced nanoemulsions that maintained nano-sized droplets < 50 nm, over long-term storage. Our findings are important for the design of nanocarrier systems for the encapsulation of lipophilic molecules.
Project description:Background:Plumbagin, a medicinal plant-derived 5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, is an emerging drug with a variety of pharmacological effects, including potent anticancer activity. We have previously shown that plumbagin improves the efficacy of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in prostate cancer and it is now being evaluated in phase I clinical trial. However, the development of formulation of plumbagin as a compound with sparing solubility in water is challenging. Methods:We have formulated plumbagin-loaded nanoemulsion using pneumatically controlled high pressure homogenization of oleic acid dispersions with polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate as surfactant. Nanoemulsion formulations were characterized for particle size distribution by dynamic light scattering (DLS). The kinetics of in vitro drug release was determined by equilibrium dialysis. Anticancer activity toward prostate cancer cells PTEN-P2 was assessed by MTS (Owen's reagent) assay. Results:Particle size distribution of nanoemulsions is tunable and depends on the surfactant concentration. Nanoemulsion formulations of plumbagin with 1-3.5% (w/w) of surfactant showed robust stability of size distribution over time. Plumbagin-loaded nanoemulsion with average hydrodynamic diameter of 135?nm showed exponential release of plumbagin with a half-life of 6.1?h in simulated gastric fluid, 7.0?h in simulated intestinal fluid, and displayed enhanced antiproliferative effect toward prostate cancer cells PTEN-P2 compared to free plumbagin. Conclusion:High drug-loading capacity, retention of nanoparticle size, kinetics of release under simulated physiological conditions, and increased antiproliferative activity indicate that oleic-acid based nanoemulsion formulation is a suitable delivery system of plumbagin.
Project description:Background:Oil-in-water drug nanoemulsion forms drug delivery systems with high oral bioavailability. The conventional fabrication methods of nanoemulsion are low energy emulsification methods and high energy emulsification methods. However, both two methods are not ideal for industrial production. The problem of low energy emulsification methods is the high dosage of surfactant and co-surfactant which has potential biosecurity issues. What is more, high energy emulsification methods have some disadvantages, like the destruction of drug components, the price of equipment and the difficulties of industrial production. Hence, there have been a few commercial drug nanoemulsions so far. Methods:In this work, we reported a novel method for the fabrication of stable and transparent drug nanoemulsion which contains hydrophilic drug rosuvastatin (ROS) calcium or hydrophobic drug silybinin (SYN) by using high-gravity rotating packed bed (RPB). The drug nanoemulsion was systematically characterized by droplet size, size distribution, stability and in vitro drug release as well as Caco-2 cells permeability. Results:Compared with the self-emulsification method (SE), high-gravity technology could reduce 75% amount of mixed surfactants. The as-prepared nanoemulsion exhibited a very narrow droplet size distribution with a size of 13.53 ± 0.53 nm and a polydispersity index of 0.073 ± 0.018. Meanwhile, the drug nanoemulsion was physicochemically stable at 25°C and 4°C for one-year storage. Furthermore, both ROS and SYN nanoemulsion displayed higher cell permeability and in vitro dissolution than that of commercial formulations. Conclusion:These results demonstrate that RPB can be a potential device to facilitate the industrial production of drug nanoemulsion.