Barriers to Implementing Clinical Pharmacogenetics Testing in Sub-Saharan Africa. A Critical Review.
ABSTRACT: Clinical research in high-income countries is increasingly demonstrating the cost- effectiveness of clinical pharmacogenetic (PGx) testing in reducing the incidence of adverse drug reactions and improving overall patient care. Medications are prescribed based on an individual's genotype (pharmacogenes), which underlies a specific phenotypic drug response. The advent of cost-effective high-throughput genotyping techniques coupled with the existence of Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) dosing guidelines for pharmacogenetic "actionable variants" have increased the clinical applicability of PGx testing. The implementation of clinical PGx testing in sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries can significantly improve health care delivery, considering the high incidence of communicable diseases, the increasing incidence of non-communicable diseases, and the high degree of genetic diversity in these populations. However, the implementation of PGx testing has been sluggish in SSA, prompting this review, the aim of which is to document the existing barriers. These include under-resourced clinical care logistics, a paucity of pharmacogenetics clinical trials, scientific and technical barriers to genotyping pharmacogene variants, and socio-cultural as well as ethical issues regarding health-care stakeholders, among other barriers. Investing in large-scale SSA PGx research and governance, establishing biobanks/bio-databases coupled with clinical electronic health systems, and encouraging the uptake of PGx knowledge by health-care stakeholders, will ensure the successful implementation of pharmacogenetically guided treatment in SSA.
Project description:In psychiatry, the selection of antipsychotics and antidepressants is generally led by a trial-and-error approach. The prescribing of these medications is complicated by sub-optimal efficacy and high rates of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). These both contribute to poor levels of adherence. Pharmacogenetics (PGx) considers how genetic variation can influence an individual's response to a drug. Pharmacogenetic testing is a tool that could aid clinicians when selecting psychotropic medications, as part of a more personalized approach to prescribing. This may improve the use of and adherence to these medications. Yet to date, the implementation of PGx in mental health environments in the United Kingdom has been slow. This review aims to identify the current barriers and enablers to the implementation of PGx in psychiatry and determine how this can be applied to the uptake of PGx by NHS mental health providers. A systematic searching strategy was developed, and searches were carried out on the PsychInfo, EmBase, and PubMed databases, yielding 11 appropriate papers. Common barriers to the implementation of PGx included cost, concerns over incorporation into current workflow and a lack of knowledge about PGx; whilst frequent enablers included optimism that PGx could lead to precision medicine, reduce ADRs and become a more routine part of psychiatric clinical care. The uptake of PGx in psychiatric care settings in the NHS should consider and overcome these barriers, while looking to capitalize on the enablers identified in this review.
Project description:Despite overcoming many implementation barriers, pharmacogenomic (PGx) panel-testing is not routine practice in the Netherlands. Therefore, we aim to study pharmacists' perceived enablers and barriers for PGx panel-testing among pharmacists participating in a PGx implementation study. Here, pharmacists identify primary care patients, initiating one of 39 drugs with a Dutch Pharmacogenetic Working Group (DPWG) recommendation and subsequently utilizing the results of a 12 gene PGx panel test to guide dose and drug selection. Pharmacists were invited for a general survey and a semi-structured interview based on the Tailored Implementation for Chronic Diseases (TICD) framework, aiming to identify implementation enablers and barriers, if they had managed at least two patients with actionable PGx results. In total, 15 semi-structured interviews were performed before saturation point was reached. Of these, five barrier themes emerged: (1) unclear procedures, (2) undetermined reimbursement for PGx test and consult, (3) insufficient evidence of clinical utility for PGx panel-testing, (4) infrastructure inefficiencies, and (5) HCP PGx knowledge and awareness; and two enabler themes: (1) pharmacist perceived role in delivering PGx, and (2) believed clinical utility of PGx. Despite a strong belief in the beneficial effects of PGx, pharmacists' barriers remain, an these hinder implementation in primary care.
Project description:It is anticipated that as the range of drugs for which pharmacogenetic testing becomes available expands, primary care physicians (PCPs) will become major users of these tests. To assess their training, familiarity, and attitudes toward pharmacogenetic testing in order to identify barriers to uptake that may be addressed at this early stage of test use, we conducted a national survey of a sample of PCPs. Respondents were mostly white (79%), based primarily in community-based primary care (81%) and almost evenly divided between family medicine and internal medicine. The majority of respondents had heard of PGx testing and anticipated that these tests are or would soon become a valuable tool to inform drug response. However, only a minority of respondents (13%) indicated they felt comfortable ordering PGx tests and almost a quarter reported not having any education about pharmacogenetics. Our results indicate that primary care practitioners envision a major role for themselves in the delivery of PGx testing but recognize their lack of adequate knowledge and experience about these tests. Development of effective tools for guiding PCPs in the use of PGx tests should be a high priority.
Project description:Although pharmacogenetic testing is becoming increasingly common across medical subspecialties, a broad range of utilization and implementation exists across pediatric centers. Large pediatric institutions that routinely use pharmacogenetics in their patient care have published their practices and experiences; however, minimal data exist regarding the full spectrum of pharmacogenetic implementation among children's hospitals. The primary objective of this nationwide survey was to characterize the availability, concerns, and barriers to pharmacogenetic testing in children's hospitals in the Children's Hospital Association. Initial responses identifying a contact person were received from 18 institutions. Of those 18 institutions, 14 responses (11 complete and 3 partial) to a more detailed survey regarding pharmacogenetic practices were received. The majority of respondents were from urban institutions (72%) and held a Doctor of Pharmacy degree (67%). Among all respondents, the three primary barriers to implementing pharmacogenetic testing identified were test reimbursement, test cost, and money. Conversely, the three least concerning barriers were potential for genetic discrimination, sharing results with family members, and availability of tests in certified laboratories. Low-use sites rated several barriers significantly higher than the high-use sites, including knowledge of pharmacogenetics (P = 0.03), pharmacogenetic interpretations (P = 0.04), and pharmacogenetic-based changes to therapy (P = 0.03). In spite of decreasing costs of pharmacogenetic testing, financial barriers are one of the main barriers perceived by pediatric institutions attempting clinical implementation. Low-use sites may also benefit from education/outreach in order to reduce perceived barriers to implementation.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>The increased availability of clinical pharmacogenetic (PGx) guidelines and decreasing costs for genetic testing have slowly led to increased utilization of PGx testing in clinical practice. Pre-emptive PGx testing, where testing is performed in advance of drug prescribing, is one means to ensure results are available at the time of prescribing decisions. However, the most efficient and effective methods to clinically implement this strategy remain unclear.<h4>Methods</h4>In this report, we compare and contrast implementation strategies for pre-emptive PGx testing by 15 early-adopter institutions. We surveyed these groups, collecting data on testing approaches, team composition, and workflow dynamics, in addition to estimated third-party reimbursement rates.<h4>Results</h4>We found that while pre-emptive PGx testing models varied across sites, institutions shared several commonalities, including methods to identify patients eligible for testing, involvement of a precision medicine clinical team in program leadership, and the implementation of pharmacogenes with Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium guidelines available. Finally, while reimbursement rate data were difficult to obtain, the data available suggested that reimbursement rates for pre-emptive PGx testing remain low.<h4>Conclusion</h4>These findings should inform the establishment of future implementation efforts at institutions considering a pre-emptive PGx testing program.
Project description:Numerous pharmacogenetic clinical guidelines and recommendations have been published, but barriers have hindered the clinical implementation of pharmacogenetics. The Translational Pharmacogenetics Program (TPP) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Pharmacogenomics Research Network was established in 2011 to catalog and contribute to the development of pharmacogenetic implementations at eight US healthcare systems, with the goal to disseminate real-world solutions for the barriers to clinical pharmacogenetic implementation. The TPP collected and normalized pharmacogenetic implementation metrics through June 2015, including gene-drug pairs implemented, interpretations of alleles and diplotypes, numbers of tests performed and actionable results, and workflow diagrams. TPP participant institutions developed diverse solutions to overcome many barriers, but the use of Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) guidelines provided some consistency among the institutions. The TPP also collected some pharmacogenetic implementation outcomes (scientific, educational, financial, and informatics), which may inform healthcare systems seeking to implement their own pharmacogenetic testing programs.
Project description:There is a well-validated association between <i>SLCO1B1</i> (rs4149056) and statin-associated muscle symptoms (SAMS). Preemptive <i>SLCO1B1</i> pharmacogenetic (PGx) testing may diminish the incidence of SAMS by identifying individuals with increased genetic risk before statin initiation. Despite its potential clinical application, the cost implications of <i>SLCO1B1</i> testing are largely unknown. We conducted a cost-consequence analysis of preemptive <i>SLCO1B1</i> testing (PGx+) versus usual care (PGx-) among Veteran patients enrolled in the Integrating Pharmacogenetics in Clinical Care (I-PICC) Study. The assessment was conducted using a health system perspective and 12-month time horizon. Incremental costs of <i>SLCO1B1</i> testing and downstream medical care were estimated using data from the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs' Managerial Cost Accounting System. A decision analytic model was also developed to model 1-month cost and SAMS-related outcomes in a hypothetical cohort of 10,000 Veteran patients, where all patients were initiated on simvastatin. Over 12 months, 13.5% of PGx+ (26/193) and 11.2% of PGx- (24/215) participants in the I-PICC Study were prescribed Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) guideline-concordant statins (Δ2.9%, 95% CI -4.0% to 10.0%). Differences in mean per-patient costs for lipid therapy prescriptions, including statins, for PGx+ compared to PGx- participants were not statistically significant (Δ USD 9.53, 95% CI -0.86 to 22.80 USD). Differences in per-patient costs attributable to the intervention, including PGx testing, lipid-lowering prescriptions, SAMS, laboratory and imaging expenses, and primary care and cardiology services, were also non-significant (Δ- USD 1004, 95% CI -2684 to 1009 USD). In the hypothetical cohort, <i>SLCO1B1</i>-informed statin therapy averted 109 myalgias and 3 myopathies at 1-month follow up. Fewer statin discontinuations (78 vs. 109) were also observed, but the <i>SLCO1B1</i> testing strategy was 96 USD more costly per patient compared to no testing (124 vs. 28 USD). The implementation of <i>SLCO1B1</i> testing resulted in small, non-significant increases in the proportion of patients receiving CPIC-concordant statin prescriptions within a real-world primary care context, diminished the incidence of SAMS, and reduced statin discontinuations in a hypothetical cohort of 10,000 patients. Despite these effects, <i>SLCO1B1</i> testing administered as a standalone test did not result in lower per-patient health care costs at 1 month or over 1 year of treatment. The inclusion of <i>SLCO1B1</i>, among other well-validated pharmacogenes, into preemptive panel-based testing strategies may provide a better balance of clinical benefit and cost.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Pharmacogenetic testing (PGx) has the potential to improve the quality of psychiatric prescribing by considering patients' genetic profile. However, there is limited scientific evidence supporting its efficacy or guiding its implementation. The Precision Medicine in Mental Health (PRIME) Care study is a pragmatic randomized controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of a specific commercially-available pharmacogenetic (PGx) test to inform antidepressant prescribing at 22 sites across the U.S. Simultaneous implementation science methods using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) are integrated throughout the trial to identify contextual factors likely to be important in future implementation of PGx. The goal of this study was to understand providers' perceptions of PGx for antidepressant prescribing and implications for future implementation. METHODS:Qualitative focus groups (n?=?10) were conducted at the beginning of the trial with Primary Care and Mental Health providers (n?=?31) from six PRIME Care sites. Focus groups were audio-recorded and transcribed and data were analyzed using rapid analytic procedures organized by CFIR domains. RESULTS:Analysis revealed themes in the CFIR Intervention Characteristics domain constructs of Evidence, Relative Advantage, Adaptability, Trialability, Complexity, and Design that are important for understanding providers' perceptions of PGx testing. Results indicate: 1) providers had limited experience and knowledge of PGx testing and its evidence base, particularly for psychiatric medications; 2) providers were hopeful that PGx could increase their precision in depression prescribing and improve patient engagement, but were uncertain about how results would influence treatment; 3) providers were concerned about potential misinterpretation of PGx results and how to incorporate testing into their workflow; 4) primary care providers were less familiar and comfortable with application of PGx testing to antidepressant prescribing than psychiatric providers. CONCLUSIONS:Provider perceptions may serve as facilitators or barriers to implementation of PGx for psychiatric prescribing. Incorporating implementation science into the conduct of the RCT adds value by uncovering factors to be addressed in preparing for future implementation, should the practice prove effective. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT03170362 ; Registered 31 May 2017.
Project description:Translating CYP2D6 genotype to metabolizer phenotype is not standardized across clinical laboratories offering pharmacogenetic (PGx) testing and PGx clinical practice guidelines, such as the Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) and the Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group (DPWG). The genotype to phenotype translation discordance between laboratories and guidelines can cause discordant cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) phenotype assignments and, thus lead to inconsistent therapeutic recommendations and confusion among patients and clinicians. A modified-Delphi method was used to obtain consensus for a uniform system for translating CYP2D6 genotype to phenotype among a panel of international CYP2D6 experts. Experts with diverse involvement in CYP2D6 interpretation (clinicians, researchers, genetic testing laboratorians, and PGx implementers; n = 37) participated in conference calls and surveys. After completion of 7 surveys, a consensus (> 70%) was reached with 82% of the CYP2D6 experts agreeing to the final CYP2D6 genotype to phenotype translation method. Broad adoption of the proposed CYP2D6 genotype to phenotype translation method by guideline developers, such as CPIC and DPWG, and clinical laboratories as well as researchers will result in more consistent interpretation of CYP2D6 genotype.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Pharmacogenetic (PGx) testing for germline variants in the DPYD and UGT1A1 genes can be used to guide fluoropyrimidine and irinotecan dosing, respectively. Despite the known association between PGx variants and chemotherapy toxicity, preemptive testing prior to chemotherapy initiation is rarely performed in routine practice.<h4>Methods</h4>We conducted a qualitative study of oncology clinicians to identify barriers to using preemptive PGx testing to guide chemotherapy dosing in patients with gastrointestinal malignancies. Each participant completed a semi-structured interview informed by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR). Interviews were analyzed using an inductive content analysis approach.<h4>Results</h4>Participants included sixteen medical oncologists and nine oncology pharmacists from one academic medical center and two community hospitals in Pennsylvania. Barriers to the use of preemptive PGx testing to guide chemotherapy dosing mapped to four CFIR domains: intervention characteristics, outer setting, inner setting, and characteristics of individuals. The most prominent themes included 1) a limited evidence base, 2) a cumbersome and lengthy testing process, and 3) a lack of insurance coverage for preemptive PGx testing. Additional barriers included clinician lack of knowledge, difficulty remembering to order PGx testing for eligible patients, challenges with PGx test interpretation, a questionable impact of preemptive PGx testing on clinical care, and a lack of alternative therapeutic options for some patients found to have actionable PGx variants.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Successful adoption of preemptive PGx-guided chemotherapy dosing in patients with gastrointestinal malignancies will require a multifaceted effort to demonstrate clinical effectiveness while addressing the contextual factors identified in this study.