Evaluation of the association between polymorphisms of PRM1 and PRM2 and the risk of male infertility: a systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression.
ABSTRACT: Studies have reported the genetic gives rise to male infertility. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to evaluate the association between PRM1 (rs737008 and rs2301365) and PRM2 (rs1646022 and rs2070923) polymorphisms and susceptibility to male infertility. The association between PRM1 and PRM2 polymorphisms and the risk of male infertility was evaluated using specific search terms in the Web of Science, Cochrane Library, PubMed, and Scopus databases without language restriction until January 28, 2020. The association was determined by odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) on five genetic models using Review Manager 5.3 software. The funnel plot analysis and sensitivity analysis were done by the Comprehensive Meta-analysis 2.0 software. Out of 261 records retrieved from the databases, 17 studies were analyzed in the meta-analysis, including the four PRM polymorphisms. The pooled results as OR (P-value) showed 0.96 (0.44), 1.04 (0.70), 0.94 (0.51), 0.94 (0.48), and 1.03 (0.72) for PRM1 rs737008 polymorphism and 1.67 (0.0007), 1.73 (0.06), 1.50 (0.007), 1.56 (0.004), and 1.62 (0.33) for PRM1 rs2301365 polymorphism in allele, homozygous, heterozygous, recessive, and dominant models, respectively. Moreover, the pooled results as OR (P-value) showed 1.19 (0.004), 1.15 (0.26), 1.08 (0.70), 1.05 (0.76), and 0.98 (0.82) for PRM2 rs1646022 and 0.88 (0.04), 0.84 (0.10), 1.05 (0.81), 0.90 (0.24), and 0.80 (0.02) for PRM2 rs2070923 in allele, homozygous, heterozygous, recessive, and dominant models, respectively. The results showed PRM1 rs2301365 and PRM2 rs1646022 polymorphisms were associated with an elevated risk of male infertility and PRM2 rs2070923 polymorphism had a protective role in infertile men.
Project description:Protamine (PRM) plays important roles in the packaging of DNA within the sperm nucleus. To investigate the role of PRM1/2 and transition protein 1 (TNP1) polymorphisms in male infertility, 636 infertile men and 442 healthy individuals were recruited into this case-controlled study of the Chinese Han population, using MassARRAY technology to analyze genotypes. Our analysis showed that there were no significant differences between controls and infertile cases among the five single nucleotide polymorphisms identified in PRM1, PRM2 and TNP1 [rs737008 (G/A), rs2301365 (C/A), rs2070923 (C/A), rs1646022 (C/G) and rs62180545 (A/G)]. However, we found that the PRM1 and PRM2 haplotypes GCTGC, TCGCA and TCGCC exhibited significant protective effects against male infertility compared to fertile men, while TCGGA, GCTCC and TCGGC represented significant risk factors for spermatogenesis. Our data showed that rs737008 and rs2301365 in PRM1, and rs1646022 in PRM2, were significantly associated with male infertility and that gene-gene interaction played a role in male infertility. A linkage disequilibrium plot for the five SNPs showed that rs737008 was strongly linked with both rs2301365 and rs2070923. These findings are likely to help improve our understanding of the etiology of male infertility. Further studies should include a larger number of genes and SNPs, particularly growing critical genes; such studies will help us to unravel the effect of individual genetic factors upon male infertility.
Project description:Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a number of genes involved in sperm maturation are considered as one of the main factors for male infertility. The aim of the present case-control study was to examine the association of SNPs in protamine1 (PRM1) and protamine2 (PRM2) genes with idiopathic teratozoospermia. In this case-control study, some SNPs in PRM1 (c.49 C>T, c.102 G>T and c.230A>C) and PRM2 (rs545828790, rs115686767, rs201933708, rs2070923 and rs1646022) were investigated in 30 idiopathic infertile men with teratozoospermia (case group) in comparison with 35 fertile men (controls). Genotyping of SNPs was undertaken using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-direct sequencing. For PRM1, c.230A>C, as a synonymous polymorphism, was detected in both teratozoospermic men (heterozygous n=26, homozygous minor n=1) allele frequency C(48) A(52) and controls (heterozygous n=15, homozygous minor n=4). All cases and controls were genotyped for rs545828790 in PRM2, a missense polymorphism, as well as rs115686767 and rs201933708, both of which synonymous variants. The findings showed an intronic variant in PRM2 (rs2070923) was also present in both groups. Also, rs1646022, a missense polymorphism, occurred in teratozoospermic men (heterozygous n=10, homozygous minor n=5) and controls (heterozygous n=13, homozygous minor n=2). However, there were no significant differences in SNPs of PRM1 and PRM2 between the two groups, however, for c.230A>C, the frequency of the CA genotype was significantly higher in infertile men with teratozoospermia (P=0.001). We demonstrate that PRM2 G398C and A473C polymorphisms were associated with the teratozoospermia and its genetic variation was in relation to semen quality, sperm apoptosis, and morphology in the Iranian population. This study is a preliminary study and presenting data as part of a future comprehensive study to clinically establish whether these gene polymorphisms are biomarkers for susceptibility to teratozoospermia.
Project description:Background:Asthenozoospermia is one of the etiologies for male factor infertility. It was shown that any abnormality in protamines genes, reduction of protamines transcript and protamines deficiency may play a key role in asthenozoospermia. Objective:The aim of the current study was the evaluation of protamine-1 and 2 genes (PRM1 and PRM2) polymorphisms in asthenozoospermic men. Materials and Methods:In this case-control study, the samples were corresponded to asthenozoospermic specimens of infertile men. The normozoospermic samples were considered as the control group. DNA sequence amplification was performed using four PRM1 and PRM2 primers, designed from 5' to 3' flank regions. The human PRM1 and PRM2 gene sequences were screened in search of potential mutations in highly prevalent polymorphism regions in asthenozoospermia versus normozoospermia. Results:Totally, nine highly prevalent polymorphism regions between the forward and reverse primers were screened. Three of them corresponded to PRM1 and six to PRM2. The most prevalent polymorphism regions in PRM1 were related to 102G>T (rs35576928), 49C>T (rs140477029) and 139C>A (rs737008). In the PRM2, 6 highly prevalent polymorphisms regions were screened, including 248C>T (rs779337774), 401G>A (rs545828790), 288C>T (rs115686767), 288G>C (rs201933708), 373C>A (rs2070923), and 298G>C (rs1646022). The allele frequencies of three upper mentioned single nucleotide polymorphisms in asthenozoospermic men including 373C>A, 298G>C and 139C>A was higher than the control group. Conclusion:Our findings indicated that the frequency of some altered genotypes in asthenozospermia was slightly higher than control group. We proposed more extensive studies to be sure that; these genotypes can precisely be related to diagnosis of asthenozoospermia, as the molecular markers.
Project description:Several studies have investigated the association between polymorphisms in protamine 1 and 2 genes and male infertility risk, with inconsistent results to date. This meta-analysis based on the 13 published case-control studies, including 7350 cases and 6167 controls, was performed to further establish the potential association between the 6 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs35576928, rs737008, rs35262993, rs2301365, rs1646022, rs2070923) in protamines 1 and 2 and male infertility. The -190C?>?A (rs2301365) polymorphism was identified as a risk factor for male infertility under all models. Interestingly, rs1646022 and rs737008 polymorphisms exerted protective effects against male sterility in Asian and population-based under some models. No associations between the remaining SNPs and male sterility were observed.
Project description:Protamines are unique sperm-specific proteins that package and protect paternal chromatin until fertilization. A subset of mammalian species expresses two protamines (PRM1 and PRM2), while in others PRM1 is sufficient for sperm chromatin packaging. Alterations of the species-specific ratio between PRM1 and PRM2 are associated with infertility. Unlike PRM1, PRM2 is generated as a precursor protein consisting of a highly conserved N-terminal domain, termed cleaved PRM2 (cP2), which is consecutively trimmed off during chromatin condensation. The carboxyterminal part, called mature PRM2 (mP2), interacts with DNA and together with PRM1, mediates chromatin-hypercondensation. The removal of the cP2 domain is believed to be imperative for proper chromatin condensation, yet, the role of cP2 is not yet understood. We generated mice lacking the cP2 domain while the mP2 is still expressed. We show that the cP2 domain is indispensable for complete sperm chromatin protamination and male mouse fertility. cP2 deficient sperm show incomplete protamine incorporation and a severely altered protamine ratio, retention of transition proteins and aberrant retention of the testis specific histone variant H2A.L.2. During epididymal transit, cP2 deficient sperm seem to undergo ROS mediated degradation leading to complete DNA fragmentation. The cP2 domain therefore seems to be a key aspect in the complex crosstalk between histones, transition proteins and protamines during sperm chromatin condensation. Overall, we present the first step towards understanding the role of the cP2 domain in paternal chromatin packaging and open up avenues for further research.
Project description:The association of PRM1/2 with male azoospermia is well-documented, but the relationship between TXNDC2 deficiency and the azoospermia phenotype, sperm retrieval, and pathology has not been elucidated. Here we identified the association of TXNDC2 and protamines in evaluating testis pathology and sperm retrieval. An extensive microarray meta-analysis of men with idiopathic azoospermia was performed, and after undergoing several steps of data quality controls, the data passing QC were pooled and batch effect corrected. As redox imbalance has been shown to have a variable relationship with fertility, our relative expression studies began with candidate protamination and thioredoxin genes. We constructed a logistic regression model of TXNDC2 with PRM1 and PRM2 genes, and collective ROC analysis indicated a sensitivity of 96.8% and specificity of 95.5% with a ROC value of 0.995 (SE = 0.0070, 95% CI 0.982-1.000). These results demonstrate that TXNDC2, PRM1, and PRM2 combined have a robust power to predict sperm retrieval and correlate with severe azoospermia pathology.
Project description:Protamines are expressed in the spermatid nucleus and allow denser packaging of DNA compared with histones. Disruption of the coding sequence of one allele of either protamine 1 (Prm1) or Prm2 results in failure to produce offspring, although sperm with disrupted Prm1 or Prm2 alleles are produced. Here, we produced Prm1-deficient female chimeric mice carrying Prm1-deficient oocytes. These mice successfully produced Prm1(+/-) male mice. Healthy Prm1(+/-) offspring were then produced by transferring blastocysts obtained via in vitro fertilization using zona-free oocytes and sperm from Prm1(+/-) mice. This result suggests that sperm lacking Prm1 can generate offspring despite being abnormally shaped and having destabilised DNA, decondensed chromatin and a reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential. Nevertheless, these mice showed little derangement of expression profiles.
Project description:Protamines are unique sperm-specific proteins that package and protect paternal chromatin until fertilization. A subset of mammalian species expresses two protamines (PRM1 and PRM2), while in others PRM1 is sufficient for sperm chromatin packaging. Alterations of the species-specific ratio between PRM1 and PRM2 are associated with infertility. Unlike PRM1, PRM2 is generated as a precursor protein consisting of a highly conserved N-terminal domain, termed cleaved PRM2 (cP2), which is consecutively trimmed off during chromatin condensation. The carboxyterminal part, called mature PRM2 (mP2), interacts with DNA and together with PRM1, mediates chromatin-hypercondensation. The removal of the cP2 domain is believed to be imperative for proper chromatin condensation, yet, the role of cP2 is not yet understood. We generated mice lacking the cP2 domain while the mP2 is still expressed. We show that the cP2 domain is indispensable for complete sperm chromatin protamination and male mouse fertility. cP2 deficient sperm show incomplete PRM2 incorporation, resulting in a severely altered protamine ratio, retention of transition proteins and aberrant retention of the testis specific histone variant H2A.L.2. During epididymal transit, cP2 deficient sperm seem to undergo ROS mediated degradation leading to complete DNA fragmentation. The cP2 domain therefore seems to be a key aspect in the complex crosstalk between histones, transition proteins and protamines during sperm chromatin condensation. Overall, we present the first step towards understanding the role of the cP2 domain in paternal chromatin packaging and open up avenues for further research. Overall design: Comparative testis gene expression profiling of cleaved-PRM2 deficient mice compared to WT
Project description:BACKGROUND:Some dynamic changes occurs during spermatogenesis such as histone removal and its replacement with transition nuclear protein and protamine. These proteins are required for packing and condensation of sperm chromatin. JHDM2A is a histone demethylase that directly binds to promoter regions of Tnp1 and Prm1 genes and controls their expression by removing H3K9 at their promoters. OBJECTIVE:The association between polymorphisms of exon 12 and exon 24 in JHDM2A gene and male infertility were evaluated for the first time. MATERIALS AND METHODS:In this experimental study, 400 infertile men (oligospermia and azoospermia) and normal healthy fathers were evaluated (n=200). Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP-PCR) and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methods were used for screening any polymorphisms that are exist in exon 12 and exon 24. RESULTS:Exon 24 PCR products were analyzed by RFLP but no polymorphism was found in this exon at the restriction site of EcoRV enzyme. Our monitoring along the whole nucleotides of exon 12 and exon 24 were continued using SSCP method, but we found no change along these exons. CONCLUSION:Generally, this study evaluated the association between polymorphisms in exon 12 and exon 24 of JHDM2A gene and male infertility which suggests that polymorphisms of these exons may not be associated with the risk of male infertility.
Project description:Gene targeting of the sperm nuclear proteins, the protamines, in mice leads to haploinsufficiency, abnormal chromatin compaction, sperm DNA damage, and male infertility. In order to investigate whether changes in amount or structure of the protamines could be a cause of human infertility, we sequenced the protamine genes of infertile men whose sperm appeared phenotypically similar to those of protamine deficient mice. We identified a heterozygous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the protamine (PRM1) gene in three infertile men (10% of the total infertile men analysed). This SNP disrupts one of the highly conserved arginine clusters needed for normal DNA binding. To rapidly screen for this SNP in infertile patients, we developed a simple PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. This is the first report of a SNP in the PRM1 gene that appears associated with human male infertility.