Intracellular optical doppler phenotypes of chemosensitivity in human epithelial ovarian cancer.
ABSTRACT: Development of an assay to predict response to chemotherapy has remained an elusive goal in cancer research. We report a phenotypic chemosensitivity assay for epithelial ovarian cancer based on Doppler spectroscopy of infrared light scattered from intracellular motions in living three-dimensional tumor biopsy tissue measured in vitro. The study analyzed biospecimens from 20 human patients with epithelial ovarian cancer. Matched primary and metastatic tumor tissues were collected for 3 patients, and an additional 3 patients provided only metastatic tissues. Doppler fluctuation spectra were obtained using full-field optical coherence tomography through off-axis digital holography. Frequencies in the range from 10 mHz to 10 Hz are sensitive to changes in intracellular dynamics caused by platinum-based chemotherapy. Metastatic tumor tissues were found to display a biodynamic phenotype that was similar to primary tissue from patients who had poor clinical outcomes. The biodynamic phenotypic profile correctly classified 90% [88-91% c.i.] of the patients when the metastatic samples were characterized as having a chemoresistant phenotype. This work suggests that Doppler profiling of tissue response to chemotherapy has the potential to predict patient clinical outcomes based on primary, but not metastatic, tumor tissue.
Project description:Three-dimensional (3D) tissue cultures are replacing conventional two-dimensional (2D) cultures for applications in cancer drug development. However, direct comparisons of in vitro 3D models relative to in vivo models derived from the same cell lines have not been reported because of the lack of sensitive optical probes that can extract high-content information from deep inside living tissue. Here we report the use of biodynamic imaging (BDI) to measure response to platinum in 3D living tissue. BDI combines low-coherence digital holography with intracellular Doppler spectroscopy to study tumor drug response. Human ovarian cancer cell lines were grown either in vitro as 3D multicellular monoculture spheroids or as xenografts in nude mice. Fragments of xenografts grown in vivo in nude mice from a platinum-sensitive human ovarian cell line showed rapid and dramatic signatures of induced cell death when exposed to platinum ex vivo, while the corresponding 3D multicellular spheroids grown in vitro showed negligible response. The differences in drug response between in vivo and in vitro growth have important implications for predicting chemotherapeutic response using tumor biopsies from patients or patient-derived xenografts.
Project description:SIGNIFICANCE:Tumor heterogeneity poses a challenge for the chemotherapeutic treatment of cancer. Tissue dynamics spectroscopy captures dynamic contrast and can capture the response of living tissue to applied therapeutics, but the current analysis averages over the complicated spatial response of living biopsy samples. AIM:To develop tissue dynamics spectroscopic imaging (TDSI) to map the heterogeneous spatial response of tumor tissue to anticancer drugs. APPROACH:TDSI is applied to tumor spheroids grown from cell lines and to ex vivo living esophageal biopsy samples. Doppler fluctuation spectroscopy is performed on a voxel basis to extract spatial maps of biodynamic biomarkers. Functional images and bivariate spatial maps are produced using a bivariate color merge to represent the spatial distribution of pairs of signed drug-response biodynamic biomarkers. RESULTS:We have mapped the spatial variability of drug responses within biopsies and have tracked sample-to-sample variability. Sample heterogeneity observed in the biodynamic maps is associated with histological heterogeneity observed using inverted selective-plane illumination microscopy. CONCLUSION:We have demonstrated the utility of TDSI as a functional imaging method to measure tumor heterogeneity and its potential for use in drug-response profiling.
Project description:The clinical significance of Cluster of Differentiation 44 (CD44) remains controversial in human ovarian cancer. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical significance of CD44 expression by using a unique tissue microarray, and then to determine the biological functions of CD44 in ovarian cancer. In this study, a unique ovarian cancer tissue microarray (TMA) was constructed with paired primary, metastatic, and recurrent tumor tissues from 26 individual patients. CD44 expression in TMA was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Both the metastatic and recurrent ovarian cancer tissues expressed higher level of CD44 than the patient-matched primary tumor. A significant association has been shown between CD44 expression and both the disease free survival and overall survival. A strong increase of CD44 was found in the tumor recurrence of mouse model. Finally, when CD44 was knocked down, proliferation, migration/invasion activity, and spheroid formation were significantly suppressed, while drug sensitivity was enhanced. Thus, up-regulation of CD44 represents a crucial event in the development of metastasis, recurrence, and drug resistance to current treatments in ovarian cancer. Developing strategies to target CD44 may prevent metastasis, recurrence, and drug resistance in ovarian cancer.
Project description:Despite surgical and chemotherapeutic advances over the past few decades, the prognosis for ovarian cancer remains very poor. Although cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 9 has an established pathogenic role in various cancers, its function in ovarian cancer remains poorly defined. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression of CDK9 and its therapeutic potential in ovarian cancer. CDK9 expression was determined by immunohistochemistry in a unique ovarian cancer tissue microarray constructed with paired primary, metastatic, and recurrent tumor tissues from 26 ovarian cancer patients. CDK9 was highly expressed in human ovarian cancer cell lines and was also elevated in metastatic and recurrent ovarian tumor tissue compared with patient-matched primary ovarian tumor tissue. In addition, increased CDK9 significantly correlated with poor patient prognosis. Inhibition of CDK9 by small interfering RNA or CDK9 inhibitor functionally suppressed RNA transcription elongation, induced apoptosis, and reduced proliferation of ovarian cancer cells. Inhibition of CDK9 also suppressed ovarian cancer cell spheroid growth, clonogenicity formation, and migration activity. Our results reveal CDK9 as a novel prognostic biomarker and a promising therapeutic target for preventing metastasis and recurrence while also improving the overall clinical outcome for ovarian cancer patients.-Wang, J., Dean, D. C., Hornicek, F. J., Shi, H., Duan, Z. Cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9) is a novel prognostic marker and therapeutic target in ovarian cancer.
Project description:Cancer heterogeneity and drug resistance limit the efficacy of cancer therapy. To address this issue, we have developed an integrated treatment protocol for effective treatment of heterogeneous ovarian cancer. Methods: An amphiphilic polymer coated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticle was conjugated with near infrared dye labeled HER2 affibody and chemotherapy drug cisplatin. The effects of the theranostic nanoparticle on targeted drug delivery, therapeutic efficacy, non-invasive magnetic resonance image (MRI)-guided therapy, and optical imaging detection of therapy resistant tumors were examined in an orthotopic human ovarian cancer xenograft model with highly heterogeneous levels of HER2 expression. Results: We found that systemic delivery of HER2-targeted magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles carrying cisplatin significantly inhibited the growth of primary tumor and peritoneal and lung metastases in the ovarian cancer xenograft model in nude mice. Differential delivery of theranostic nanoparticles into individual tumors with heterogeneous levels of HER2 expression and various responses to therapy were detectable by MRI. We further found a stronger therapeutic response in metastatic tumors compared to primary tumors, likely due to a higher level of HER2 expression and a larger number of proliferating cells in metastatic tumor cells. Relatively long-time retention of iron oxide nanoparticles in tumor tissues allowed interrogating the relationship between nanoparticle drug delivery and the presence of resistant residual tumors by in vivo molecular imaging and histological analysis of the tumor tissues. Following therapy, most of the remaining tumors were small, primary tumors that had low levels of HER2 expression and nanoparticle drug accumulation, thereby explaining their lack of therapeutic response. However, a few residual tumors had HER2-expressing tumor cells and detectable nanoparticle drug delivery but failed to respond, suggesting additional intrinsic resistant mechanisms. Nanoparticle retention in the small residual tumors, nevertheless, produced optical signals for detection by spectroscopic imaging. Conclusion: The inability to completely excise peritoneal metastatic tumors by debulking surgery as well as resistance to chemotherapy are the major clinical challenges for ovarian cancer treatment. This targeted cancer therapy has the potential for the development of effective treatment for metastatic ovarian cancer.
Project description:High mortality rates in ovarian cancer are due to late-stage diagnosis when extensive metastases are present, coupled with the eventual development of resistance to standard chemotherapy. There is, thus, an urgent need to identify targetable pathways to curtail this deadly disease. In this study, we show that the apelin receptor, APJ, is a viable target that promotes tumor progression of high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC). APJ is specifically overexpressed in tumor tissue, and is elevated in metastatic tissues compared with primary tumors. Importantly, increased APJ expression significantly correlates with decreased median overall survival (OS) by 14.7 months in patients with HGSOC. Using various ovarian cancer model systems, we demonstrate that APJ expression in cancer cells is both necessary and sufficient to increase prometastatic phenotypes in vitro, including proliferation, cell adhesion to various molecules of the extracellular matrix (ECM), anoikis resistance, migration, and invasion; and these phenotypes are efficiently inhibited by the APJ inhibitor, ML221. Overexpression of APJ also increases metastasis of ovarian cancer cells in vivo. Mechanistically, the prometastatic STAT3 pathway is activated downstream of APJ, and in addition to the ERK and AKT pathways, contributes to its aggressive phenotypes. Our findings suggest that the APJ pathway is a novel and viable target, with potential to curb ovarian cancer progression and metastasis. IMPLICATIONS: The APJ pathway is a viable target in HGSOC.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To estimate the effects of a laparoscopic scoring algorithm to triage patients with advanced ovarian cancer to immediate or delayed debulking to improve complete gross surgical resection rates and determine the resulting clinical outcomes. METHODS:We prospectively performed laparoscopic assessment on patients with suspected advanced-stage ovarian cancer from April 2013 to December 2016 to determine primary resectability at tumor reductive surgery. Patients with medically inoperable or distant metastatic disease received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Two-surgeon scoring was performed in a blinded fashion using a validated scoring method. Patients with predictive index value scores less than 8 were offered primary surgery and those with scores 8 or greater received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Univariate and multivariate analysis was performed for effects on progression-free survival. RESULTS:Six hundred twenty-one patients presenting with presumed advanced ovarian cancer were evaluated during the study period and 488 patients met inclusion criteria. Two hundred fifteen patients underwent laparoscopic scoring, of whom 125 had predictive index value scores less than 8 and 84 had predictive index value scores 8 or greater. Blinded two-surgeon predictive index value scoring resulted in bivariate discordance in only 2% of patients. Tumor cytoreduction led to no gross residual disease (R0 resection) in 88% of patients in the primary surgery group and 74% in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy group. Patients triaged to primary surgery had an improved progression-free survival of 21.4 months versus 12.9 months in those patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy (P<.001). Median progression-free survival by treatment group and residual disease status was as follows: primary surgery-R0 23.5 months; primary surgery-R1 (any gross residual disease) 17.6 months; neoadjuvant chemotherapy-R0 15.5 months; and neoadjuvant chemotherapy-R1 12.9 months (P<.001). On multivariate analysis for progression-free survival, baseline CA 125 (P=.001) and gross residual disease at tumor reductive surgery (P=.01) were significantly associated with progression-free survival. CONCLUSION:Laparoscopic triage assessment allowed for a personalized approach to the management of patients with advanced ovarian cancer and resulted in high complete surgical resection rates at tumor reductive surgery.
Project description:Ovarian metastatic tumors that contain component of signet-ring cells are known as Krukenberg tumors and originate mainly from the stomach (76%), intestines (11%), breast (4%) and other organs(1). KTs chiefly affect premenopausal women. Although a few studies have suggested that patients might benefit from metastasectomy with systemic chemotherapy, optimal treatment options are limited, and the prognosis is poor. Affymetrix Oncoscan arrays were performed according to the manufacturer's directions on DNA extracted from FFPE-Krukenberg tumor tissues and primary gastric cancer tissues.
Project description:Previously, we have identified the RUNX2 gene as hypomethylated and overexpressed in post-chemotherapy (CT) primary cultures derived from serous epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients, when compared to primary cultures derived from matched primary (prior to CT) tumors. However, we found no differences in the RUNX2 methylation in primary EOC tumors and EOC omental metastases, suggesting that DNA methylation-based epigenetic mechanisms have no impact on RUNX2 expression in advanced (metastatic) stage of the disease. Moreover, RUNX2 displayed significantly higher expression not only in metastatic tissue, but also in high-grade primary tumors and even in low malignant potential tumors. Knockdown of the RUNX2 expression in EOC cells led to a sharp decrease of cell proliferation and significantly inhibited EOC cell migration and invasion. Gene expression profiling and consecutive network and pathway analyses confirmed these findings, as various genes and pathways known previously to be implicated in ovarian tumorigenesis, including EOC tumor invasion and metastasis, were found to be downregulated upon RUNX2 suppression, while a number of pro-apoptotic genes and some EOC tumor suppressor genes were induced. Taken together, our data are indicative for a strong oncogenic potential of the RUNX2 gene in serous EOC progression and suggest that RUNX2 might be a novel EOC therapeutic target. Further studies are needed to more completely elucidate the functional implications of RUNX2 and other members of the RUNX gene family in ovarian tumorigenesis.
Project description:Purpose: Despite high initial response rates with cytoreductive surgery, conventional chemotherapy and the incorporation of biologic agents, ovarian cancer patients often relapse and die from their disease. New approaches are needed to improve patient outcomes. This study was designed to evaluate the antitumor activity of NEO-201 monoclonal antibody (mAb) in preclinical models of ovarian cancer where the NEO-201 target is highly expressed. Experimental Design: Functional analysis of NEO-201 against tumor cell lines was performed by antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) assays. Binding of NEO-201 to tumor tissues and cell lines were determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and flow cytometry, respectively. Further characterization of the antigen recognized by NEO-201 was performed by mass spectrometry. Ovarian cancer models were used to evaluate the anti-tumor activity of NEO-201 in vivo. NEO-201 at a concentration of 250 g/mouse was injected intraperitoneally (IP) on days 1, 4, and 8. Human PBMCs were injected IP simultaneously as effector cells. Results: Both IHC and flow cytometry revealed that NEO-201 binds prominently to the colon, pancreatic, and mucinous ovarian cancer tissues and cell lines. Immunoprecipitation of the antigen recognized by NEO-201 was performed in human ovarian, colon, and pancreatic cancer cell lines. From these screening, carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 5 (CEACAM5) and CEACAM6 were identified as the most likely targets of NEO-201. Our results confirmed that NEO-201 binds different types of cancers; the binding is highly selective for the tumor cells without cross reactivity with the surrounding healthy tissue. Functional analysis revealed that NEO-201 mediates ADCC killing against human ovarian and colorectal carcinoma cell lines in vitro. In addition, NEO-201 inhibited tumor growth in the presence of activated human PBMCs in orthotopic mouse models of both primary and metastatic ovarian cancer. Importantly, NEO-201 prolonged survival of tumor-bearing mice. Conclusions: These data suggested that NEO-201 has an antitumor activity against tumor cells expressing its antigen. Targeting an antigen expressed in tumors, but not in normal tissues, allows patient selection for optimal treatment. These findings strongly indicate that NEO-201 warrants clinical testing as both a novel therapeutic and diagnostic agent for treatment of ovarian carcinomas. A first in human clinical trial evaluating NEO-201 in adults with chemo-resistant solid tumors is ongoing at the NIH clinical Center.