Association of Prehospital Plasma With Survival in Patients With Traumatic Brain Injury: A Secondary Analysis of the PAMPer Cluster Randomized Clinical Trial.
ABSTRACT: Importance:Prehospital plasma administration improves survival in injured patients at risk for hemorrhagic shock and transported by air ambulance. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death following trauma, but few early interventions improve outcomes. Objective:To assess the association between prehospital plasma and survival in patients with TBI. Design, Setting, and Participants:The Prehospital Air Medical Plasma (PAMPer) trial was a pragmatic, multicenter, phase 3, cluster randomized clinical trial involving injured patients who were at risk for hemorrhagic shock during air medical transport to a trauma center. The trial was conducted at 6 US sites with 9 level-I trauma centers (comprising 27 helicopter emergency services bases). The original trial analyzed 501 patients, including 230 patients who were randomized to receive plasma and 271 randomized to standard care resuscitation. This secondary analysis of a predefined subgroup included patients with TBI. Data analysis was performed from October 2019 to February 2020. Interventions:Patients were randomized to receive standard care fluid resuscitation or 2 units of thawed plasma. Main Outcomes and Measures:The primary outcome was mortality at 30 days. Patients with TBI were prespecified as a subgroup for secondary analysis and for measurement of markers of brain injury. The 30-day survival benefit of prehospital plasma in subgroups with and without TBI as diagnosed by computed tomography was characterized using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazard regression. Results:In total, 166 patients had TBI (median [interquartile range] age, 43.00 [25.00-59.75] years; 125 men [75.3%]). When compared with the 92 patients who received standard care, the 74 patients with TBI who received prehospital plasma had improved 30-day survival even after adjustment for multiple confounders and assessment of the degree of brain injury with clinical variables and biomarkers (hazard ratio [HR], 0.55; 95% CI, 0.33-0.94; P?=?.03). Receipt of prehospital plasma was associated with improved survival among patients with TBI with a prehospital Glasgow Coma Scale score of less than 8 (HR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.35-0.91) and those with polytrauma (HR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.28-0.89). Patients with TBI transported from the scene of injury had improved survival following prehospital plasma administration (HR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.26-0.80; P?=?.005), whereas patients who were transferred from an outside hospital showed no difference in survival for the plasma intervention (HR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.33-3.00; P?=?.99). Conclusions and Relevance:These findings are exploratory, but they suggest that receipt of prehospital plasma is associated with improved survival in patients with computed tomography-positive TBI. The prehospital setting may be a critical period to intervene in the care of patients with TBI. Future studies are needed to confirm the clinical benefits of early plasma resuscitation following TBI and concomitant polytrauma. Trial Registration:ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01818427.
Project description:Trauma remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among all age groups in the United States. Hemorrhagic shock and traumatic brain injury (TBI) are major causes of preventable death in trauma. Initial treatment involves fluid resuscitation to improve the intravascular volume. Although crystalloids may provide volume expansion, they do not have any pro-survival properties. Furthermore, aggressive fluid resuscitation can provoke a severe inflammatory response and worsen clinical outcomes. Due to logistical constraints, however, definitive resuscitation with blood products is often not feasible in the prehospital setting-highlighting the importance of adjunctive therapies. In recent years, histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) have shown promise as pharmacologic agents for use in both trauma and sepsis. In this review, we discuss the role of histone deacetylases (HDACs) and pharmacologic agents that inhibit them (HDACis). We also highlight the therapeutic effects and mechanisms of action of HDACis in hemorrhagic shock, TBI, polytrauma, and sepsis. With further investigation and translation, HDACis have the potential to be a high-impact adjunctive therapy to traditional resuscitation.
Project description:Hemorrhage and trauma induced coagulopathy remain major drivers of early preventable mortality in military and civilian trauma. Interest in the use of prehospital plasma in hemorrhaging patients as a primary resuscitation agent has grown recently. Trauma center-based damage control resuscitation using early and aggressive plasma transfusion has consistently demonstrated improved outcomes in hemorrhaging patients. Additionally, plasma has been shown to have several favorable immunomodulatory effects. Preliminary evidence with prehospital plasma transfusion has demonstrated feasibility and improved short-term outcomes. Applying state-of-the-art resuscitation strategies to the civilian prehospital arena is compelling. We describe here the rationale, design, and challenges of the Prehospital Air Medical Plasma (PAMPer) trial. The primary objective is to determine the effect of prehospital plasma transfusion during air medical transport on 30-day mortality in patients at risk for traumatic hemorrhage. This study is a multicenter cluster randomized clinical trial. The trial will enroll trauma patients with profound hypotension (SBP ? 70 mmHg) or hypotension (SBP 71-90 mmHg) and tachycardia (HR ? 108 bpm) from six level I trauma center air medical transport programs. The trial will also explore the effects of prehospital plasma transfusion on the coagulation and inflammatory response following injury. The trial will be conducted under exception for informed consent for emergency research with an investigational new drug approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration utilizing a multipronged community consultation process. It is one of three ongoing Department of Defense-funded trials aimed at expanding our understanding of the optimal therapeutic approaches to coagulopathy in the hemorrhaging trauma patient.
Project description:Importance:Both military and civilian clinical practice guidelines include early plasma transfusion to achieve a plasma to red cell ratio approaching 1:1 to 1:2. However, it was not known how early plasma should be given for optimal benefit. Two recent randomized clinical trials were published, with apparently contradictory results. The Prehospital Air Medical Plasma (PAMPer) clinical trial showed a nearly 30% reduction in mortality with plasma transfusion in the prehospital environment, while the Control of Major Bleeding After Trauma (COMBAT) clinical trial showed no survival improvement. Objective:To facilitate a post hoc combined analysis of the COMBAT and PAMPer trials to examine questions that could not be answered by either clinical trial alone. We hypothesized that prehospital transport time influenced the effects of prehospital plasma on 28-day mortality. Design, Setting, and Participants:A total of 626 patients in the 2 clinical trials were included. Patients with trauma and hemorrhagic shock were randomly assigned to receive either standard care or 2 U of thawed plasma followed by standard care in the prehospital environment. Data analysis was performed between September 2018 and January 2019. Interventions:Prehospital transfusion of 2 U of plasma compared with crystalloid-based resuscitation. Main Outcomes and Measures:The main outcome was 28-day mortality. Results:In this post hoc analysis of 626 patients (467 men [74.6%] and 159 women [25.4%]; median [interquartile range] age, 42 [27-57] years) who had trauma with hemorrhagic shock, a Cox regression analysis showed a significant overall survival benefit for plasma (hazard ratio [HR], 0.65; 95% CI, 0.47-0.90; P?=?.01) after adjustment for injury severity, age, and clinical trial cohort (COMBAT or PAMPer). A significant association with prehospital transport time was detected (from arrival on scene to arrival at the trauma center). Increased mortality was observed in patients in the standard care group when prehospital transport was longer than 20 minutes (HR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.05-4.30; P?=?.04), while increased mortality was not observed in patients in the prehospital plasma group (HR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.40-1.51; P?=?.46). No serious adverse events were associated with prehospital plasma transfusion. Conclusions and Relevance:These data suggest that prehospital plasma is associated with a survival benefit when transport times are longer than 20 minutes and that the benefit-risk ratio is favorable for use of prehospital plasma. Trial Registration:ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT01838863 (COMBAT) and NCT01818427 (PAMPer).
Project description:Trauma and hemorrhagic shock can lead to acute traumatic coagulopathy (ATC) that is not fully reversed by prehospital resuscitation as simulated with a limited volume of fresh whole blood (FWB) in a rat model. Tranexamic Acid (TXA) is used as an anti-fibrinolytic agent to reduce surgical bleeding if administered prior to or during surgery, and to improve survival in trauma if given early after trauma. It is not clear from the existing clinical literature whether TXA has the same mechanism of action in both settings. This study sought to explore the molecular mechanisms of TXA activity in trauma and determine whether administration of TXA as a supplement to FWB resuscitation could attenuate the established ATC in a rat model simulating prehospital resuscitation of polytrauma and hemorrhagic shock. In a parallel in-vitro study, the effects on clotting assays of adding plasmin at varying doses along with either simultaneous addition of TXA or pre-incubation with TXA were measured, and the results suggested that maximum anti-fibrinolytic effect of TXA on plasmin-induced fibrinolysis required pre-incubation of TXA and plasmin prior to clot initiation. In the rat model, ATC was induced by polytrauma followed by 40% hemorrhage. One hour after trauma, the rats were resuscitated with FWB collected from donor rats. Vehicle or TXA (10mg/kg) was given as bolus either before trauma (TXA-BT), or 45min after trauma prior to resuscitation (TXA-AT). The TXA-BT group was included to contrast the coagulation effects of TXA when used as it is in elective surgery vs. what is actually feasible in real trauma patients (TXA-AT group). A single dose of TXA prior to trauma significantly delayed the onset of ATC from 30min to 120min after trauma as measured by a rise in prothrombin time (PT). The plasma d-dimer as well as plasminogen/fibrinogen ratio in traumatized liver of TXA-BT were significantly lower as compared to vehicle and TXA-AT. Wet/dry weight ratio and leukocytes infiltration of lungs were significantly decreased only if TXA was administrated later, prior to resuscitation (TXA-AT). In conclusion: Limited prehospital trauma resuscitation that includes FWB and TXA may not correct established systemic ATC, but rather may improve overall outcomes of resuscitation by attenuation of acute lung injury. By contrast, TXA given prior to trauma reduced levels of fibrinolysis at the site of tissue injury and circulatory d-dimer, and delayed development of coagulopathy independent of reduction of fibrinogen levels following trauma. These findings highlight the importance of early administration of TXA in trauma, and suggest that further optimization of dosing protocols in trauma to exploit TXA's various sites and modes of action may further improve patient outcomes.
Project description:Hemorrhage is the most preventable cause of death in civilian and military trauma, and despite tremendous advances in patient transport in the field, survival within the first hour has changed little over the past 40 years. The pathogenesis of trauma-induced coagulopathy is multifactorial, but most authorities believe there is an early depletion of clotting factors. While fresh frozen plasma delivered early in the emergency department has been shown to be beneficial, the rapid onset of trauma-induced coagulopathy suggests advancing this concept to the scene may improve patient outcome. The purpose of this report was to describe the rationale and design of a randomized trial to test the hypothesis that prehospital "plasma-first" resuscitation will benefit the critically injured patient. The rationale includes the possibility that plasma-first resuscitation may be advantageous beyond direct effects on clotting capacity. The study design is based on a ground ambulance system that allows rapid prehospital thawing of frozen plasma.
Project description:The outcomes of multiple injury patients with concomitant torso hemorrhage and traumatic brain injury (TBI) are very poor. The hybrid emergency room system (HERS) is a trauma management system designed to complete resuscitation, computed tomography (CT), surgery, angioembolization, and intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring all in one trauma resuscitation room without patient transfer. We aimed to review the outcomes of polytrauma patients who underwent concurrent bleeding control and ICP monitoring using the HERS. In this retrospective observational study, we enrolled patients who underwent concurrent bleeding control and ICP monitoring using the HERS between August 2011 and June 2018. Initial data on vital signs, Injury Severity Score (ISS), probability of survival (Ps) calculated by the Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS), intervention type, 28-day mortality, and Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale at 6?months after injury were collected. Continuous variables were expressed as the median (25th and 75th percentiles) and categorical variables as numbers (%). Ten patients were included in the analysis. The injury severity of the patients was as high as an ISS of 58 (50-64) and TRISS Ps of 0.15 (0.02-0.36). Seven of the 10 (70%) patients had hemodynamic instability within 30?min from arrival. The recorded durations from arrival to events were CT examination 9 (6-16) min, bleeding control procedure 29 (22-42) min, and neurosurgical intervention 39 (31-53) min. Four of the 10 patients (40%) survived to discharge, and two of them (20%) were able to live independently at 6?months after injury. The concurrent performance of bleeding control procedure and ICP monitoring would be feasible in HERS settings among polytrauma patients with exsanguinating hemorrhage and TBI.
Project description:Traumatic injuries and their sequelae represent a major source of mortality in the United States and globally. Initial treatment for shock, traumatic brain injury, and polytrauma is limited to resuscitation fluids to replace lost volume. To date, there are no treatments with inherent prosurvival properties. Our laboratory has investigated the use of histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) as pharmacological agents to improve survival. This class of drugs acts through posttranslational protein modifications and is a direct regulator of chromatin structure and function, as well as the function of numerous cytoplasmic proteins. In models of hemorrhagic shock and polytrauma, administration of HDACIs offers a significant survival advantage, even in the absence of fluid resuscitation. Positive results have also been shown in two-hit models of hemorrhage and sepsis and in hemorrhagic shock combined with traumatic brain injury. Accumulating data generated by our group and others continue to support the use of HDACIs for the creation of a prosurvival phenotype. With further research and clinical trials, HDACIs have the potential to be an integral tool in the treatment of trauma, especially in the prehospital phase.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Plasma is integral to haemostatic resuscitation after injury, but the timing of administration remains controversial. Anticipating approval of lyophilised plasma by the US Food and Drug Administration, the US Department of Defense funded trials of prehospital plasma resuscitation. We investigated use of prehospital plasma during rapid ground rescue of patients with haemorrhagic shock before arrival at an urban level 1 trauma centre. METHODS:The Control of Major Bleeding After Trauma Trial was a pragmatic, randomised, single-centre trial done at the Denver Health Medical Center (DHMC), which houses the paramedic division for Denver city. Consecutive trauma patients in haemorrhagic shock (defined as systolic blood pressure [SBP] ?70 mm Hg or 71-90 mm Hg plus heart rate ?108 beats per min) were assessed for eligibility at the scene of the injury by trained paramedics. Eligible patients were randomly assigned to receive plasma or normal saline (control). Randomisation was achieved by preloading all ambulances with sealed coolers at the start of each shift. Coolers were randomly assigned to groups 1:1 in blocks of 20 according to a schedule generated by the research coordinators. If the coolers contained two units of frozen plasma, they were defrosted in the ambulance and the infusion started. If the coolers contained a dummy load of frozen water, this indicated allocation to the control group and saline was infused. The primary endpoint was mortality within 28 days of injury. Analyses were done in the as-treated population and by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01838863. FINDINGS:From April 1, 2014, to March 31, 2017, paramedics randomly assigned 144 patients to study groups. The as-treated analysis included 125 eligible patients, 65 received plasma and 60 received saline. Median age was 33 years (IQR 25-47) and median New Injury Severity Score was 27 (10-38). 70 (56%) patients required blood transfusions within 6 h of injury. The groups were similar at baseline and had similar transport times (plasma group median 19 min [IQR 16-23] vs control 16 min [14-22]). The groups did not differ in mortality at 28 days (15% in the plasma group vs 10% in the control group, p=0·37). In the intention-to-treat analysis, we saw no significant differences between the groups in safety outcomes and adverse events. Due to the consistent lack of differences in the analyses, the study was stopped for futility after 144 of 150 planned enrolments. INTERPRETATION:During rapid ground rescue to an urban level 1 trauma centre, use of prehospital plasma was not associated with survival benefit. Blood products might be beneficial in settings with longer transport times, but the financial burden would not be justified in an urban environment with short distances to mature trauma centres. FUNDING:US Department of Defense.
Project description:Infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in trauma. Infection in trauma is poorly understood. The impact of prehospital invasive airway management (IAM) on the incidence of pneumonia and health services utilization is unknown. We hypothesized that trauma patients exposed to prehospital IAM will suffer higher rates of pneumonia compared to no IAM or exposure to IAM performed in the hospital. We hypothesized that patients who develop pneumonia subsequent to prehospital IAM will have longer intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital length of stay (LOS) compared to patients who acquired pneumonia after IAM performed in the hospital.This is an observational cohort study of data previously collected for the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium hypertonic resuscitation randomized trial. Patients were included if traumatic injury resulted in shock, traumatic brain injury, or both. Patients were excluded if they died 24 hours after injury, or pneumonia data were missing. Adjusted and unadjusted logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratio of pneumonia if exposed in the prehospital setting compared to no exposure or exposure in the hospital.Of 2,222 patients enrolled in the hypertonic resuscitation trial, 1,676 patients met enrollment criteria for this study. Four and a half percent of patients suffered pneumonia. IAM in the prehospital setting resulted in 6.8-fold increase (C.I. 2.0, 23.0, p = 0.003) in the adjusted odds of developing pneumonia compared to not being intubated, while in-hospital intubation resulted in 4.8-fold increase (C.I. 1.4, 16.6, p = 0.01), which was not statistically significantly different to the odds ratio of prehospital IAM. There were no statistically significant increases in health services utilization resulting from pneumonia incurred after IAM.Exposure to IAM in prehospital and hospital settings results in an increase in pneumonia, but there does not appear to be a link between the source of pneumonia and an increase in ICU or hospital LOS.
Project description:Hypertonic fluids restore cerebral perfusion with reduced cerebral edema and modulate inflammatory response to reduce subsequent neuronal injury and thus have potential benefit in resuscitation of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI).To determine whether out-of-hospital administration of hypertonic fluids improves neurologic outcome following severe TBI.Multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial involving 114 North American emergency medical services agencies within the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium, conducted between May 2006 and May 2009 among patients 15 years or older with blunt trauma and a prehospital Glasgow Coma Scale score of 8 or less who did not meet criteria for hypovolemic shock. Planned enrollment was 2122 patients.A single 250-mL bolus of 7.5% saline/6% dextran 70 (hypertonic saline/dextran), 7.5% saline (hypertonic saline), or 0.9% saline (normal saline) initiated in the out-of-hospital setting.Six-month neurologic outcome based on the Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOSE) (dichotomized as >4 or ?4).The study was terminated by the data and safety monitoring board after randomization of 1331 patients, having met prespecified futility criteria. Among the 1282 patients enrolled, 6-month outcomes data were available for 1087 (85%). Baseline characteristics of the groups were equivalent. There was no difference in 6-month neurologic outcome among groups with regard to proportions of patients with severe TBI (GOSE ?4) (hypertonic saline/dextran vs normal saline: 53.7% vs 51.5%; difference, 2.2% [95% CI, -4.5% to 9.0%]; hypertonic saline vs normal saline: 54.3% vs 51.5%; difference, 2.9% [95% CI, -4.0% to 9.7%]; P = .67). There were no statistically significant differences in distribution of GOSE category or Disability Rating Score by treatment group. Survival at 28 days was 74.3% with hypertonic saline/dextran, 75.7% with hypertonic saline, and 75.1% with normal saline (P = .88).Among patients with severe TBI not in hypovolemic shock, initial resuscitation with either hypertonic saline or hypertonic saline/dextran, compared with normal saline, did not result in superior 6-month neurologic outcome or survival.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00316004.