Coverage of non-receipt of cash transfer (Livelihood Empowerment Against Poverty) and associated factors among older persons in the Mampong Municipality, Ghana - a quantitative analysis.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Social assistance in the form of cash transfer or in-kind has been recognised as a social protection strategy in many developing countries to tackle poverty and provide protection for individuals and households. Ghana's cash grant programme, Livelihood Empowerment Against Poverty (LEAP), was introduced in 2008 to support selected households with vulnerable persons including older people 65?years and above, and persons with disabilities. This paper examined the coverage of non-receipt of LEAP, and the associated factors among older persons (65+ years) in the Mampong Municipality, Ghana. METHODS:Data were extracted from the Ageing, Social Protection and Health Systems (ASPHS) survey carried out between September 2017 and October 2017 among older persons residing in LEAP-targeted communities. Data were analysed using descriptive and sequential logistic regression model techniques. RESULTS:The mean age of respondents was 77.0?years and 62.3% were females. Rural residents constituted 59.0%. About 42.0% had no formal education and only 20.5% had no form of caregiving. Non-receipt of LEAP was 82.7% among study respondents. The fully adjusted model showed that being married (AOR?=?3.406, CI 1.127-10.290), residing in an urban location (AOR?=?3.855, CI 1.752-8.484), having attained primary level of education (AOR?=?0.246, CI 0.094-0.642), and not residing in the same household with a primary caregiver (AOR?=?6.088, CI 1.814-20.428) were significantly associated with non-receipt of cash grant among older persons. CONCLUSION:These results provide the first quantitative estimates of non-receipt coverage and its associated factors with the LEAP programme, which can inform the design of government policies related to cash transfers for older persons. The need for further research using different approaches to understand and explain the impact of cash grants on older persons' well-being is crucial in strengthening old age social support care mechanisms in Ghana.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:The study aimed to understand the impact of integrating a fee waiver for the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) with Ghana's Livelihood Empowerment Against Poverty (LEAP) 1000 cash transfer programme on health insurance enrolment. SETTING:The study was conducted in five districts implementing Ghana's LEAP 1000 programme in Northern and Upper East Regions. PARTICIPANTS:Women, from LEAP households, who were pregnant or had a child under 1 year and who participated in baseline and 24-month surveys (2497) participated in the study. INTERVENTION:LEAP provides bimonthly cash payments combined with a premium waiver for enrolment in NHIS to extremely poor households with orphans and vulnerable children, elderly with no productive capacity and persons with severe disability. LEAP 1000, the focus of the current evaluation, expanded eligibility in 2015 to those households with a pregnant woman or child under the age of 12 months. Over the course of the study, households received 13 payments. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES:Primary outcomes included current and ever enrolment in NHIS. Secondary outcomes include reasons for not enrolling in NHIS. We conducted a mixed-methods impact evaluation using a quasi-experimental design and estimated intent-to-treat impacts on health insurance enrolment among children and adults. Longitudinal qualitative interviews were conducted with an embedded cohort of 20 women and analysed using systematic thematic coding. RESULTS:Current enrolment increased among the treatment group from 37.4% to 46.6% (n=5523) and decreased among the comparison group from 37.3% to 33.3% (n=4804), resulting in programme impacts of 14 (95% CI 7.8 to 20.5) to 15 (95% CI 10.6 to 18.5) percentage points for current NHIS enrolment. Common reasons for not enrolling were fees and travel. CONCLUSION:While impacts on NHIS enrolment were significant, gaps remain to maximise the potential of integrated programming. NHIS and LEAP could be better streamlined to ensure poor households fully benefit from both services, in a further step towards integrated social protection. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:RIDIE-STUDY-ID-55942496d53af.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Cash transfer programmes targeting children are considered an effective strategy for addressing child poverty and for improving child health outcomes in developing countries. In South Africa, the Child Support Grant (CSG) is the largest cash transfer programme targeting children from poor households. The present paper investigates the association of the duration of CSG receipt with child growth at 2 years in three diverse areas of South Africa. DESIGN:The study analysed data on CSG receipt and anthropometric measurements from children. Predictors of stunting were assessed using a backward regression model. SETTING:Paarl (peri-urban), Rietvlei (rural) and Umlazi (urban township), South Africa, 2008. SUBJECTS:Children (n 746), median age 22 months. RESULTS:High rates of stunting were observed in Umlazi (28 %), Rietvlei (20 %) and Paarl (17 %). Duration of CSG receipt had no effect on stunting. HIV exposure (adjusted OR=2·30; 95 % CI 1·31, 4·03) and low birth weight (adjusted=OR 2·01, 95 % CI 1·02, 3·96) were associated with stunting, and maternal education had a protective effect on stunting. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings suggest that, despite the presence of the CSG, high rates of stunting among poor children continue unabated in South Africa. We argue that the effect of the CSG on nutritional status may have been eroded by food price inflation and limited progress in the provision of other important interventions and social services.
Project description:There is promising recent evidence that poverty-targeted social cash transfers have potential to improve maternal health outcomes; however, questions remain surrounding design features responsible for impacts. In addition, virtually no evidence exists from the African region. This study explores the impact of Zambia's Child Grant Program on a range of maternal health utilization outcomes using a randomized design and difference-in-differences multivariate regression from data collected over 24 months from 2010 to 2012. Results indicate that while there are no measurable program impacts among the main sample, there are heterogeneous impacts on skilled attendance at birth among a sample of women residing in households having better access to maternal health services. The latter result is particularly interesting because of the overall low level of health care availability in program areas suggesting that dedicated program design or matching supply-side interventions may be necessary to leverage unconditional cash transfers in similar settings to impact maternal health.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Even though there is a growing literature on barriers to formal healthcare use among older people, little is known from the perspective of vulnerable older people in Ghana. Involving poor older people under the Livelihood Empowerment Against Poverty (LEAP) programme, this study explores barriers to formal healthcare use in the Atwima Nwabiagya District of Ghana. METHODS:Interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with 30 poor older people, 15 caregivers and 15 formal healthcare providers in the Atwima Nwabiagya District of Ghana. Data were analysed using the thematic analytical framework, and presented based on an a posteriori inductive reduction approach. RESULTS:Four main barriers to formal healthcare use were identified: physical accessibility barriers (poor transport system and poor architecture of facilities), economic barriers (low income coupled with high charges, and non-comprehensive nature of the National Health Insurance Scheme [NHIS]), social barriers (communication/language difficulties and poor family support) and unfriendly nature of healthcare environment barriers (poor attitude of healthcare providers). CONCLUSIONS:Considering these barriers, removing them would require concerted efforts and substantial financial investment by stakeholders. We argue that improvement in rural transport services, implementation of free healthcare for poor older people, strengthening of family support systems, recruitment of language translators at the health facilities and establishment of attitudinal change programmes would lessen barriers to formal healthcare use among poor older people. This study has implications for health equity and health policy framework in Ghana.
Project description:Weekly rifapentine plus isoniazid for 3 months (3HP) is as effective as daily isoniazid for 9 months (9H) for latent tuberculosis infection in high-risk persons, but there have been reports of possible flu-like syndrome.We identified clinically significant systemic drug reactions (SDR) and evaluated risk factors in patients who did not complete treatment in the PREVENT Tuberculosis study.Among 7552 persons who received ≥ 1 dose of study drug, 153 had a SDR: 138/3893 (3.5%) with 3HP vs 15/3659 (0.4%) with 9H (P < .001). In the 3HP arm, 87 (63%) had flu-like syndrome and 23 (17%) had cutaneous reactions; 13/3893 (0.3%) had severe reactions (6 were hypotensive) and 6 reported syncope. Symptoms occurred after a median of 3 doses, and 4 hours after the dose; median time to resolution was 24 hours. There were no deaths. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, factors independently associated with SDR included receipt of 3HP (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 9.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.5, 16.2), white non-Hispanic race/ethnicity (aOR 3.3; 95% CI, 2.3, 4.7), female sex (aOR 2.0; 95% CI, 1.4, 2.9), age ≥ 35 years (aOR 2.0; 95% CI, 1.4, 2.9), and lower body mass index (body mass index [BMI]; P = .009). In a separate multivariate analysis among persons who received 3HP, severe SDR were associated with white non-Hispanic race/ethnicity (aOR 5.4; 95% CI, 1.8, 16.3), and receipt of concomitant non-study medications (aOR 5.9; 95% CI, 1.3, 27.1).SDR were more common with 3HP, and mostly flu-like. Persons of white race, female sex, older age, and lower BMI were at increased risk. Severe reactions were rare and associated with 3HP, concomitant medication, and white race. The underlying mechanism is unclear.NCT00023452.
Project description:Child cash transfers are increasingly recognised for their potential to reduce poverty and improve health outcomes. South Africa's child support grant (CSG) constitutes the largest cash transfer in the continent. No studies have been conducted to look at factors associated with successful receipt of the CSG. This paper reports findings on factors associated with CSG receipt in three settings in South Africa (Paarl in the Western Cape Province, and Umlazi and Rietvlei in KwaZulu-Natal).This study used longitudinal data from a community-based cluster-randomized trial (PROMISE EBF) promoting exclusive breastfeeding by peer-counsellors in South Africa (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00397150). 1148 mother-infant pairs were enrolled in the study and data on the CSG were collected at infant age 6, 12, 24 weeks and 18-24 months. A stratified cox proportional hazards regression model was fitted to the data to investigate factors associated with CSG receipt.Uptake of the CSG amongst eligible children at a median age of 22 months was 62% in Paarl, 64% in Rietvlei and 60% in Umlazi. Possessing a birth certificate was found to be the strongest predictor of CSG receipt (HR 3.1, 95% CI: 2.4 -4.1). Other factors also found to be independently associated with CSG receipt were an HIV-positive mother (HR 1.2, 95% CI: 1.0-1.4) and a household income below R1100 (HR1.7, 95% CI: 1.1 -2.6).Receipt of the CSG was sub optimal amongst eligible children showing administrative requirements such as possessing a birth certificate to be a serious barrier to access. In the spirit of promoting and protecting children's rights, more efforts are needed to improve and ease access to this cash transfer program.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Diabetes mellitus is a complex disease that affects many organ systems, leading to concerns about deteriorating population health status and ever-increasing healthcare expenditure. Many people with diabetes do not achieve optimal glycaemic control and other metabolic indices, leading to a heightened risk of developing complications. Adequate knowledge of diabetes complications is a prerequisite for risk-factor reduction and prevention of the consequences of the disease. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the knowledge of chronic complications of diabetes among persons living with type 2 diabetes mellitus in northern Ghana. METHOD:A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 320 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in northern Ghana. The consecutive sampling technique was employed to recruit participants from September to November 2018. Data analysis was performed using IBM statistical package for social science version 23. Descriptive statistics such as frequencies and percentages were used. Both bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were employed to determine associations between knowledge of diabetes complications and demographic/clinical characteristics of participants, at 95% confidence interval with statistical significance at P<0.05. RESULTS:The majority of participants (54.1%) had inadequate knowledge and 45.9% had adequate knowledge of diabetes complications. The factors associated with inadequate level of knowledge were female gender [AOR = 0.29 (95%CI: 0.14-0.56), p<0.001], older age [AOR = 0.45 (95%CI:0.20-0.99), p = 0.049], primary education [AOR = 0.13 (95%CI: 0.03-0.51), p = 0.004], no formal education [AOR = 0.16 (95%CI: 0.05-0.50), p = 0.002], rural dwellers [AOR = 0.50 (95%CI: 0.27-0.95), p = 0.033] and unknown family history diabetes [AOR = 0.38 (95%CI: 0.17-0.82), p = 0.014]. CONCLUSION:More than half of the studied population had inadequate knowledge of diabetes complications. Female gender, rural dwellers, and low education level were factors positively associated with inadequate knowledge of diabetes complications. A multisectoral approach is needed, where the government of Ghana together with other sectors of the economy such as the health, education and local government sectors work collaboratively in the development of locally tailored diabetes education programmes to promote healthy self-care behaviours relevant for the prevention of diabetes and its complications.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Functional difficulty assessment has been proven as a key factor in the health evaluation of adults. Previous studies have shown a reduction in health and functional difficulties with increasing age. This analysis was conducted to quantify the effect of poor self-rated health on functional difficulty among older adults in Ghana. METHOD:This analysis was based on the World Health Organization Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health in Ghana for older adults 50 years and above. Fifteen standard functioning difficulty tools were extracted and used for the analysis. Three predictive models with the Coarsened Exact Matching method involving Negative Binomial, Logistics and Ordered logistic regression were performed using Stata 14. RESULTS:Overall, the prevalence of poor Self-rated health was 34.9% and that of functional difficulties among older adults in Ghana was 69.4%. Female sex, increasing age, being separated, having no religious affiliation, not currently working and being underweight were associated with and significantly influence poor Self-rated health [AOR(95%CI)p-value = 1.41(1.08-1.83)0.011, 3.85(2.62-5.64)0.000, 1.45(1.08-1.94)0.013, 2.62(1.68-4.07)0.000, 2.4(1.85-3.12)0.000 and 1.39(1.06-1.81)0.017 respectively]. In addition, poor Self-rated health and geographical location (rural vs. urban)significantly influence functioning difficulties among older adults in Ghana as predicted by the three models [Negative Binomial: PR(95%CI) = 1.62(1.43-1.82), Binary logistic: AOR(95%CI) = 3.67(2.79-4.81) and ordered logistic: AOR(95%CI) = 2.53(1.14-2.03)]. CONCLUSION:Poor SRH is more pronounced among older adult females in Ghana. Some determinants of poor SRH include; age, geographical location (urban vs. rural), marital status, religion, and employment status. This provides pointers to important socio-demographic determinants with implications on the social function of older adults in line with the theme of the national aging policy of 2010, 'ageing with security and dignity' and ultimately in the national quest to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals by 2030.
Project description:Cash transfer (CT) programmes are increasingly being used as policy instruments to address child poverty and child health outcomes in developing countries. As the largest cash-transfer programme in Africa, the South African Child Support Grant (CSG) provides an important opportunity to further understand how a CT of its kind works in a developing country context. We explored the experiences and views of CSG recipients and non-recipients from four diverse settings in South Africa. Four major themes emerged from the data: barriers to accessing the CSG; how the CSG is utilised and the ways in which it makes a difference; the mechanisms for supplementing the CSG; and the impact of not receiving the grant. Findings show that administrative factors continue to be the greatest barrier to CSG receipt, pointing to the need for further improvements in managing queues, waiting times and coordination between departments for applicants trying to submit their applications. Many recipients, especially those where the grant was the only source of income, acknowledged the importance of the CSG, while also emphasising its inadequacy. To maximise their impact, CT programmes such as the CSG need to be fully funded and form part of a broader basket of poverty alleviation strategies.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Since 2005, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) has required all Medicare Advantage (MA) plans to report prescribing rates of high risk medications (HRM).<h4>Objective</h4>To determine predictors of receipt of HRMs, as defined by the National Committee for Quality Assurance's "Drugs to Avoid in the Elderly" quality indicator, in a national sample of MA enrollees.<h4>Design and participants</h4>Retrospective analysis of Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS) data for 6,204,824 enrollees, aged 65 years or older, enrolled in 415 MA plans in 2009. To identify predictors of HRM use, we fit generalized linear models and modeled outcomes on the risk-difference scale.<h4>Main outcome measures</h4>Receipt or non-receipt of one or two HRMs.<h4>Key results</h4>Approximately 21 % of MA enrollees received at least one HRM and 4.8 % received at least two. In fully adjusted models, females had a 10.6 (95 % CI: 10.0-11.2) higher percentage point rate of receipt than males, and residence in any of the Southern United States divisions was associated with a greater than 10 percentage point higher rate, as compared with the reference New England division. Higher rates were also observed among enrollees with low personal income (6.5 percentage points, 95 % CI: 5.5-7.5), relative to those without low income and those residing in areas in the lowest quintile of socioeconomic status (2.7 points, 95 % CI: 1.9-3.4) relative to persons residing in the highest quintile. Enrollees ? 85 years old, black enrollees, and other minority groups were less likely to receive these medications. Over 38 % of MA enrollees residing in the hospital referral region of Albany, Georgia received at least one HRM, a rate four times higher than the referral region with the lowest rate (Mason City, Iowa).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Use of HRMs among MA enrollees varies widely by geographic region. Persons living in the Southern region of the U.S., whites, women, and persons of low personal income and socioeconomic status are more likely to receive HRMs.