Principal component analysis, a useful tool to study cyclin-dependent kinase-inhibitor's effect on cerebral ischaemia.
ABSTRACT: Stroke is a leading cause of acute death related in part to brain oedema, blood-brain barrier disruption and glial inflammation. A cyclin-dependant kinase inhibitor, (S)-roscovitine, was administered 90?min after onset on a model of rat focal cerebral ischaemia. Brain swelling and Evans Blue tissue extravasation were quantified after Evans Blue injection. Combined tissue Evans Blue fluorescence and immunofluorescence of endothelial cells (RECA1), microglia (isolectin-IB4) and astrocytes (glial fibrillary acidic protein) were analysed. Using a Student's t-test or Mann-Whitney test, (S)-roscovitine improved recovery by more than 50% compared to vehicle (Mann-Whitney, P?
Project description:OBJECT:Investigators in experimental and clinical studies have used the intrathecal route to deliver drugs to prevent or treat vasospasm. However, a clot near an artery or arteries after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) may hamper distribution and limit the effects of intrathecally delivered compounds. In a primate model of right middle cerebral artery (MCA) SAH, the authors examined the distribution of Isovue-M 300 and 3% Evans blue after infusion into the cisterna magna CSF. METHODS:Ten cynomolgus monkeys were assigned to SAH and sham SAH surgery groups (5 in each group). Monkeys received CSF injections as long as 28 days after SAH and were killed 3 hours after the contrast/Evans blue injection. The authors assessed the distribution of contrast material on serial CT within 2 hours after contrast injection and during autopsy within 3 hours after Evans blue staining. RESULTS:Computed tomography cisternographies showed no contrast in the vicinity of the right MCA (p < 0.05 compared with left); the distribution of contrast surrounding the entire right cerebral hemisphere was substantially reduced. Postmortem analysis demonstrated much less Evans blue staining of the right hemisphere surface compared with the left. Furthermore, the Evans blue dye did not penetrate into the right sylvian fissure, which occurred surrounding the left MCA. The authors observed the same pattern of changes and differences in contrast distribution between SAH and sham SAH animals and between the right and the left hemispheres on Days 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 after SAH. CONCLUSIONS:Intrathecal drug distribution is substantially limited by SAH. Thus, when using intrathecal drug delivery after SAH, vasoactive drugs are unlikely to reach the arteries that are at the highest risk of delayed cerebral vasospasm.
Project description:When the distributional assumptions for a t-test are not met, the default position of many analysts is to resort to a rank-based test, such as the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney Test to compare the difference in means between two samples. The Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney Test presents no danger of tied observations when the observations in the data are continuous. However, in practice, observations are discretized due various logical reasons, or the data are ordinal in nature. When ranks are tied, most textbooks recommend using mid-ranks to replace the tied ranks, a practice that affects the distribution of the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney Test under the null hypothesis. Other methods for breaking ties have also been proposed. In this study, we examine four tie-breaking methods-average-scores, mid-ranks, jittering, and omission-for their effects on Type I and Type II error of the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney Test and the two-sample t-test for various combinations of sample sizes, underlying population distributions, and percentages of tied observations. We use the results to determine the maximum percentage of ties for which the power and size are seriously affected, and for which method of tie-breaking results in the best Type I and Type II error properties. Not surprisingly, the underlying population distribution of the data has less of an effect on the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney Test than on the t-test. Surprisingly, we find that the jittering and omission methods tend to hold Type I error at the nominal level, even for small sample sizes, with no substantial sacrifice in terms of Type II error. Furthermore, the t-test and the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney Test are equally effected by ties in terms of Type I and Type II error; therefore, we recommend omitting tied observations when they occur for both the two-sample t-test and the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney due to the bias in Type I error that is created when tied observations are left in the data, in the case of the t-test, or adjusted using mid-ranks or average-scores, in the case of the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney.
Project description:In comparison with young females, middle-aged female rats sustain greater cerebral infarction and worse functional recovery after stroke. These poorer stroke outcomes in middle-aged females are associated with an age-related reduction in IGF-I levels. Poststroke IGF-I treatment decreases infarct volume in older females and lowers the expression of cytokines in the ischemic hemisphere. IGF-I also reduces transfer of Evans blue dye to the brain, suggesting that this peptide may also promote blood-brain barrier function. To test the hypothesis that IGF-I may act at the blood-brain barrier in ischemic stroke, 2 approaches were used. In the first approach, middle-aged female rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion and treated with IGF-I after reperfusion. Mononuclear cells from the ischemic hemisphere were stained for CD4 or triple-labeled for CD4/CD25/FoxP3 and subjected to flow analyses. Both cohorts of cells were significantly reduced in IGF-I-treated animals compared with those in vehicle controls. Reduced trafficking of immune cells to the ischemic site suggests that blood-brain barrier integrity is better maintained in IGF-I-treated animals. The second approach directly tested the effect of IGF-I on barrier function of aging endothelial cells. Accordingly, brain microvascular endothelial cells from middle-aged female rats were cultured ex vivo and subjected to ischemic conditions (oxygen-glucose deprivation). IGF-I treatment significantly reduced the transfer of fluorescently labeled BSA across the endothelial monolayer as well as cellular internalization of fluorescein isothiocyanate-BSA compared with those in vehicle-treated cultures, Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that IGF-I improves blood-brain barrier function in middle-aged females.
Project description:Recent evidence of gadolinium deposition in the brain has raised safety concerns. Iron oxide nanoparticles are re-emerging as promising alternative MR contrast agents, because the iron core can be metabolized. However, long-term follow up studies of the brain after intravenous iron oxide administration have not been reported thus far. In this study, we investigated, if intravenously administered ferumoxytol nanoparticles are deposited in porcine brains. Methods: In an animal care and use committee-approved prospective case-control study, ten Göttingen minipigs received either intravenous ferumoxytol injections at a dose of 5 mg Fe/kg (n=4) or remained untreated (n=6). Nine to twelve months later, pigs were sacrificed and the brains of all pigs underwent ex vivo MRI at 7T with T2 and T2*-weighted sequences. MRI scans were evaluated by measuring R2* values (R2*=1000/T2*) of the bilateral caudate nucleus, lentiform nucleus, thalamus, dentate nucleus, and choroid plexus. Pig brains were sectioned and stained with Prussian blue and evaluated for iron deposition using a semiquantitative scoring system. Data of ferumoxytol exposed and unexposed groups were compared with an unpaired t-test and a Mann-Whitney U test. Results: T2 and T2* signal of the different brain regions was not visually different between ferumoxytol exposed and unexposed controls. There were no significant differences in R2* values of the different brain regions in the ferumoxytol exposed group compared to controls (p>0.05). Prussian blue stains of the same brain regions, scored according to a semiquantitative score, were not significantly different either between the ferumoxytol exposed group and unexposed controls (p>0.05). Conclusions: Our study shows that intravenous ferumoxytol doses of 5-10 mg Fe/kg do not lead to iron deposition in the brain of pigs. We suggest iron oxide nanoparticles as a promising alternative for gadolinium-enhanced MRI.
Project description:We hypothesized that preterm spontaneous labor involves aberrant changes in mRNA expression in the placenta. To test this hypothesis, we interrogated the mRNA levels of >50,000 genes and transcript variants using gene expression microarray (Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 Array, Affymetrix) on 5 placentas collected from preterm spontaneous delivery (<34 weeks of gestation) and another 5 placentas collected from term spontaneous delivery (38-39 weeks). We have identified 229 and 162 genes that were up- or down-regulated, respectively, for more than 3-fold in the preterm placentas compared to the term placentas (Mann-Whitney Rank Sum Test, with multiple testing correction by the Benjamini-Hochberg method, adjusted p-value <= 0.05). Overall design: Placentas collected from (i) preterm spontaneous delivery (<34 weeks of gestation) and (ii) term spontaneous delivery (38-39 weeks of gestation) were subjected to RNA extraction and hybridization on Affymetrix microarrays. To identify gene expression patterns that are commonly involved in preterm spontaneous labour, we analyzed 5 placentas from each of these 2 groups and tested for any differentially expressed genes by Mann-Whitney Rank Sum Test.
Project description:The AUC (area under ROC curve) is a commonly used metric to assess discrimination of risk prediction rules; however, standard errors of AUC are usually based on the Mann-Whitney U test that assumes independence of sampling units. For ophthalmologic applications, it is desirable to assess risk prediction rules based on eye-specific outcome variables which are generally highly, but not perfectly correlated in fellow eyes [e.g. progression of individual eyes to age-related macular degeneration (AMD)]. In this article, we use the extended Mann-Whitney U test (Rosner and Glynn, Biometrics 65:188-197, 2009) for the case where subunits within a cluster may have different progression status and assess discrimination of different prediction rules in this setting. Both data analyses based on progression of AMD and simulation studies show reasonable accuracy of this extended Mann-Whitney U test to assess discrimination of eye-specific risk prediction rules.
Project description:This study was conducted to determine the protective efficacy and mechanisms of thrombopoietin (TPO) intervention in experimental focal stroke. Male rats underwent 2?hours of left middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) followed by 22?hours of reperfusion. Vehicle or TPO (0.03 to 1.00??g/kg) was administered intravenously immediately after reperfusion. Brain infarct and swelling, neurologic deficits, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), TPO and c-Mpl (TPO receptor) mRNA, MMP-9 enzyme activity and protein expression, and the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) were subsequently measured. MCAO reperfusion produced a large infarct and swelling after stroke. Thrombopoietin significantly reduced these in a dose-dependent manner. The most effective TPO dose, 0.1??g/kg, when administrated immediately or 2?hours after reperfusion, significantly reduced infarct and swelling and ameliorated neurologic deficits after stroke. Stroke-induced increases in cortical MMP-9 mRNA, enzyme activity and protein expression, TIMP-1 mRNA, and Evans blue extravasation were reduced by TPO intervention. Thrombopoietin did not alter cortical TPO or c-Mpl mRNA expression, blood pressure, heart rate, blood hematocrit, or platelets. This is the first demonstration of TPO's efficacy in reducing ischemic brain injury and improving functional outcome, partly by inhibiting the stroke-induced increase in MMP-9 and the early, negative effects on the BBB.
Project description:Background:Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) is a monogenic model for syndromic autism. Statins rescue the social and cognitive phenotype in animal knockout models, but translational trials with subjects > 8 years using cognition/behaviour outcomes have shown mixed results. This trial breaks new ground by studying statin effects for the first time in younger children with NF1 and co-morbid autism and by using multiparametric imaging outcomes. Methods:A single-site triple-blind RCT of simvastatin vs. placebo was done. Assessment (baseline and 12-week endpoint) included peripheral MAPK assay, awake magnetic resonance imaging spectroscopy (MRS; GABA and glutamate+glutamine (Glx)), arterial spin labelling (ASL), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), resting state functional MRI, and autism behavioural outcomes (Aberrant Behaviour Checklist and Clinical Global Impression). Results:Thirty subjects had a mean age of 8.1 years (SD 1.8). Simvastatin was well tolerated. The amount of imaging data varied by test. Simvastatin treatment was associated with (i) increased frontal white matter MRS GABA (t(12) = - 2.12, p = .055), GABA/Glx ratio (t(12) = - 2.78, p = .016), and reduced grey nuclei Glx (ANCOVA p < 0.05, Mann-Whitney p < 0.01); (ii) increased ASL perfusion in ventral diencephalon (Mann-Whitney p < 0.01); and (iii) decreased ADC in cingulate gyrus (Mann-Whitney p < 0.01). Machine-learning classification of imaging outcomes achieved 79% (p < .05) accuracy differentiating groups at endpoint against chance level (64%, p = 0.25) at baseline. Three of 12 (25%) simvastatin cases compared to none in placebo met 'clinical responder' criteria for behavioural outcome. Conclusions:We show feasibility of peripheral MAPK assay and autism symptom measurement, but the study was not powered to test effectiveness. Multiparametric imaging suggests possible simvastatin effects in brain areas previously associated with NF1 pathophysiology and the social brain network. Trial registration:EU Clinical Trial Register (EudraCT) 2012-005742-38 (www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu).
Project description:We consider a two-group randomized clinical trial, where mortality affects the assessment of a follow-up continuous outcome. Using the worst-rank composite endpoint, we develop a weighted Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test statistic to analyze the data. We determine the optimal weights for the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test statistic that maximize its power. We derive a formula for its power and demonstrate its accuracy in simulations. Finally, we apply the method to data from an acute ischemic stroke clinical trial of normobaric oxygen therapy.
Project description:For the two-sample problem, the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney (WMW) test is used frequently: it is simple to explain (a permutation test on the difference in mean ranks), it handles continuous or ordinal responses, it can be implemented for large or small samples, it is robust to outliers, it requires few assumptions, and it is efficient in many cases. Unfortunately, the WMW test is rarely presented with an effect estimate and confidence interval. A natural effect parameter associated with this test is the Mann-Whitney parameter, ??=?Pr[?X<Y?]?+?0.5 Pr[X?=?Y?]. Ideally, we desire confidence intervals on ? that are compatible with the WMW test, meaning the test rejects at level ? if and only if the 100(1?-??)% confidence interval on the Mann-Whitney parameter excludes 1/2. Existing confidence interval procedures on ? are not compatible with the usual asymptotic implementation of the WMW test that uses a continuity correction nor are they compatible with exact WMW tests. We develop compatible confidence interval procedures for the asymptotic WMW tests and confidence interval procedures for some exact WMW tests that appear to be compatible. We discuss assumptions and interpretation of the resulting tests and confidence intervals. We provide the wmwTest function of the asht R package to calculate all of the developed confidence intervals.