Antibiotic affects the gut microbiota composition and expression of genes related to lipid metabolism and myofiber types in skeletal muscle of piglets.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Early-life antibiotic administration is known to affect gut microbiota and host adiposity, but the effects of antibiotic exposure on skeletal muscle properties remain unknown. The present study evaluated the changes in skeletal muscle properties including myofiber characteristics and composition, as well as intramuscular fat (IMF) content in skeletal muscle of piglets when exposed to a tylosin-containing diet. RESULTS:A total of 18 piglets (28?days of age) were randomly allocated into two groups: control basal diet (Control) and Control +?100?mg tylosin phosphate/kg of feed (Antibiotic). The trial lasted for 39?days. High-throughput amplicon sequencing revealed that no significant difference in initial gut microbiota composition was existed between Control and Antibiotic groups. Antibiotic administration increased body weight and growth rate and decreased feed to gain ratio of pigs (P?
Project description:Piglets with light weaning weight commonly have a slow post-weaning growth rate due to impaired skeletal muscle development. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the impact of birth weight and nutrient intake on skeletal muscle development, myofiber maturation, and metabolic status of early-weaned piglets. Twelve pairs of normal birth weight and intrauterine growth-retarded (IUGR) piglets (seven days old) were randomly assigned to receive adequate nutrient intake or restricted nutrient intake for 21 days. Serum and muscle samples were collected for further analysis. The results indicated that muscle weight, cross-sectional areas, and muscular glycogen were lower (p < 0.05) in both IUGR and restricted fed piglets. Nutrient restriction decreased the contents of RNA, the RNA to DNA ratio, and the percentages of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) IIx (p < 0.05), whereas increased the activity of ?-hydroxy-acyl-CoA-dehydrogenase (HAD), the ratio of HAD to citrate synthase, as well as the percentages of MyHC I (p < 0.05). In addition, nutrient restriction significantly decreased muscular glycogen, mRNA levels of fatty acid transport protein 1, cationic amino acid transporter 1, and glucose transporter 4 in IUGR piglets compared with the other groups (p < 0.05). The results of the present study showed that IUGR impaired skeletal muscle growth and disturbed the hormone and mRNA expression of genes related to energy metabolism, which led to a more severe energy deficit when receiving postnatal nutritional restriction. Postnatal nutritional restriction resulted in delayed myofiber maturation of the piglets, which may be associated with the transformation of MyHC isoform and the change of metabolic status.
Project description:The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of a maternal antibiotic administration during the last week of gestation on the early life intestinal development in neonatal piglets. Colonization of the gut with bacteria starts during birth and plays a major role in the intestinal and immunological development of the intestine. We demonstrate that maternal interventions induced changes in the sows (n = 6 to 8 per treatment) fecal microbiota diversity around birth (P < 0.001, day 1). Whole-genome microarray analysis in small intestinal samples of 1-d old piglets (n = 6 to 8 per treatment) showed significantly expressed genes (Padj < 0.05) which were involved in processes of tight junction formation and immunoglobulin production. Furthermore, when performing morphometry analysis, the number of goblet cells in jejunum was significantly (P < 0.001) lower in piglets from amoxicillin administered sows compared with the respective control piglets. Both significantly expressed genes (Padj < 0.05) and significant morphometry data (jejunum P < 0.05 and ileum P < 0.01) indicate that the crypts of piglets from amoxicillin administered sows deepen around weaning (day 26) as an effect of the amoxicillin administration in sows. The latter might imply that the intestinal development of piglets was delayed by maternal antibiotic administration. Taken together, these results show that maternally oral antibiotic administration changes in early life can affect intestinal development of the offspring piglets for a period of at least 5 wk after the maternal antibiotic administration was finished. These results show that modulation of the neonatal intestine is possible by maternal interventions.
Project description:Early-life antibiotic interventions can change the predisposition to disease by disturbing the gut microbiota. However, the impact of antibiotics on gut microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract is not completely understood, although antibiotic-induced alterations in the distal gut have been reported. Here, employing a piglet model, the microbial composition was analyzed by high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing and PICRUSt predictions of metagenome function. The present study showed clear spatial variation of microbial communities in the stomach and intestine, and found that the administration of antibiotics (a mixture of olaquindox, oxytetracycline calcium, kitasamycin) in early life caused markedly differential alterations in the compartmentalized microbiota, with major alterations in their spatial variation in the lumen of the stomach and small intestine. In piglets fed an antibiotic-free diet, most of the variation in microbial communities was concentrated in gut segments and niches (lumen/mucosa). The microbial diversity was higher in the lumen of stomach and duodenum than that in ileum. The early-life antibiotic intervention decreased the abundance of some Lactobacillus species and increased the abundance of potentially pathogenic Streptococcus suis in the lumen of the stomach and small intestine. Interestingly, the intervention increased the abundance of Treponema only in the colonic lumen and that of Faecalibacterium only in the ileal mucosa. Furthermore, the antibiotic intervention exerted location-specific effects on the functional potential involved in the phosphotransferase system (decreased sucrose phosphotransferase in the stomach) and antibiotic-resistance genes (increased in the colon). These results point to an early-life antibiotic-induced dramatic and location-specific shift in the gut microbiota, with profound impact in the foregut and less impact in the hindgut. Collectively, these findings provide new insights into the membership of the microbiota along the gastrointestinal tract of piglets and highlight the importance of considering the foregut microbiota in health management of piglets at early life.
Project description:Exposure to anthropogenic chemicals may indirectly compromise animal health by perturbing the gut microbiota. For example, the widely used herbicide glyphosate can affect the microbiota of honey bees, reducing the abundance of beneficial bacterial species that contribute to immune regulation and pathogen resistance. Previous studies have not addressed how this impact depends on concentration, duration of exposure, or stage of microbiota establishment. Worker bees acquire their microbiota from nestmates early in adult life, when they can also be exposed to chemicals collected by foragers or added to the hives. Here, we investigated how the gut microbiota of honey bees is affected by different concentrations of glyphosate and compared the effects with those caused by tylosin, an antibiotic commonly used to treat hives. We treated newly emerged workers at the stage at which they acquire the microbiota and also workers with established gut microbiota. Treatments consisted of exposure to sucrose syrup containing glyphosate in concentrations ranging from 0.01?mM to 1.0?mM or tylosin at 0.1?mM. Based on 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing and quantitative PCR (qPCR) determination of abundances, glyphosate perturbed the gut microbiota of honey bees regardless of age or period of exposure. Snodgrassella alvi was the most affected bacterial species and responded to glyphosate in a dose-dependent way. Tylosin also perturbed the microbiota, especially at the stage of acquisition, and the effects differed sharply from the effects of glyphosate. These findings show that sublethal doses of glyphosate (0.04 to 1.0?mM) and tylosin (0.1?mM) affect the microbiota of honey bees.IMPORTANCE As is true of many animal species, honey bees depend on their gut microbiota for health. The bee gut microbiota has been shown to regulate the host immune system and to protect against pathogenic diseases, and disruption of the normal microbiota leads to increased mortality. Understanding these effects can give broad insights into vulnerabilities of gut communities, and, in the case of honey bees, could provide information useful for promoting the health of these economically critical insects, which provide us with crop pollination services as well as honey and other products. The bee gut microbiota is acquired early in adult life and can be compromised by antibiotics and other chemicals. The globally used weed killer glyphosate was previously found to impact the gut microbiota of honey bees following sustained exposure. In the present study, we address how this impact depends on concentration, duration of exposure, and stage of community establishment. We found that sublethal doses of glyphosate reduce the abundance of beneficial bacteria and affect microbial diversity in the guts of honey bees, regardless of whether exposure occurs during or after microbiota acquisition. We also compared the effects of glyphosate to those of tylosin, an antibiotic used in beekeeping, and observed that tylosin effects diverge from those caused by glyphosate and are greater during microbiota acquisition. Such perturbations are not immediately lethal to bees but, depending on exposure level, can decrease survivorship under laboratory conditions.
Project description:Butyrate in the gut of animals has potential properties including regulating the innate immune, modulating the lipid metabolism, and protecting gut healthy. So far, only limited information on the impact of butyrate on the neonatal is available. This study aimed to investigate effects of oral administration of sodium butyrate (SB) on gut microbiota and the expression of inflammatory cytokine in neonatal piglets. Ten litters of crossbred newborn piglets were randomly allocated to the SB and control (CO) groups, each group consisted of five litters (replicates). Piglets in the SB group were orally administrated with 7 to 13 ml sodium butyrate solution (150 mmol/l) per day from the age of 1 to 7 days, respectively; piglets in the CO group were treated with the same dose of physiological saline. On days 8 and 21 (of age), gut digesta and tissues were collected for the analysis of microbiota, butyrate concentration and gene expression of inflammatory cytokine. Results showed that there was no difference in the butyrate concentration in the gut of piglets on days 8 and 21 between two groups. Real-time PCR assay showed that SB had no effect on the numbers of total bacteria in the stomach, ileum, and colon. MiSeq sequencing of the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene revealed that SB increased the richness in the stomach and colon, and the diversity of colonic microbiota on day 8 (P < 0.05). Genera Acinetobacter, Actinobacillus, Facklamia, Globicatella, Kocuria, Rothia, unclassified Leptotrichiaceae, unclassified Neisseriaceae, and unclassified Prevotellaceae in the stomach were increased in relative abundance by SB treatment, whereas the abundances of Lactobacillus decreased on day 8 (P < 0.05). At the genus and operational taxonomic unit (OTU) levels, SB had low impact on bacterial community in the ileum and colon on days 8 and 21. SB treatment decreased the expression of IL-6, IL-8, IFN-?, IL-10, TGF-?, and histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) in the ileum of piglets on day 8 (P < 0.05). SB treatment down-regulated the expression of IL-8, IFN-?, and IL-1? on day 21 (P < 0.05). Correlation analysis on the combined datasets revealed some potential relationships between gut microbiota and the expression of inflammatory cytokines. The results show that early intervention with sodium butyrate can modulate the ileum inflammatory cytokine in neonatal piglets with low impact on intestinal microbial structure, which suggests oral administration of SB may have a benefit role in the health of neonatal piglets.
Project description:Modulation of the synthesis of endogenous host defense peptides (HDPs) by probiotics represents a novel antimicrobial approach for disease control and prevention, particularly against antibiotic-resistant infections in human and animals. However, the extent of HDP modulation by probiotics is species dependent and strain specific. In the present study, The porcine small intestinal epithelial cell line (IPEC-J2) cells and neonatal piglets were used as in-vitro and in-vivo models to test whether Lactobacillus reuteri I5007 could modulate intestinal HDP expression. Gene expressions of HDPs, toll-like receptors, and fatty acid receptors were determined, as well as colonic short chain fatty acid concentrations and microbiota. Exposure to 10? colony forming units (CFU)/mL of L. reuteri I5007 for 6 h significantly increased the expression of porcine ?-Defensin2 (PBD2), pBD3, pBD114, pBD129, and protegrins (PG) 1-5 in IPEC-J2 cells. Similarly, L. reuteri I5007 administration significantly increased the expression of jejunal pBD2 as well as colonic pBD2, pBD3, pBD114, and pBD129 in neonatal piglets (p < 0.05). This was probably associated with the increase in colonic butyric acid concentration and up-regulating expression of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-? (PPAR-?) and G Protein-Coupled Receptor 41 (GPR41) (p < 0.05), but not with stimulation of Pattern-Recognition Receptors. Additionally, supplementation with L. reuteri I5007 in the piglets did not affect the colonic microbiota structure. Our findings suggested that L. reuteri I5007 could modulate intestinal HDP expression and improve the gut health of neonatal piglets, probably through the increase in colonic butyric acid concentration and the up-regulation of the downstream molecules of butyric acid, PPAR-? and GPR41, but not through modifying gut microbiota structure.
Project description:In North America, antibiotic feed additives such as monensin and tylosin are added to the finishing diets of feedlot cattle to counter the ill-effects of feeding diets with rapidly digestible carbohydrates. While these feed additives have been proven to improve feed efficiency and reduce liver abscess incidence, how these products impact the gastrointestinal microbiota is not completely understood. In this study, we analyzed the impact of providing antibiotic feed additives to feedlot cattle using metagenome sequencing of treated and control animals. Our results indicate that use of antibiotic feed additives does not produce discernable changes at the phylum level. However, treated cattle had reduced abundance of gram-positive bacteria at the genus level. The abundance of Ruminococcus, Erysipelotrichaceae and Lachnospiraceae in the gut of treated steers was reduced. Functional analysis of the data indicates that there was only minimal impact due to the treatment in the rumen. Genes involved in detoxification were significantly increased in the rumen of AB steers. But the relative abundance of these genes was < 0.3%. However, our results did not show any correlation between the presence of antimicrobial resistance genes in the gut microbiota and the administration of antibiotic feed additives.
Project description:Inadequate nutrition and physical inactivity are the mainstays of primary sarcopenia-physiopathology in older individuals. Gut microbiota composition is strongly dependent on both of these elements, and conversely, can also influence the host physiology by modulating systemic inflammation, anabolism, insulin sensitivity, and energy production. The bacterial metabolism of nutrients theoretically influences skeletal muscle cell functionality through producing mediators that drive all of these systemic effects. In this study, we review the scientific literature supporting the concept of the involvement of gut microbiota in primary sarcopenia physiopathology. First, we examine studies associating fecal microbiota alterations with physical frailty, i.e., the loss of muscle performance and normal muscle mass. Then, we consider studies exploring the effects of exercise on gut microbiota composition. Finally, we examine studies demonstrating the possible effects of mediators produced by gut microbiota on skeletal muscle, and intervention studies considering the effects of prebiotic or probiotic administration on muscle function. Even if there is no evidence of a distinct gut microbiota composition in older sarcopenic patients, we conclude that the literature supports the possible presence of a "gut-muscle axis", whereby gut microbiota may act as the mediator of the effects of nutrition on muscle cells.
Project description:In modern swine husbandry systems, antibiotics have been used as growth promoters for piglets during suckling or weaning period. However, while early colonization of intestinal microbiota has been regarded crucial for the host's later life performance and well-being, little is known about the impact of antibiotics on intestinal microbiota in suckling piglets. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of early antibiotics exposure on gut microbiota and microbial metabolism of suckling piglets. Sixteen litters of suckling piglets were fed a creep feed diet with (Antibiotic) or without (Control) antibiotics from postnatal days 7-23 (n = 8). The ileal and cecal digesta were obtained for microbial composition and microbial metabolites analysis. The results showed that the antibiotics significantly altered the bacterial community composition by decreasing (P < 0.05) the diversity and richness in the ileum. The antibiotics significantly reduced the abundance of Lactobacillus in both the ileum and cecum, increased the abundance of Streptococcus, unclassified Enterococcaceae, unclassified Fusobacteriales, and Corynebacterium in the ileum, and the abundance of unclassified Ruminococcaceae and unclassified Erysipelotrichaceae in the cecum. The antibiotics decreased (P < 0.05) ileal lactate concentration and cecal concentration of total short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). But the antibiotics enhanced protein fermentation (P < 0.05) in the ileum and cecum, as ileal concentrations of putrescine and cadaverine, and cecal concentrations of isobutyrate, isovalerate, putrescine, cadaverine, spermine, and spermidine were significantly increased (P < 0.05). These results indicated that early antibiotics exposure significantly altered the microbial composition of suckling piglets toward a vulnerable and unhealthy gut environment. The findings provide a new insight on the antibiotics impact on neonates and may provide new framework for designing alternatives to the antibiotics toward a healthy practice for suckling piglets.
Project description:The aim of this study was to examine shifts in the composition of the bacterial population in the intestinal tracts (ITs) of weaning piglets by antibiotic treatment using high-throughput sequencing.Sixty 28-d-old weaning piglets were randomly divided into two treatment groups. The Control group was treated with a basal diet without antibiotics. The Antibiotic group's basal diet contained colistin sulfate at a concentration of 20 g per ton and bacitracin zinc at a concentration of 40 g per ton. All of the pigs were fed for 28 days. Then, three pigs were killed, and the luminal contents of the jejunum, ileum, cecum, and colon were collected for DNA extraction and high-throughput sequencing.The results showed that the average daily weight gain of the antibiotic group was significantly greater (p<0.05), and the incidence of diarrhea lower (p>0.05), than the control group. A total of 812,607 valid reads were generated. Thirty-eight operational taxonomic units (OTUs) that were found in all of the samples were defined as core OTUs. Twenty-one phyla were identified, and approximately 90% of the classifiable sequences belonged to the phylum Firmicutes. Forty-two classes were identified. Of the 232 genera identified, nine genera were identified as the core gut microbiome because they existed in all of the tracts. The proportion of the nine core bacteria varied at the different tract sites. A heat map was used to understand how the numbers of the abundant genera shifted between the two treatment groups.At different tract sites the relative abundance of gut microbiota was different. Antibiotics could cause shifts in the microorganism composition and affect the composition of gut microbiota in the different tracts of weaning piglets.