Mechanistic insights into dimethyl cardamonin-mediated pharmacological effects: A double control of the AMPK-HMGB1 signaling axis.
ABSTRACT: Dimethyl cardamonin (DMC) has been isolated from diverse plants, notably from Cleistocalyx operculatus. We have reviewed the pharmacological properties of this natural product which displays anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperglycemic and anti-cancer properties. The pharmacological activities essentially derive from the capacity of DMC to interact with the protein targets HMGB1 and AMPK. Upon binding to HMGB1, DMC inhibits the nucleocytoplasmic transfer of the protein and its extracellular secretion, thereby blocking its alarmin function. DMC also binds to the AMP site of AMPK to activate phospho-AMPK and then to trigger downstream signals leading to the anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperglycemic effects. AMPK activation by DMC reinforces inhibition of HMGB1, to further reduce the release of the alarmin protein, likely contributing to the anticancer effects. The characterization of a tight control of DMC over the AMPK-HMGB1 axis not only helps to explain the known activities of DMC but also suggests opportunities to use this chalcone to treat other pathological conditions such as the acute respiratory distress syndrome (which affects patients with COVID-19). DMC structural analogues are also evoked.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Recently, metformin, a well-known anti-diabetic drug, has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory activities. This study investigated the effect of metformin on the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines including high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated animals and cells. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:We investigated whether metformin inhibits the release of HMGB1 in LPS-treated RAW 264.7 cells and increases survival rate in endotoxaemic mice (lethal endotoxaemia was induced by an i.p. injection of LPS). This was achieved by a range of techniques including Western blotting, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, specific pharmacological inhibitors, knock out of ?(1) -subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and recombinant HMGB1. KEY RESULTS:Both pre- and post-treatment with metformin significantly improved survival of animals during lethal endotoxaemia (survival rate was monitored up to 2 weeks), decreased serum levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), interleukin-1?, HMGB1 expression and myeloperoxidase activity in lungs. However, metformin failed to improve survival in endotoxaemic animals that had additionally been treated with recombinant HMGB1. In an in vitro study, metformin dose-dependently inhibited production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and HMGB1 release. Metformin activated AMPK by its phosphorylation. Compound C (pharmacological inhibitor of AMPK) and siAMPK?1 reversed the anti-inflammatory effect of metformin in LPS-treated cells. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:Our data indicate that metformin significantly attenuates the pro-inflammatory response induced by LPS both in vivo and in vitro. Metformin improved survival in a mouse model of lethal endotoxaemia by inhibiting HMGB1 release. AMPK activation was implicated as one of the mechanisms contributing to this inhibition of HMGB1 secretion.
Project description:Syzygium campanulatum Korth is an equatorial, evergreen, aboriginal shrub of Malaysia. Conventionally it has been used as a stomachic. However, in the currently conducted study dimethyl cardamonin or 2',4'-dihydroxy-6'-methoxy-3',5'-dimethylchalcone (DMC) was isolated from S. campanulatum Korth, leaf extract. The structural characterization of DMC was carried out by making use of various techniques including UV, IR, NMR spectral followed by LC-MS, and X-ray crystallographic techniques. For determining the purity of compound, highly effective techniques including TLC, HPLC, and melting point were used. The cytotoxicity of DMC and three different extracts of S. campanulatum was evaluated against human colon cancer cell line (HT-29) by three different assays. DMC and ethanolic extract revealed potent and dose-dependent cytotoxic activity on the cancer cell line with IC50 12.6 and 90.1?µg/mL, respectively. Quite astonishingly to our knowledge, this is the very first report on S. campanulatum as being a rich source (3.5%) of DMC, X-ray crystallography, and anticancer activity on human colon cancer cells.
Project description:The factors that determine whether disseminated transformed cells in vivo yield neoplastic lesions have only been partially identified. We established an ad hoc model of peritoneal carcinomatosis by injecting colon carcinoma cells in mice. Tumor cells recruit inflammatory leukocytes, mostly macrophages, and generate neoplastic peritoneal lesions. Phagocyte depletion via clodronate treatment reduces neoplastic growth. Colon carcinoma cells release a prototypic damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP)/alarmin, High Mobility Group Box1 (HMGB1), which attracts leukocytes. Exogenous HMGB1 accelerates leukocyte recruitment, macrophage infiltration, tumor growth and vascularization. Lentiviral-based HMGB1 knockdown or pharmacological interference with its extracellular impair macrophage recruitment and tumor growth. Our findings provide a preclinical proof of principle that strategies based on preventing HMGB1-driven recruitment of leukocytes could be used for treating peritoneal carcinomatosis.
Project description:Metformin is the first-line drug in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In addition to its hypoglycemic effect, metformin has an anti-inflammatory function, but the precise mechanism promoting this activity remains unclear. High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is an alarmin that is released from necrotic cells and induces inflammatory responses by its cytokine-like activity and is, therefore, a target of anti-inflammatory therapies. Here we identified HMGB1 as a novel metformin-binding protein by affinity purification using a biotinylated metformin analogue. Metformin directly bound to the C-terminal acidic tail of HMGB1. Both <i>in vitro</i> and <i>in vivo</i>, metformin inhibited inflammatory responses induced by full-length HMGB1 but not by HMGB1 lacking the acidic tail. In an acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury model in which HMGB1 released from injured cells exacerbates the initial injury, metformin effectively reduced liver injury and had no additional inhibitory effects when the extracellular HMGB1 was blocked by anti-HMGB1-neutralizing antibody. In summary, we report for the first time that metformin suppresses inflammation by inhibiting the extracellular activity of HMGB1. Because HMGB1 plays a major role in inflammation, our results suggest possible new ways to manage HMGB1-induced inflammation.
Project description:During sepsis, the alarmin HMGB1 is released from tissues and promotes systemic inflammation that results in multi-organ damage, with the kidney particularly susceptible to injury. The severity of inflammation and pro-damage signaling mediated by HMGB1 appears to be dependent on the alarmin's redox state. Therefore, we examined HMGB1 redox in kidney cells during sepsis. Using intravital microscopy, CellROX labeling of kidneys in live mice indicated increased ROS generation in the kidney perivascular endothelium and tubules during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sepsis. Subsequent CellROX and MitoSOX labeling of LPS-stressed endothelial and kidney proximal tubule cells demonstrated increased ROS generation in these cells as sepsis worsens. Consequently, HMGB1 oxidation increased in the cytoplasm of kidney cells during its translocation from the nucleus to the circulation, with the degree of oxidation dependent on the severity of sepsis, as measured in in vivo mouse samples using a thiol assay and mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The greater the oxidation of HMGB1, the greater the ability of the alarmin to stimulate pro-inflammatory cyto-/chemokine release (measured by Luminex Multiplex) and alter mitochondrial ATP generation (Luminescent ATP Detection Assay). Administration of glutathione and thioredoxin inhibitors to cell cultures enhanced HMGB1 oxidation during sepsis in endothelial and proximal tubule cells, respectively. In conclusion, as sepsis worsens, ROS generation and HMGB1 oxidation increases in kidney cells, which enhances HMGB1's pro-inflammatory signaling. Conversely, the glutathione and thioredoxin systems work to maintain the protein in its reduced state.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Cardamonin, a chalcone isolated from Alpiniae katsumadai, has anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activities. However, the molecular mechanism by which cardamonin inhibits breast cancer progression largely remains to be determined.<h4>Methods</h4>CCK-8 and Hoechst 33258 staining were used to detect cell growth and apoptosis, respectively. HIF-1? driven transcription was measured by luciferase reporter assay. Glucose uptake and lactate content were detected with 2-NBDG and L-Lactate Assay Kit. Cell metabolism assays were performed on Agilent's Seahorse Bioscience XF96 Extracellular Flux Analyzer. Mitochondrial membrane potential was measured with JC-1 probe. DCFH-DA was used to measure ROS level. Protein expression was detected by western blotting assay. Immunohistochemistry was performed to measure the expression of HIF-1?, LDHA and CD31 in tumor tissues.<h4>Results</h4>Cardamonin inhibited growth of the triple negative breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 in vitro and in vivo by suppressing HIF-1? mediated cell metabolism. Cardamonin inhibited the expression of HIF-1? at mRNA and protein levels by repressing the mTOR/p70S6K pathway, and subsequently enhanced mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. We also found that cardamonin inhibited the Nrf2-dependent ROS scavenging system which further increased intracellular ROS levels. Eventually, accumulation of the intracellular ROS induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells. In addition, cardamonin treatment reduced glucose uptake as well as lactic acid production and efflux, suggesting its function in repressing the glycolysis process.<h4>Conclusions</h4>These results reveal novel function of cardamonin in modulating cancer cell metabolism and suppressing breast cancer progression, and suggest its potential for breast cancer treatment.
Project description:Extracellular HMGB1 acts as an alarmin in multiple autoimmune diseases. While its release and functions have been extensively studied, there is a substantial lack of knowledge regarding HMGB1 regulation at the site of inflammation. Herein we show that enzymes present in arthritis-affected joints process HMGB1 into smaller peptides <i>in vitro</i>. Gel electrophoresis, Western blotting and mass spectrometry analyses indicate cleavage sites for human neutrophil elastase, cathepsin G, and matrix metalloproteinase 3 within the HMGB1 structure. While human neutrophil elastase and matrix metalloproteinase 3 might alter the affinity of HMGB1 to its receptors by cleaving the acidic C-terminal tail, cathepsin G rapidly and completely degraded the alarmin. Contrary to a previous report we demonstrate that HMGB1 is not a substrate for dipeptidyl peptidase IV. We also provide novel information regarding the presence of these proteases in synovial fluid of juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients. Correlation analysis of protease levels and HMGB1 levels in synovial fluid samples did not, however, reveal any direct relationship between the recorded levels. This study provides knowledge of proteolytic processing of HMGB1 relevant for the regulation of HMGB1 during inflammatory disease.
Project description:High Mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1) is a nuclear DNA binding protein which acts as an alarmin when secreted. HMGB1 is increased in SLE and might represent a potential therapeutic target. We investigated whether treatment with a anti-HMGB1 antibody affects the development of lupus nephritis in MRL/lpr mice.Seven week old MRL/lpr mice were injected intraperitoneally twice weekly for 10 weeks with 50 ?g monoclonal anti-HMGB1 (2G7, mouse IgG2b) (n=12) or control antibody (n=11). Control MRL/MPJ mice (n=10) were left untreated. Every two weeks blood was drawn and urine was collected at week 7, 11 and 17. Mice were sacrificed at 17 weeks for complete disease evaluation.Plasma HMGB1 and anti-HMGB1 levels were increased in MRL/lpr mice compared to control MRL/MPJ mice. There were no differences in albuminuria, urine HMGB1 and plasma levels of complement C3, anti-dsDNA and pro-inflammatory cytokines between untreated and treated mice at any time point. Lupus nephritis of mice treated with anti-HMGB1 mAb was classified as class III (n=3) and class IV (n=9), while mice treated with control mAb were classified as class II (n=4), class III (n=2) and class IV (n=5). IgG and C3 deposits in kidneys were similar in mice treated with anti-HMGB1 mAb or control mAb.Treatment with monoclonal anti-HMGB-1 antibody 2G7 does not affect development of lupus nephritis, disease progression or pro-inflammatory cytokines levels in MRL/lpr mice. This indicates that blocking of HMGB1 by this neutralizing antibody does not affect lupus nephritis in MRL/lpr mice.
Project description:High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a highly conserved, nuclear protein present in all cell types. It is a multi-facet protein exerting functions both inside and outside of cells. Extracellular HMGB1 has been extensively studied for its prototypical alarmin functions activating innate immunity, after being actively released from cells or passively released upon cell death. TLR4 and RAGE operate as the main HMGB1 receptors. Disulfide HMGB1 activates the TLR4 complex by binding to MD-2. The binding site is separate from that of LPS and it is now feasible to specifically interrupt HMGB1/TLR4 activation without compromising protective LPS/TLR4-dependent functions. Another important therapeutic strategy is established on the administration of HMGB1 antagonists precluding RAGE-mediated endocytosis of HMGB1 and HMGB1-bound molecules capable of activating intracellular cognate receptors. Here we summarize the role of HMGB1 in inflammation, with a focus on recent findings on its mission as a damage-associated molecular pattern molecule and as a therapeutic target in inflammatory diseases. Recently generated HMGB1-specific inhibitors for treatment of inflammatory conditions are discussed.
Project description:The increasing demand for safe and effective treatments of chronic pain has promoted the investigation of novel analgesic drugs. Some herbals have been known to be able to relieve pain, while the chemical basis and target involved in this process remained to be clarified. The current study aimed to find anti-nociceptive candidates targeting transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), a receptor that implicates in hyperalgesia and neurogenic inflammation. In the current study, 156 chemicals were tested for blocking HEK293/TRPA1 ion channel by calcium-influx assay. Docking study was conducted to predict the binding modes of hit compound with TRPA1 using Discovery Studio. Cytotoxicity in HEK293 was conducted by Cell Titer-Glo assay. Additionally, cardiotoxicity was assessed via xCELLigence RTCA system. We uncovered that cardamonin selectively blocked TRPA1 activation while did not interact with TRPV1 nor TRPV4 channel. A concentration-dependent inhibitory effect was observed with IC50 of 454 nM. Docking analysis of cardamonin demonstrated a compatible interaction with A-967079-binding site of TRPA1. Meanwhile, cardamonin did not significantly reduce HEK293 cell viability, nor did it impair cardiomyocyte constriction. Our data suggest that cardamonin is a selective TRPA1 antagonist, providing novel insight into the target of its anti-nociceptive activity.