Influence of various environmental factors on the growth of children and adolescents in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the association between various environmental factors and the anthropometric measurements of children and adolescents. METHODS:This retrospective studywasperformed from September 2017 to April 2018 and included 393 children aged 2-18 years. Data were extracted through patient and/or parentinterviews and from medical records of endocrine ambulatory clinics. RESULTS:Among underweight children,the proportion of mixed-fed children was the highest, and among normal weight children, most were either bottle-fed or mixed-fed. Most overweight children were mixed-fed, and most obese children were breastfed. Underweight status was noted most commonly in children playing videogames for <2 hours/day, followed by those playing>4 and 2-4 hours/day. Normal weight was noted most commonly in those playing for >4 hours/day, followed by those playing <2 and 2-4 hours/day. Overweight status was noted most commonly in those playing videogames for >4 hours/day, followed by those playing 2-4 and <2 hours/day. Most children playing videogames for <2 hours/day were obese. Mean BMIs were the highest in those who exercised 1-2 times/week. P-values for the association between passive smoking indoors and BMI, weight, and height were 0.045, 0.150, and 0.854, respectively. Regarding socioeconomic status, log BMI values were 1.22, 1.23, and 1.26 in low-, medium-, and high-income families, respectively (P-value, 0.001). CONCLUSION:Children who were bottle-fed in their first year of life, played video games >2 hours/day, did not exercise regularly, were exposed to indoor passive smoking, and had a high socioeconomic status had a higher BMI and weight than their counterparts. (www.actabiomedica.it).
Project description:Whether the design of an anti-vacuum infant feeding bottle influences infant milk intake, growth or behavior is unknown, and was the subject of this randomized trial.63 (36 male) healthy, exclusively formula-fed term infants.Randomisation to use Bottle A (n = 31), one-way air valve: Philips Avent) versus Bottle B (n = 32), internal venting system: Dr Browns). 74 breast-fed reference infants were recruited, with randomisation (n = 24) to bottle A (n = 11) or B (n = 13) if bottle-feeding was subsequently introduced. Randomisation: stratified by gender and parity; computer-based telephone randomisation by independent clinical trials unit.Infant home.infant weight gain to 4 weeks.(i) milk intake (ii) infant behaviour measured at 2 weeks (validated 3-day diary); (iii) risk of infection; (iv) continuation of breastfeeding following introduction of mixed feeding.Number analysed for primary outcome: Bottle A n = 29, Bottle B n = 25.There was no significant difference in weight gain between randomised groups (0-4 weeks Bottle A 0.74 (SD 1.2) SDS versus bottle B 0.51 (0.39), mean difference 0.23 (95% CI -0.31 to 0.77).Infants using bottle A had significantly less reported fussing (mean 46 versus 74 minutes/day, p < 0.05) than those using bottle B. There was no significant difference in any other outcome measure. Breast-fed reference group: There were no significant differences in primary or secondary outcomes between breast-fed and formula fed infants. The likelyhood of breastfeeding at 3 months was not significantly different in infants subsequently randomised to bottle A or B.Bottle design may have short-term effects on infant behaviour which merit further investigation. No significant effects were seen on milk intake or growth; confidence in these findings is limited by the small sample size and this needs confirmation in a larger study.Clinical Trials.gov NCT00325208.
Project description:PURPOSE:To explore the associations between type of milk feeding (the "nutrients") and mode of breast milk feeding (the "nursing") with child cognition. METHODS:Healthy children from the GUSTO (Growing Up in Singapore Toward healthy Outcomes) cohort participated in repeated neurodevelopmental assessments between 6 and 54 months. For "nutrients", we compared children exclusively bottle-fed according to type of milk received: formula only (n?=?296) vs some/all breast milk (n?=?73). For "nursing", we included only children who were fully fed breast milk, comparing those fed directly at the breast (n?=?59) vs those fed partially/completely by bottle (n?=?63). RESULTS:Compared to infants fed formula only, those who were bottle-fed breast milk demonstrated significantly better cognitive performance on both the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (Third Edition) at 2 years [adjusted mean difference (95% CI) 1.36 (0.32, 2.40)], and on the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (Second Edition) at 4.5 years [7.59 (1.20, 13.99)]. Children bottle-fed breast milk also demonstrated better gross motor skills at 2 years than those fed formula [1.60 (0.09, 3.10)]. Among infants fully fed breast milk, those fed directly at the breast scored higher on several memory tasks compared to children bottle-fed breast milk, including the deferred imitation task at 6 months [0.67 (0.02, 1.32)] and relational binding tasks at 6 [0.41 (0.07, 0.74)], 41 [0.67 (0.04, 1.29)] and 54 [0.12 (0.01, 0.22)] months. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings suggest that nutrients in breast milk may improve general child cognition, while nursing infants directly at the breast may influence memory.
Project description:The objective of this study was to identify the videogame-related experiences expressed by regular adolescent gamers and to explore the socio-family factors related to these experiences. A cross-sectional observational and descriptive study was carried out with a convenience sample of regular Spanish videogamers between 16 and 18 years old. To measure the use of videogames for evasion and its negative consequences, the Questionnaire of Videogame-Related Experiences (Cuestionario de Experiencias Relacionadas con Videojuegos, CERV) was used and socio-family variables collected, evaluating their relationship with the results of the CERV. A total of 206 adolescents participated, 89.3% men [84.3-93.2] and 17.9% [12.9-23.9] allocating more than 35 hours a week to videogames. The CERV subscale related to the evasive use of videogames (max. = 24 points) obtained a mean value of 11.71 (SD = 3.52) and the mean value for the subscale related to the negative consequences (max. = 27 points) was 7.14 (SD = 3.33). A higher frequency of high values of evasive use (p = .038) and higher scores of this subscale (p = .02) were found in gamers without brothers or sisters. Higher scores and larger numbers of negative consequences were found in gamers who play more than 21 hours a week (p = .032). In conclusion, frequent use of videogames does not seem to be carried out with an evasive purpose, except in the case of absence of siblings. Frequent videogame use has only proven to carry a higher level of negative consequences when playing more than 21 hours a week. No other socio-family variables related to these subscales of the CERV have been identified.
Project description:It is hypothesized that the visual and weight cues afforded by bottle-feeding may lead mothers to overfeed in response to the amount of liquid in the bottle. The aim of the present pilot study was to test this hypothesis by comparing mothers' sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues and infants' intakes when mothers use opaque, weighted bottles (that remove visual and weight cues) compared to conventional, clear bottles to feed their infants. We also tested the hypothesis that mothers' pressuring feeding style would moderate the effect of bottle type. Formula-feeding dyads (N?=?25) visited our laboratory on two separate days. Mothers fed their infants from a clear bottle one day and an opaque, weighted bottle on the other; bottle-order was counterbalanced across the two days. Infant intake was assessed by weighing each bottle before and after the feeding. Maternal sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues was objectively assessed using the Nursing Child Assessment Feeding Scale. Mothers were significantly more responsive to infant cues when they used opaque compared to clear bottles (p?=?.04). There was also a trend for infants to consume significantly less formula when fed from opaque compared to clear bottles (p?=?.08). Mothers' pressuring feeding style moderated the effect of bottle type on maternal responsiveness to infant cues (p?=?.02) and infant intake (p?=?.03). Specifically, mothers who reported higher levels of pressuring feeding were significantly more responsive to their infants' cues (p?=?.02) and fed their infants significantly less formula when using opaque versus clear bottles (p?=?.01); no differences were seen for mothers who reported lower levels of pressuring feeding. This study highlights a simple, yet effective intervention for improving the bottle-feeding practices of mothers who have pressuring feeding styles.
Project description:Formula-fed infants may be at greater risk for overfeeding and rapid weight gain. Different size bottles are used for feeding infants, although little is known about whether bottle size is related to weight gain in bottle-fed infants.Data from the Greenlight Intervention Study, a cluster randomized trial to prevent childhood obesity at 4 pediatric resident clinics, were used to analyze the exposure to regular (<6 oz) or large (?6 oz) bottle size at the 2-month visit on changes in weight, weight-for-age z score (WAZ), and weight-for-length z score (WLZ) at the 6-month visit. Using multivariable regression, we adjusted for potential confounders (birth weight, gender, age, weight measures at 2 months, parent race/ethnicity, education, household income and size, time between 2- and 6-month visits, and first child status).Forty-five percent (n = 386; 41% black, 35% Hispanic, 23% white, 2% other) of infants at the 2-month visit were exclusively formula-fed, and 44% used large (?6 oz) bottles. Infants whose parents fed with large bottles had 0.21 kg (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.05 to 0.37) more weight change, 0.24 U (95% CI: 0.07 to 0.41) more change in WAZ, and 0.31 U (95% CI: 0.08 to 0.54) more change in WLZ during this period than infants fed with regular bottles.Using a large bottle in early infancy independently contributed to greater weight gain and change in WLZ at the 6-month visit. Although growth in infancy is complex, bottle size may be a modifiable risk factor for rapid infant weight gain and later obesity among exclusively formula-fed infants.
Project description:As a group, bottle-fed infants are at higher risk for rapid weight gain compared with breast-fed infants. However, little is known about individual differences in feeding behaviors of bottle-feeding infants, as well as maternal and infant characteristics associated with bottle-feeding outcomes.We conducted a 2-day, within-subject study of 21 formula-feeding dyads; the within-subject factor was feeding condition: mother-led (ML; mothers were given the instruction to feed their infants as they typically would) vs. infant-led (IL; the experimenter ensured feeding began when infants signaled hunger and ended when they rejected the bottle on three consecutive occasions). Intake was determined by bottle weight; feedings were video-recorded and later analyzed to determine feeding duration and types of satiation behaviors displayed. Percent difference scores were calculated for each outcome as [((ML - IL)/IL)?×?100] to standardize differences among dyads. Mothers completed questionnaires of feeding styles and infant temperament.On average, infants consumed ?42% more formula during the ML- than IL-condition (p?=?0.03). However, notable variation existed in difference scores for intake (range?=?-52.8% to 268.9%; higher scores reflect greater intake during ML than IL). Stepwise regression illustrated that greater intakes during the ML-condition were predicted by the combination of: (1) higher infant age; (2) lower levels of infant rhythmicity and adaptability; (3) higher levels of infant positive mood; and (4) lower levels of maternal restrictive and responsive feeding styles.This objective, experimental approach illustrated that variation in bottle-feeding outcomes is associated with characteristics of both members of the dyad.
Project description:BACKGROUND: There is very little evidence of the similarity of the mechanics of maternal and bottle feeding. We assessed the mechanics of sucking in exclusive breastfeeding, exclusive bottle feeding, and mixed feeding. The hypothesis established was that physiological pattern for suckling movements differ depending on the type of feeding. According to this hypothesis, babies with breastfeeding have suckling movements at the breast that are different from the movements of suckling a teat of babies fed with bottle. Children with mixed feeding mix both types of suckling movements. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of infants aged 21-28 days with only maternal feeding or bottle feeding (234 mother-infant pairs), and a randomized open cross-over field trial in newborns aged 21-28 days and babies aged 3-5 months with mixed feeding (125 mother-infant pairs). Primary outcome measures were sucks and pauses. RESULTS: Infants aged 21-28 days exclusively bottle-fed showed fewer sucks and the same number of pauses but of longer duration compared to breastfeeding. In mixed feeding, bottle feeding compared to breastfeeding showed the same number of sucks but fewer and shorter pauses, both at 21-28 days and at 3-5 months. The mean number of breastfeedings in a day (in the mixed feed group) was 5.83 +/- 1.93 at 21-28 days and 4.42 +/- 1.67 at 3-5 months. In the equivalence analysis of the mixed feed group, the 95% confidence interval for bottle feeding/breastfeeding ratio laid outside the range of equivalence, indicating 5.9-8.7% fewer suction movements, and fewer pauses, and shorter duration of them in bottle feeding compared with breastfeeding. CONCLUSIONS: The mechanics of sucking in mixed feeding lay outside the range of equivalence comparing bottle feeding with breastfeeding, although differences were small. Children with mixed feeding would mix both types of sucking movements (breastfeeding and bottle feeding) during the learning stage and adopt their own pattern.
Project description:<b><i>Background:</i></b> Previous research indicates games for health have substantial promise in promoting change in children's diet and physical activity (PA) behavior for obesity and diabetes prevention, but the research has generally not been rigorous. The study reported here was an efficacy trial of two role-playing videogames played in sequence, "Escape from Diab" (hereinafter called Diab) and "Nanoswarm: Invasion from Inner Space" (hereinafter called Nano), on diabetes and obesity risk factors: fasting insulin and body mass index (BMI), and risk-related behaviors: diet, PA, and sedentary behavior (SB). <b><i>Design:</i></b> A two-group (treatment vs. wait list control) randomized clinical trial was used with baseline, immediate postintervention (?3 months postbaseline), and 2 months postassessments. <b><i>Intervention:</i></b> Diab and Nano were desktop or laptop role-playing videogames with nine sessions (each episode/session lasting ?60 minutes). Two storylines attempted to immerse players and used ethnically diverse characters to model desired behaviors. Tailored goal setting, problem solving, and motivational statements were used. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> A sample of 200 overweight or obese children (ages 10-12 years from 85th to 99th BMI percentile [%ile]) was recruited, primarily using a volunteer list. Fasting insulin was the primary dependent variable. BMI, fruit, vegetable and sweetened beverage intakes, PA, and SBs were secondary outcomes. Generalized linear mixed models were used to test for the treatment effects. <b><i>Results:</i></b> No significant differences were detected in any of the tested outcome variables. <b><i>Conclusions:</i></b> The lack of differences may indicate that games cannot change dietary behaviors and thereby not change-related clinical outcomes. Alternatively, there seem to have been changes in (1) the types of videogames children expect and like to play since a pilot study was conducted, (2) productization challenges, and/or (3) problems in staff management of the trial. All may have contributed to the lack of effect.
Project description:Previous research supports a possible link between low vitamin D levels and atopic disease. However, the association between low vitamin D levels and total and allergen-specific IgE levels has not been studied.We sought to test the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) deficiency (<15 ng/mL) and insufficiency (15-29 ng/mL) and allergic sensitization measured by serum IgE levels in a US nationally representative sample of 3136 children and adolescents and 3454 adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006.The association of 25(OH)D deficiency with 17 different allergens was assessed after adjustment for potential confounders, including age; sex; race/ethnicity; obesity, low socioeconomic status; frequency of milk intake; daily hours spent watching television, playing videogames, or using a computer; serum cotinine levels; and vitamin D supplement use.In children and adolescents allergic sensitization to 11 of 17 allergens was more common in those with 25(OH)D deficiency. Compared with sufficient vitamin D levels of greater than 30 ng/mL, after multivariate adjustment, 25(OH)D levels of less than 15 ng/mL were associated with peanut (odds ratio [OR], 2.39; 95% CI, 1.29-4.45), ragweed (OR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.20-2.80), and oak (OR, 4.75; 95% CI, 1.53-4.94) allergies (P < .01 for all). Eight other allergens were associated with 25(OH)D deficiency, with P values of less than .05 but greater than .01. There were no consistent associations seen between 25(OH)D levels and allergic sensitization in adults.Vitamin D deficiency is associated with higher levels of IgE sensitization in children and adolescents. Further research is needed to confirm these findings.
Project description:Understanding the role that breastfeeding and bottle feeding play in the development of dental caries during childhood is essential in helping dentists and parents and care providers prevent the disease, and also for the development of effective public health policies. However, the issue is not yet fully understood. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to search for scientific evidence in response to the question: Do bottle fed children have more dental caries in primary dentition than breastfed children? Seven electronic databases and grey literature were used in the search. The protocol number of the study is PROSPERO CRD 42014006534. Two independent reviewers selected the studies, extracted data and evaluated risk of bias by quality assessment. A random effect model was used for meta-analysis, and the summary effect measure were calculated by odds ratio (OR) and 95% CI. Seven studies were included: five cross-sectional, one case-control and one cohort study. A meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies showed that breastfed children were less affected by dental caries than bottle fed children (OR: 0.43; 95%CI: 0.23-0.80). Four studies showed that bottle fed children had more dental caries (p<0.05), while three studies found no such association (p>0.05). The scientific evidence therefore indicated that breastfeeding can protect against dental caries in early childhood. The benefits of breastfeeding until age two is recommended by WHO/UNICEF guidelines. Further prospective observational cohort studies are needed to strengthen the evidence.