Comparative Analysis of Volatile Compounds of Gamma-Irradiated Mutants of Rose (Rosa hybrida).
ABSTRACT: Roses are one of the most important floricultural crops, and their essential oils have long been used for cosmetics and aromatherapy. We investigated the volatile compound compositions of 12 flower-color mutant variants and their original cultivars. Twelve rose mutant genotypes were developed by treatment with 70 Gy of 60Co gamma irradiation of six commercial rose cultivars. Essential oils from the flowers of the 18 genotypes were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Seventy-seven volatile compounds were detected, which were categorized into six classes: Aliphatic hydrocarbons, aliphatic alcohols, aliphatic ester, aromatic compounds, terpene alcohols, and others. Aliphatic (hydrocarbons, alcohols, and esters) compounds were abundant categories in all rose flowers. The CR-S2 mutant had the highest terpene alcohols and oil content. Three (CR-S1, CR-S3, and CR-S4) mutant genotypes showed higher ester contents than their original cultivar. Nonacosane, 2-methylhexacosane, and 2-methyltricosane were major volatile compounds among all genotypes. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) of the rose genotypes gave four groups according to grouping among the 77 volatile compounds. In addition, the principal component analysis (PCA) model was successfully applied to distinguish most attractive rose lines. These findings will be useful for the selection of rose genotypes with improved volatile compounds.
Project description:Terpenoids are economically and ecologically important compounds, and they are vital constituents in rose flower fragrance and rose essential oil. The terpene synthase genes (TPSs), <i>trans</i>-prenyltransferases genes (TPTs), <i>NUDX1</i> are involved in middle and downstream pathway of volatile terpene biosynthesis in rose flowers. We identified 7 complete <i>RcTPT</i>s, 49 complete <i>RcTPS</i>s, and 9 <i>RcNUDX1</i> genes in the genome of <i>Rosa</i><i>chinensis</i>. During the flower opening process of butterfly rose (<i>Rosa</i><i>chinensis</i> 'Mutabilis', MU), nine <i>RcTPSs</i> expressed in the petals of opening MU flowers exhibited two main expression trends, namely high and low, in old and fresh petals. Five short-chain petal-expressed <i>RcTPTs</i> showed expression patterns corresponding to <i>RcTPS</i>s. Analysis of differential volatile terpenes and differential expressed genes indicated that higher emission of geraniol from old MU petals might be related to the <i>RcGPPS</i> expression. Comprehensive analysis of volatile emission, sequence structure, micro-synteny and gene expression suggested that <i>RcTPS18</i> may encode (<i>E</i>,<i>E</i>)-α-farnesene synthase. These findings may be useful for elucidating the molecular mechanism of terpenoid metabolism in rose and are vital for future studies on terpene regulation.
Project description:The stability of minor bioactive compounds in olive-pomace oils (OPOs) was evaluated at frying temperature under the conditions of a thermoxidation test. Bioactive compounds analyzed included squalene, tocopherols, sterols, triterpenic acids and alcohols, and aliphatic alcohols. In order to determine the amount of OPO bioactive compounds incorporated into foods after frying, three different kinds of frozen products were selected, i.e., pre-fried potatoes (French fries), pre-fried battered chicken nuggets, and chicken croquettes (breaded patties), and were used in discontinuous frying experiments. Results obtained in both the thermoxidation and frying studies showed high stability of triterpenic alcohols (erythrodiol and uvaol), oleanolic acid, and aliphatic alcohols, naturally present in OPOs. In all fried foods, the content of lipids increased after frying, as expected, although the extent of absorption of OPOs into fried foods and the exchange with food lipids depended on the food characteristics. Overall, frying with OPOs improved the nutritional properties of all products tested by increasing the level of oleic acid and by the incorporation of squalene, triterpenic acids and alcohols, and aliphatic alcohols, in significant quantities.
Project description:Niche production is intended to produce premium pork, but several husbandry factors may affect the meat fatty acid composition and aroma. Fatty acid profile (by GC-FID) of raw meat and volatile compounds (by SPME-GC-MS) of cooked meat were analysed in loin samples from two pig genetic types-75% Duroc (Du) and 50% Pietrain (Pi) rossbreds that were slaughtered at different weights (90 kg and 105 kg, respectively) to achieve similar target carcass fatness, and the outcome carcasses were balanced for lean grade groups (<60% or ?60% lean) within genotypes. Genetic type did not affect fatty acids (FA) profile of meat. The leaner meat had lower C12:0 and C20:3n - 3, lower saturated fatty acids (SFA) and higher MUFA/SFA ratio content than the fattier meat. Short-chain alcohols were lower in Pietrain and in leaner pork compared to the samples from Duroc crossbreds and fattier pork. A greater amount of hexane,2,4,4-trimethyl (an aliphatic hydrocarbon) but lower carbon disulphide (sulphur compound) content was detected in pork from leaner compared to fattier pork. Higher aromatics hydrocarbons were exclusively associated with Duroc crossbreds, and lower aliphatic hydrocarbons with pigs classified as fattier. Most of the volatile compounds detected in the present study came from lipid oxidation.
Project description:The chemical composition of volatile oils from 22 genotypes of Citrus and related genera was poorly differentiated, but chemometric techniques have clarified the relationships between the 22 genotypes, and allowed us to understand their resistance to D. citri. The most convincing similarities include the synthesis of (Z)-β-ocimene and (E)-caryophyllene for all 11 genotypes of group A. Genotypes of group B are not uniformly characterized by essential oil compounds. When stimulated with odor sources of 22 genotypes in a Y-tube olfactometer D. citri preferentially entered the arm containing the volatile oils of Murraya paniculata, confirming orange jasmine as its best host. C. reticulata × C. sinensis was the least preferred genotype, and is characterized by the presence of phytol, (Z)-β-ocimene, and β-elemene, which were not found in the most preferred genotype. We speculate that these three compounds may act as a repellent, making these oils less attractive to D. citri.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Previous reports have mainly focused on the volatiles in citrus fruits, and there have been few reports about the volatiles in citrus leaves and flowers. However, citrus leaves and flowers are also rich in volatile compounds with unique aromas. Here, to investigate the volatiles in citrus leaves and flowers, volatile profiling was performed on leaves from 62 germplasms and flowers from 25 germplasms. RESULTS:In total, 196 and 82 volatile compounds were identified from leaves of 62 citrus germplasms and flowers of 25 citrus germplasms, respectively. The dominant volatile terpenoids were more diverse in citrus leaves than in peels. A total of 34 volatile terpenoids were commonly detected in the leaves of at least 20 germplasms, among which 31 were overaccumulated in the leaves of wild or semiwild germplasms. This result was consistent with the high expression levels of five genes and one key gene of the mevalonate and 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) biosynthetic pathways, respectively, as well as the low expression levels of geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase of the MEP pathway, relative to the levels in cultivars. Fully open flowers showed increased levels of four terpene alcohols and a decrease in sabinene content compared with balloon-stage flowers, especially in sweet orange. A monoterpene synthase gene was identified and functionally characterized as a sabinene synthase in vitro. CONCLUSIONS:Collectively, our results suggest that 31 important terpenoids are abundant in wild or semiwild citrus germplasms, possibly because of a negative effect of domestication on the volatiles in citrus leaves. The sweet smell of fully open flowers may be attributed to increased levels of four terpene alcohols. In addition, a sabinene synthase gene was identified by combined transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses.
Project description:The current study evaluated the key characters of aroma composition in diversified red wines (Cinsaut, Grenache, Cabernet Franc, Petit Verdot, Cabernet Sauvignon, Nielluccio, Tempranillo, Syrah, Merlot and Caladoc). Out of hundreds of volatile compounds 64 compounds were considered for study. Different groups consisting of fatty acids, volatile alcohols, aldehydes, esters, volatile phenols and terpenes were analysed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry coupled with thermal desorption (TD-GC-MS). Among all these diversified classes, alcohols were found as the most dominant group followed by esters and acids whereas aldehydes, phenols and terpenes were found to be minor compounds. Among the varieties, Nielluccio wine recorded highest concentration of total volatile compounds (191.53 mg/L) while, it was least in Caladoc wines (15.45 mg/L). The principal component analysis clearly differentiated Grenache wines based on their relationships between scores and their aroma composition followed by Nielluccio and Cinsuat wines. Out of sixty four compounds, only six aromatic compounds viz. butanediol, isoamyl actate, ?-Terpene, butanol, acetic acid and furfural have satisfying aroma descriptors with floral and fruity nuances and contribute to differentiate the Grenache wines from other varieties which have similar scores in PC1 analysis. The cluster analysis also suggested that the wines in the same group (Cinsaut, Tempranillo and Syrah), (Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Caladoc and Merlot) and (Nielluccio and Petit Verdot) had similar aroma characterization. Grenache wines were well differentiated from the sub group formed by other red varieties.
Project description:The meadow spittlebug, Philaenus spumarius L. (Hemiptera, Aphrophoridae) is a commonly found vector of Xylella fastidiosa Wells et al. (1987) strain subspecies pauca associated with the "Olive Quick Decline Syndrome" in Italy. To contribute to the knowledge of the adult P. spumarius chemoreceptivity, electroantennographic (EAG) responses of both sexes to 50 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including aliphatic aldehydes, alcohols, esters, and ketones, terpenoids, and aromatics were recorded. Measurable EAG responses were elicited by all compounds tested. In both sexes, octanal, 2-octanol, 2-decanone, (E)-2-hexenyl acetate, and vanillin elicited the strongest antennal amplitude within the chemical groups of aliphatic saturated aldehydes, aliphatic alcohols, aliphatic acetates and aromatics, respectively. Male and female EAG responses to sulcatol, (±)linalool, and sulcatone were higher than those to other terpenoinds. In both sexes, the weakest antennal stimulants were phenethyl alcohol and 2-pentanone. Sexual differences in the EAG amplitude were found only for four of test compounds suggesting a general similarity between males and females in antennal sensitivity. The olfactory system of both sexes proved to be sensitive to changes in stimulus concentration, carbon chain length, and compound structure. Compounds with short carbon chain length (C5-C6) elicited lower EAG amplitudes than compounds with higher carbon chain length (C9-C10) in all classes of aliphatic hydrocarbons with different functional groups. The elucidation of the sensitivity profile of P. spumarius to a variety of VOCs provides a basis for future identification of behaviorally-active compounds useful for developing semiochemical-based control strategies of this pest.
Project description:Volatile profiles yielded from gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis provide abundant information not only for metabolism-related research, but also for chemotaxonomy. To study the chemotaxonomy of Mangshanyegan, its volatile profiles of fruit and leaf and those of 29 other genotypes of Citrus, Poncirus, and Fortunella were subjected to phylogenetic analyses. Results showed that 145 identified (including 64 tentatively identified) and 15 unidentified volatile compounds were detected from their peel oils. The phylogenetic analysis of peel oils based on hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) demonstrated a good agreement with the Swingle taxonomy system, in which the three genera of Citrus, Poncirus, and Fortunella were almost completely separated. As to Citrus, HCA indicated that Citrophorum, Cephalocitrus, and Sinocitrus fell into three subgroups, respectively. Also, it revealed that Mangshanyegan contain volatile compounds similar to those from pummelo, though it is genetically believed to be a mandarin. These results were further supported by the principal component analysis of the peel oils and the HCA results of volatile profiles of leaves in the study.
Project description:Honey composition and color depend greatly on the botanical and geographical origin. Water content, water activity and color of 50 declared acacia samples, collected from three different geographical zones of Romania, together with chromatographic determination of sugar spectrum were analyzed. A number of 79 volatile compounds from the classes of: Alcohols, aldehydes, esters, ketones, sulphur compounds, aliphatic hydrocarbons, nitrogen compounds, carboxylic acids, aromatic acids and ethers were identified by solid-phase micro-extraction and gas-chromatography mass spectrometry. The overall volatile profile and sugar spectrum of the investigated honey samples allow the differentiation of geographical origin for the acacia honey samples subjected to analysis. The statistical models of the chromatic determination, physicochemical parameters and volatile profile was optimal to characterize the honey samples and group them into three geographical origins, even they belong to the same botanical origin.
Project description:Jasmine tea is widely loved by the public because of its unique and pleasant aroma and taste. The new scenting process is different from the traditional scenting process, because the new scenting process has a thin pile height to reduce the high temperature and prolong the scenting time. We qualified and quantified volatiles in jasmine and jasmine tea during the scenting process by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with a headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME). There were 71 and 78 effective volatiles in jasmine and jasmine tea, respectively, including 24 terpenes, 9 alcohols, 24 esters, 6 hydrocarbons, 1 ketone, 3 aldehydes, 2 nitrogen compounds, and 2 oxygen-containing compounds in jasmine; 29 terpenes, 6 alcohols, 28 esters, 8 nitrogen compounds, 1 aldehyde, and 6 other compounds in jasmine tea. The amounts of terpenes, esters, alcohols, nitrogen compounds, and hydrocarbons in jasmine and tea rose and then fell. The amount of oxygenated compounds of tea in the new scenting process first rose and then fell, while it showed a continuous upward trend during the traditional process. The amount of volatiles in jasmine and tea produced by the new scenting process were higher than that of the traditional scenting process at the same time. This study indicated that jasmine tea produced by the new scenting process had better volatile quality, which can provide proof for the new scenting process.