Evaluating Quality Parameters, the Metabolic Profile, and Other Typical Features of Selected Commercial Extra Virgin Olive Oils from Brazil.
ABSTRACT: The production of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) in Brazil developed quite recently, and information on commercial Brazilian EVOO's typical features is very scarce. In just one of the previously published works on Brazilian olive oil, the assessed samples were commercially available. In this study, a comprehensive characterization of EVOO samples acquired at local stores (at Rio de Janeiro and Rio Grande do Sul, from the two most prevalent cultivars, Arbequina and Koroneiki) was carried out considering the most relevant quality parameters, antioxidant capacity, oxidative stability, total phenolic content, fatty acid composition, and minor component metabolic profiling. The latter included: (1) the determination of individual phenolic compounds (belonging to four diverse chemical classes) and triterpenic acids by means of a powerful multi-class reversed-phase LC-MS method; (2) the quantitative profiling of tocopherols, phytosterols, and pigments by normal-phase LC-DAD/fluorescence; and (3) the quantitative appraisal of the volatile pattern of the oils by solid-phase microextraction (SPME)-gas chromatography (GC)-MS. By applying these methods, the concentrations of approximately 70 minor compounds were determined in commercial EVOOs from Brazil. To the best of our knowledge, the content of a very large number of phenolic compounds of those determined in the current report (mainly secoiridoids), the three triterpenic acids (maslinic, betulinic, and oleanolic acids), and the individual chlorophyll derivatives had not been previously evaluated in Brazilian EVOOs. The present work provides a broad picture of the compositional profile and other parameters of relevance of selected commercial Brazilian EVOOs available on local markets, describing their typicity and most particular features, some of which are known to have potential impacts on consumers' health.
Project description:Extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) is largely appreciated for its proven nutritional properties. Additionally, organic foods are perceived as healthier by consumers. In this context, the aim of the present study was to compare the phenolic profiles of EVOO from olives of the Hojiblanca variety, cultivated under organic and conventional systems. The quantification and identification of individual polyphenols was carried out by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry in tandem mode (LC-MS/MS). Significantly higher levels (p < 0.05) of phenolic compounds were found in organic EVOOs. The methodology used was able to detect previously unreported differences in bioactive components between organic and conventional EVOOs.
Project description:Despite having an interesting native olive gene pool and a rapidly emerging olive oil industry, monovarietal extra virgin olive oils (EVOO) from Croatia are relatively unexplored. To investigate the inter-varietal diversity of typical volatile and phenolic profiles of Croatian EVOO, 93 samples from six olive (Olea europaea L.) varieties were subjected to gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry (GC-IT-MS) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (UPLC-DAD), respectively. Quantitative descriptive sensory analysis was also performed. Analysis of variance extracted many relevant exclusive or partial discriminators between monovarietal EVOOs among the identified volatile compounds and phenols. Successful differentiation model with a 100% correct classification was built by linear discriminant analysis, while the most typical volatiles for each monovarietal EVOO were confirmed by partial least squares discriminant analysis. Diverse typical sensory attributes among the EVOOs were tentatively ascribed to the variations in the composition of volatiles and phenols. It was proven that the approach that comprises GC-IT-MS and UPLC-DAD analysis may provide additional objective information about varietal origin and typicity which successfully complement those obtained by sensory analysis. The approach was characterized as universal in nature, with a significant potential to contribute in strengthening the varietal identities and position on the market of monovarietal and Protected Denomination of Origin (PDO) EVOO.
Project description:In order to differentiate the extra virgin olive oils (EVOO) of different origin of purchase, such as monovarietal Italian EVOO with protected denomination of origin (PDO) and commercial-blended EVOO purchased in supermarkets, a number of samples was subjected to the analysis of volatile aroma compounds by both targeted gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and untargeted profiling by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOF-MS), analysis of phenols by targeted high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS), and quantitative descriptive sensory analysis. Monovarietal PDO EVOOs were characterized by notably higher amounts of positive LOX-derived C6 and C5 volatile compounds, which corresponded to the higher intensities of all the assessed positive fruity and green odor sensory attributes. Commercial-blended EVOOs had larger quantities of generally undesirable esters, alcohols, acids, and aldehydes, which coincided with the occurrence of sensory defects in many samples. Many minor volatile compounds that were identified by GC×GC-TOF-MS were found to differentiate each of the two investigated groups. The differences between the groups with respect to phenols and taste characteristics were evident, but less pronounced. The results that were obtained in this study have undoubtedly confirmed the existence of the large heterogeneity of oils that are sold declared as EVOO. It was shown that GC-MS, GC×GC-TOF-MS, and HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS analyses have complementary outputs, and that their use in combination has advantages in supporting the results of sensory analysis and objectively differentiating these groups of EVOO.
Project description:The phenolic profiles of extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs) may influence their cardiovascular benefits. In a randomized crossover of acute EVOO intake on platelet function, participants (n=9) consumed 40 mL of EVOO weekly. EVOOs were matched for total phenolic content and were either tyrosol-poor with 1:2 oleacein/oleocanthal (D2i0.5), or 2:1 oleacein/oleocanthal (D2i2), or predominantly tyrosol (D2i0). Ibuprofen provided a platelet inhibition control. Blood was collected pre- and 2 hr post-EVOO intake. D2i0.5 and D2i2 reduced 1 µg/mL collagen-stimulated maximum platelet aggregation (Pmax), with effects best correlated to oleocanthal intake (R=0.56, P=0.002). Total phenolic intake was independently correlated to eicosanoid production inhibition, suggesting that cyclooxygenase blockade was not responsible for the Pmax inhibition. Five participants exhibited >25% ?Pmax declines with D2i0.5 and D2i2 intake and plasma metabolomic profiles discriminated subjects by oil responsivity. Platelet responses to acute EVOO intake are associated with oil phenolic composition and may be influenced by diet.
Project description:The roles of phenolics from olive oils as effective anticancer agents have been documented in various in vitro studies of different cancer cells lines, but the relationship between the phenolic profile of olive oil and its biological activity needs more elucidation. In this study, we analysed phenolic profiles of extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs) from different autochthonous cultivars from Croatia (Oblica, Bjelica, Buža, Žižolera) and investigated the biological effect of EVOO phenolic extracts (EVOO-PEs) on human cervical (HeLa) and human colon (SW48) cancer cell lines alone and in combination with cisplatin (cDDP), carboplatin (CBP), 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and irinotecan. The quantitative evaluation of olive oil polyphenols was performed by HPLC-DAD and spectrophotometric analysis. The biological effect of EVOO-PEs alone and in combination with anticancer drugs was measured by MTT assay. Analysed EVOO-PEs differ in phenolic profile and inhibited HeLa and SW48 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Further, it is shown that EVOO-PEs (Oblica-Sea, Buža and Žižolera), in combination with anticancer drugs, increase the metabolic activity of HeLa and SW48 cells and have a protective role. These data imply careful consummation of olive oil during chemotherapy of cancer patients.
Project description:Extra-Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) is a fundamental component of the Mediterranean diet and it may contain several anti-oxidant substances, such as phenols. Previous research has shown that this food may be enriched in phenols by spraying a sodium-selenate solution (100 mg L-1 Se) onto the crop canopy before flowering. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of this Se-fertilization before flowering (cv. Leccino) on the phenolic profile of EVOOs, and test to what extent such effects depend on the weather pattern, as observed in two contrasting experimental seasons (2013 and 2014). Results showed that Se-fertilisation enriched EVOOs both in selenium (up to 120 ?g kg-1) and in phenols (up to 401 mg kg-1). This latter enrichment was related to an increase in PAL (L-Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase) activities and it was largely independent on the climatic pattern. Considering the phenolic profile, oleacein, ligustroside, aglycone and oleocanthal were the most affected compounds and were increased by 57, 50 and 32%, respectively. All these compounds, especially oleacein, have been shown to exert a relevant anti-oxidant activity, contributing both to the shelf-life of EVOOs and to positive effects on human health. It is suggested that Se-fertilisation of olive trees before flowering may be an interesting practice, particularly with poor cultivars and cold and rainy weather patterns, which would normally lead to the production of EVOOs with unfavourable phenolic profile.
Project description:In order to understand the distribution of the main secondary metabolites found in <i>Olea europaea</i> L., eight different samples (olive leaf, stem, seed, fruit skin and pulp, as well as virgin olive oil, olive oil obtained from stoned and dehydrated fruits and olive seed oil) coming from a Picudo cv. olive tree were analyzed. All the experimental conditions were selected so as to assure the maximum coverage of the metabolome of the samples under study within a single run. The use of LC and GC with high resolution MS (through different ionization sources, ESI and APCI) and the annotation strategies within MetaboScape 3.0 software allowed the identification of around 150 compounds in the profiles, showing great complementarity between the evaluated methodologies. The identified metabolites belonged to different chemical classes: triterpenic acids and dialcohols, tocopherols, sterols, free fatty acids, and several sub-types of phenolic compounds. The suitability of each platform and polarity (negative and positive) to determine each family of metabolites was evaluated in-depth, finding, for instance, that LC-ESI-MS (+) was the most efficient choice to ionize phenolic acids, secoiridoids, flavonoids and lignans and LC-APCI-MS was very appropriate for pentacyclic triterpenic acids (MS (-)) and sterols and tocopherols (MS (+)). Afterwards, a semi-quantitative comparison of the selected matrices was carried out, establishing their typical features (e.g., fruit skin was pointed out as the matrix with the highest relative amounts of phenolic acids, triterpenic compounds and hydroxylated fatty acids, and seed oil was distinctive for its high relative levels of acetoxypinoresinol and tocopherols).
Project description:Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) has elevated commercial value due to its health appeal, desirable characteristics and quantitatively limited production, and thus it has become an object of intentional adulteration. As EVOOs on the market might consist of a blend of olive varieties or sometimes even of a mixture of oils from different botanical species, an array of DNA-fingerprinting methods have been developed to check the varietal composition of the blend. Starting from a comparison between publicly available DNA extraction protocols, we set up a timely, low-cost, reproducible and effective DNA isolation protocol, which allows an adequate amount of DNA to be recovered even from commercial filtered EVOOs. Then, in order to verify the effectiveness of the DNA extraction protocol herein proposed, we applied PCR-based fingerprinting methods starting from the DNA extracted from three EVOO samples of unknown composition. In particular, genomic regions harboring nine simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and eight genotyping-by-sequencing-derived single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were amplified for authentication and traceability of the three EVOO samples. The whole investigation strategy herein described might favor producers in terms of higher revenues and consumers in terms of price transparency and food safety.
Project description:High performance liquid chromatography method with ultra-violet detection (HPLC-UV) fingerprinting was applied for the analysis and characterization of olive oils, and was performed using a Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C8 reversed-phase column under gradient elution, employing 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution and methanol as mobile phase. More than 130 edible oils, including monovarietal extra-virgin olive oils (EVOOs) and other vegetable oils, were analyzed. Principal component analysis results showed a noticeable discrimination between olive oils and other vegetable oils using raw HPLC-UV chromatographic profiles as data descriptors. However, selected HPLC-UV chromatographic time-window segments were necessary to achieve discrimination among monovarietal EVOOs. Partial least square (PLS) regression was employed to tackle olive oil authentication of Arbequina EVOO adulterated with Picual EVOO, a refined olive oil, and sunflower oil. Highly satisfactory results were obtained after PLS analysis, with overall errors in the quantitation of adulteration in the Arbequina EVOO (minimum 2.5% adulterant) below 2.9%.
Project description:Olive oil and its derivatives have been described to exert beneficial effects on hypertensive states and cardiovascular disease prevention. We studied the effects of chronic consumption of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), enriched in bioactive compounds from olive fruit and leaves, on blood pressure, endothelial function, oxidative and inflammatory status, and circulating cholesterol levels, in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Thirty SHR were randomly assigned to three groups: a control untreated SHR group, an SHR group (1 mL/rat/day) of a control olive oil (17.6 mg/kg of phenolic compounds), and an SHR group (1 mL/rat/day) of the enriched EVOO (750 mg/kg of phenolic compounds) for eight weeks. Ten Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) were included as healthy controls. Long-term administration of the enriched EVOO decreased systolic blood pressure and cardiac hypertrophy, and improved the ex vivo aortic endothelial dysfunction measured in SHR. Moreover, enriched oil supplementation reduced the plasma levels of Angiotensin II and total cholesterol, and the urinary levels of endothelin-1 and oxidative stress biomarkers, while pro-inflammatory cytokines were unaffected. In conclusion, sustained treatment with EVOO, enriched in bioactive compounds from the olive fruit and leaves, may be an effective tool for reducing blood pressure and cholesterol levels alone or in combination with pharmacological anti-hypertensive treatment.